Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index


Select areas to restrict search in scientific publication database:
10003654
Seasonal Variation of the Impact of Mining Activities on Ga-Selati River in Limpopo Province, South Africa
Abstract:
Water is a very rare natural resource in South Africa. Ga-Selati River is used for both domestic and industrial purposes. This study was carried out in order to assess the quality of Ga-Selati River in a mining area of Limpopo Province-Phalaborwa. The pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC) and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) were determined using a Crinson multimeter while turbidity was measured using a Labcon Turbidimeter. The concentrations of Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na and Pb were analysed in triplicate using a Varian 520 flame atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) supplied by PerkinElmer, after acid digestion with nitric acid in a fume cupboard. The average pH of the river from eight different sampling sites was 8.00 and 9.38 in wet and dry season respectively. Higher EC values were determined in the dry season (138.7 mS/m) than in the wet season (96.93 mS/m). Similarly, TDS values were higher in dry (929.29 mg/L) than in the wet season (640.72 mg/L) season. These values exceeded the recommended guideline of South Africa Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF) for domestic water use (70 mS/m) and that of the World Health Organization (WHO) (600 mS/m), respectively. Turbidity varied between 1.78-5.20 and 0.95-2.37 NTU in both wet and dry seasons. Total hardness of 312.50 mg/L and 297.75 mg/L as the concentration of CaCO3 was computed for the river in both the wet and the dry seasons and the river water was categorised as very hard. Mean concentration of the metals studied in both the wet and the dry seasons are: Na (94.06 mg/L and 196.3 mg/L), K (11.79 mg/L and 13.62 mg/L), Ca (45.60 mg/L and 41.30 mg/L), Mg (48.41 mg/L and 44.71 mg/L), Al (0.31 mg/L and 0.38 mg/L), Cd (0.01 mg/L and 0.01 mg/L), Cr (0.02 mg/L and 0.09 mg/L), Pb (0.05 mg/L and 0.06 mg/L), Mn (0.31 mg/L and 0.11 mg/L) and Fe (0.76 mg/L and 0.69 mg/L). Results from this study reveal that most of the metals were present in concentrations higher than the recommended guidelines of DWAF and WHO for domestic use and the protection of aquatic life.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):

References:

[1] L.N., Poff, D. Allan, M.B. Bain, J.R. Karr, K.L. Prestegaard, B.D. Richter, R.E. Sparks, J.C. Stromberg. “The natural flow regime: A paradigm for river conservation and restoration”. Bioscience, vol. 47, pp. 769–784. 1997.
[2] Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. Canadian water quality guidelines. Environment Canada, Ecosystem Conservation Directorate, Evaluation and Interpretation Branch, Guidelines Division, Ottawa, Ontario. Pp 17-30, 2008.
[3] H.F. Dallas, J.A. Day, D.E. Musibono, E.G. Day. “Water Quality for Aquatic Ecosystems: Tools for Evaluating Regional Guidelines”. WRC Report No 626/1/98. pp 240. 1998.
[4] Safe Drinking water foundation. Mining and water pollution www.safewater.org/PDFS/.../Mining+and+Water+Pollution.pdf. Accessed 4th May, 2015.
[5] J.H.J. van Vuren, H.H. du Preez, V. Wepener, A. Adendorff, I.E.J. Barnhoorn, L. Coetzee, P. Kotzé, G. Nussey. “Lethal and Sub-lethal Effects of Metals on the physiology of fish: An Experimental Approach with Monitoring Support”. WRC Report No. 608/1/99. pp 283. 1999.
[6] W.H. Langer, B.F. Arbogast, “Environmental impacts of mining natural aggregate deposit and geoenvironmental models for resource exploitation and environmental security” NATO Science Partnership Sub-Series 2, 80:151-169. 2003.
[7] V. Wepener, J.H.J. van Vuren, H.H. du Preez. “Application of the equilibrium partitioning method to derive copper and zinc quality criteria for water and sediment: A South African perspective”. Water SA vol. 26:97-104. 2000.
[8] G.M. Ochieng, E.S. Seanego, O.I. Nkwonta. “Impacts of mining on water resources in South Africa: A review. Sci. Res. Essays, vol. 5, no. 22, pp. 3351-3357, 2010.
[9] US EPA (2004). Drinking Water Advisory: Consumer Acceptability Advice and Health Effects Analysis on Sodium. EPA 822-R-03-006. www.epa.gov/safewater/ccl/pdf/sodium.pdf. Accessed on the 1st November, 2013.
[10] V. Munnik, G. Hochmann, M. Hlabane and S. Law. “The Social and Environmental Consequences of Coal Mining in South Africa A case study, Environmental Monitoring Group, Cape Town, South Africa pp 2-22. 2010.
[11] A. Boularbah, C. Schwartz, J.L. Morel. “Heavy metal contamination from mining sites in south morocco, assessment of metal accumulation and toxicity in plants”. Chemosphere, vol. 63, pp. 811-817. 2006.
[12] E. Dobb. 1996. Acid mine drainage; mining and water pollution. Environmental mining council of BC. Harper’s Magazine; March, 2000. http://www.miningwatch.ca/updir/amd.pdf. Assessed on 3 April, 2013.
