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10006747
Smuggling of Migrants as an Influential Factor on National Security, Economic and Social Life
Abstract:
Human trafficking and smuggling of migrants are criminal activities, which are on the rise over recent years. The number of legal migrants arrived in Europe from outside the European Union are far less than those who want to come and settle in Europe. The objective of this paper is to present the impact on economic and social life of significant measures influencing the smuggling of migrants. The analysis is focused on various complex factors which have multiple origins and are highly influential as regard to the process of migration and the smuggling of migrants. The smuggling of migrants is a criminal activity, directly related to migration. The main results show that often the routes chosen for smuggling of migrants are circuitous, as smugglers carefully avoid strictly controlled roads, checkpoints, and countries or jurisdictions where there is efficiency of justice, with particular emphasis on the law on trafficking of persons and smuggling of migrants.

References:

[1] Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime United Nations, New York, 2004
[2] John Salt and Jeremy Stein, “Migration as a business: the case of trafficking”, International Migration, vol. 35, No. 4 (1997).
[3] Salt and Stein, “Migration as a business: the case of trafficking”, p. 479
[4] United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC), The Globalization of Crime: A Transnational Organized Crime Threat Assessment (Vienna: UNODC, 2010). www.unodc.org/unodc/en/data-and-analysis/tocta-2010.html.
[5] Cornelius Friesendorf, ed., Strategies against Human Trafficking: The Role of the Security Sector (Vienna and Geneva; National Defense Academy and Austrian Ministry of Defense and Sport, 2009): 444-510
[6] Refugees Report of the National operational headquarters, for addressing the critical situation arising due to increased migration pressures, 2013, http://www.mvr.bg/NR/rdonlyres/1DF80F58-4D5F-4587-9F89-E222CD5E0B04/0/Doklad_BEJANCI_Nac_oper_shtab.doc
[7] United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, “A short introduction to migrant smuggling”, Issue Paper, 2010; see also Matthias Neske, “Human smuggling to and through Germany”, International Migration, vol. 44, No. 4 (2006)
[8] Human smuggling and trafficking into Europe a comparative perspective, 2014, Migration Policy Institute
[9] United Nations Convention against transnational organized crime and the protocols thereto“, New York, 2004 p.5.
[10] R. T. Naylor, “Mafias, myths and markets: on the theory and practice of enterprise crime”, cited in Results of a Pilot Survey of Forty Selected Organized Criminal Groups in Sixteen Countries (UNODC, September 2002), p. 4.
[11] Jacqueline Bhabha, “Human smuggling, migration and human rights”, working paper prepared for the International Council on Human Rights Policy Review Meeting, “Migration: Human Rights Protection of Smuggled Persons”, Geneva, 25-26 July 2006;
[12] Ayse Nilufer Narli, “Human smuggling and migration of illegal labour to Turkey”, in Crushing Crime in South East Europe: A Struggle of Domestic, Regional and European Dimensions—6th Workshop of the Study Group “Regional Stability in South East Europe Proceedings, Predrag Jurekovic and Frederic Labarre, eds., Study Group Information (Vienna, National Defence Academy and Bureau for Security Policy, 2003), pp. 61-88;
[13] European Police Office, “Facilitated illegal immigration into the European Union”, March 2008, available from www.europol.europa.eu/publications/Serious_Crime_Overviews/Facilitated_illegal_immigration_2008.pdf
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