Quantitative Analysis of Nutrient Inflow from River and Groundwater to Imazu Bay in Fukuoka, Japan
Imazu Bay plays an important role for endangered
species such as horseshoe crabs and black-faced spoonbills that stay in
the bay for spawning or the passing of winter. However, this bay is
semi-enclosed with slow water exchange, which could lead to
eutrophication under the condition of excess nutrient inflow to the bay.
Therefore, quantification of nutrient inflow is of great importance.
Generally, analysis of nutrient inflow to the bays takes into
consideration nutrient inflow from only the river, but that from
groundwater should not be ignored for more accurate results. The main
objective of this study is to estimate the amounts of nutrient inflow
from river and groundwater to Imazu Bay by analyzing water budget
in Zuibaiji River Basin and loads of T-N, T-P, NO3-N and NH4-N. The
water budget computation in the basin is performed using groundwater
recharge model and quasi three-dimensional two-phase groundwater
flow model, and the multiplication of the measured amount of nutrient
inflow with the computed discharge gives the total amount of nutrient
inflow to the bay. In addition, in order to evaluate nutrient inflow to the
bay, the result is compared with nutrient inflow from geologically
similar river basins. The result shows that the discharge is 3.50×107
m3/year from the river and 1.04×107 m3/year from groundwater. The
submarine groundwater discharge accounts for approximately 23 % of
the total discharge, which is large compared to the other river basins. It
is also revealed that the total nutrient inflow is not particularly large.
The sum of NO3-N and NH4-N loadings from groundwater is less than
10 % of that from the river because of denitrification in groundwater.
The Shin Seibu Sewage Treatment Plant located below the observation
points discharges treated water of 15,400 m3/day and plans to increase
it. However, the loads of T-N and T-P from the treatment plant are 3.9
mg/L and 0.19 mg/L, so that it does not contribute a lot to
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