[13] Ogola, J. S.; Chimuka, L.; Maina, D. Occurrence and fate of trace metals in and around treatment and disposal facilities in Limpopo Province, South Africa: A case of two areas. In Proceeding of the IASTED International Conference on Environmental Management and Engineering, Banff, Alberta, Canada, 6 – 8 July 2009, pp. 92–97.
[14] DWAF. Quality of Domestic Water Supplies Volume 1: Assessment Guide, 2nd ed.; 1998. Pretoria, South Africa
[15] World Health Organization. Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality 4th edn. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. 2011.
[16] J.O. Okonkwo, M. Mothiba. Physico-chemical characteristics and pollution levels of heavy metals in the rivers in Thohoyandou, South Africa. Journal of Hydrology vol. 308, pp. 122–127. 2005.
[17] J.N. Edokpayi, J.O. Odiyo, S.O. Olasoji. “Assessment of heavy metal contamination of Dzindi River, in Limpopo Province, South Africa”. Int. J. Nat. Sci. Res, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 185-194. 2014.
[18] J.N. Edokpayi, J.O. Odiyo, T.A.M. Msagati and N. Potgieter. “Temporal Variations in Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Characteristics of Mvudi River, South Africa”. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health vol. 12, pp. 4128-4140. 2015.
[19] P. Vaishali, P. Punita. “Assessment of seasonal variation in water quality of River Mini, at Sindhrot, Vadodara”. Int. J. Enviro. Sci. vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 1-13, 2013.
[20] P. Gupta, S. Roy. “Evaluation of spatial and seasonal variation in groundwater quality at Kolar Goldfield, India”. Am. J. Environ. Eng. vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 19-30. 2012.
[21] W.S. Phyllis, L.J. Laur. "Effects of total dissolved solids on aquatic organisms. Technical Report no. 01-06”. http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/static/home/library/pdfs/habitat/01_06.pdf. Accessed on the 17th of June, 2012.
[22] K. Farrell-Poe. “Water quality and monitoring”. http://cals.arizona.edu/watershedsteward/resources/docs/guide/(10)Water%20Quality.pdf. 2000. Accessed on the 17th June, 2013.
[23] DWAF. Quality of domestic water supplies. Sampling Guide 2. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Department of Health and Water Research Commission. 1999
[24] J. P. Michaud. “A citizen's guide to understanding and monitoring lakes and streams”. Washington State Department of Ecology, Puget Sound Water Quality Authority, Olympia, WA. pp 66. 1995.
[25] F.X. Browne “Lake and Watershed Monitoring Handbook: Lake Wallenpaupack” Watershed Management District. Hawley, PA © F. X. Browne, Inc. 2003. Pp2-58
[26] K.A. Morgenstern, D. Donahue, N. Toth. McKenzie River Watershed Baseline Monitoring Report 2000 to 2009. Eugene Water & Electric Board, January 2011 pp1-144. http://www.eweb.org/sourceprotection/baseline. 2011. Accessed 21st April, 2015.
[27] B. Davies, J.A. Day. “Vanishing Waters. University of Cape Town Press, Cape Town, South Africa”. pp 487. 1998.
[28] M. K. Steele, J.A. Aitkenhead-Peterson. Long-term sodium and chloride surface water exports from the Dallas/Fort Worth region. Sci. Total Environ. vol. 409, pp. 3021–3032. 2011.
[29] Water Stewardship Information Series (2007). Sodium in Groundwater. http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/wsd/plan_protect_sustain/groundwater/library/ground_fact_sheets/pdfs/na(020715)_fin2.pdf. Accessed 25th April, 2015
[30] DWAF. South African Water Quality Guidelines. Volume 7: Aquatic Ecosystems. Edited by S Holmes, CSIR Environmental Services, CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria, South Africa, 1996.
[31] P. Sengupta. “Potential Health Impacts of Hard Water”. Int. J. Prev. Med. 4:866-75. 2013.
[32] K. Moodley, S. Pillay, K. Pather, H. Ballabh. Heavy Metal Contamination of the Palmiet River: KwaZulu Natal South Africa. Int. J. Sci. Res. Environ. Sci., vol. 2, no. 11, pp. 397-409, 2014.
[33] WHO. Hardness in Drinking-water Background document for development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality WHO/SDE/WSH/03.04/06 can be obtained from Marketing and Dissemination, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. 2003.
[34] A. Pourkhabbaz, M.E. Kasmani, V. Kiyani and M.H. Hosynzadeh Effects of water hardness and Cu and Zn on LC50 in Gambusia holbrooki. Chem. Spec. Bioavailab., vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 224-228, 2011.
[35] A.O. Olaniran, K. Naicker and B. Pillay. Assessment of physico-chemical qualities and heavy metal concentrations of Umgeni and Umdloti Rivers in Durban, South Africa. Environ Monit Assess. 186:2629–2639. 2014.
[36] H.F. Dallas, J.A. Day. “The effect of water quality variables on riverine ecosystems: a review”. Water Research Commission Report No TT 224/04, Pretoria. pp 222. 2004.
[37] B.V. Lenntech. “Water treatment solutions”. http://www.lenntech.com/ro/water-hardness.htm. Accessed on the 1st November, 2013.
[38] A. Rani, A. Kumar, A. Lal, and M. Pant. Cellular mechanisms of cadmium-induced toxicity: a review. Int. J. Environ. Health Res, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 378–399. 2014,
[39] A. Sarkar, G. Ravindran V. Krishnamurthy. A brief review on the effect of cadmium toxicity: from cellular to organ level. Int. J. Bio-Technol. Res. vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 17-36, 2013.
[40] J.O. Duruibe, M.O.C. Ogwuegbu, J.N. Egwurugwu. Heavy metal pollution and human biotoxic effects. Int. J. Phys. Sci. vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 112-118, May, 2007.
Vol:12 No:09 2018Vol:12 No:08 2018Vol:12 No:07 2018Vol:12 No:06 2018Vol:12 No:05 2018Vol:12 No:04 2018Vol:12 No:03 2018Vol:12 No:02 2018Vol:12 No:01 2018
Vol:11 No:12 2017Vol:11 No:11 2017Vol:11 No:10 2017Vol:11 No:09 2017Vol:11 No:08 2017Vol:11 No:07 2017Vol:11 No:06 2017Vol:11 No:05 2017Vol:11 No:04 2017Vol:11 No:03 2017Vol:11 No:02 2017Vol:11 No:01 2017
Vol:10 No:12 2016Vol:10 No:11 2016Vol:10 No:10 2016Vol:10 No:09 2016Vol:10 No:08 2016Vol:10 No:07 2016Vol:10 No:06 2016Vol:10 No:05 2016Vol:10 No:04 2016Vol:10 No:03 2016Vol:10 No:02 2016Vol:10 No:01 2016
Vol:9 No:12 2015Vol:9 No:11 2015Vol:9 No:10 2015Vol:9 No:09 2015Vol:9 No:08 2015Vol:9 No:07 2015Vol:9 No:06 2015Vol:9 No:05 2015Vol:9 No:04 2015Vol:9 No:03 2015Vol:9 No:02 2015Vol:9 No:01 2015
Vol:8 No:12 2014Vol:8 No:11 2014Vol:8 No:10 2014Vol:8 No:09 2014Vol:8 No:08 2014Vol:8 No:07 2014Vol:8 No:06 2014Vol:8 No:05 2014Vol:8 No:04 2014Vol:8 No:03 2014Vol:8 No:02 2014Vol:8 No:01 2014
Vol:7 No:12 2013Vol:7 No:11 2013Vol:7 No:10 2013Vol:7 No:09 2013Vol:7 No:08 2013Vol:7 No:07 2013Vol:7 No:06 2013Vol:7 No:05 2013Vol:7 No:04 2013Vol:7 No:03 2013Vol:7 No:02 2013Vol:7 No:01 2013
Vol:6 No:12 2012Vol:6 No:11 2012Vol:6 No:10 2012Vol:6 No:09 2012Vol:6 No:08 2012Vol:6 No:07 2012Vol:6 No:06 2012Vol:6 No:05 2012Vol:6 No:04 2012Vol:6 No:03 2012Vol:6 No:02 2012Vol:6 No:01 2012
Vol:5 No:12 2011Vol:5 No:11 2011Vol:5 No:10 2011Vol:5 No:09 2011Vol:5 No:08 2011Vol:5 No:07 2011Vol:5 No:06 2011Vol:5 No:05 2011Vol:5 No:04 2011Vol:5 No:03 2011Vol:5 No:02 2011Vol:5 No:01 2011
Vol:4 No:12 2010Vol:4 No:11 2010Vol:4 No:10 2010Vol:4 No:09 2010Vol:4 No:08 2010Vol:4 No:07 2010Vol:4 No:06 2010Vol:4 No:05 2010Vol:4 No:04 2010Vol:4 No:03 2010Vol:4 No:02 2010Vol:4 No:01 2010
Vol:3 No:12 2009Vol:3 No:11 2009Vol:3 No:10 2009Vol:3 No:09 2009Vol:3 No:08 2009Vol:3 No:07 2009Vol:3 No:06 2009Vol:3 No:05 2009Vol:3 No:04 2009Vol:3 No:03 2009Vol:3 No:02 2009Vol:3 No:01 2009
Vol:2 No:12 2008Vol:2 No:11 2008Vol:2 No:10 2008Vol:2 No:09 2008Vol:2 No:08 2008Vol:2 No:07 2008Vol:2 No:06 2008Vol:2 No:05 2008Vol:2 No:04 2008Vol:2 No:03 2008Vol:2 No:02 2008Vol:2 No:01 2008
Vol:1 No:12 2007Vol:1 No:11 2007Vol:1 No:10 2007Vol:1 No:09 2007Vol:1 No:08 2007Vol:1 No:07 2007Vol:1 No:06 2007Vol:1 No:05 2007Vol:1 No:04 2007Vol:1 No:03 2007Vol:1 No:02 2007Vol:1 No:01 2007