Soil Mass Loss Reduction during Rainfalls by Reinforcing the Slopes with the Surficial Confinement
Soil confinement systems serve as effective solutions to any erosion control project. Various confinements systems, namely triangular, circular and rectangular with the size of 50, 100, and 150 mm, and with a depth of 10 mm, were embedded in soil samples at slope angle of 60°. The observed soil mass losses for the confined soil systems were much smaller than those from unconfined system. As a result, the size of confinement and rainfall intensity have a direct effect on the soil mass loss. The triangular and rectangular confinement systems showed the lowest and highest soil loss masses, respectively. The slopes also failed much faster in the unconfined system than in the confined slope.
 S. Goldberg, "Channel protection measures," Erosion Control, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 22-29, 2009.
 L. Merrill, "Multitalented and versatile: Gabions in stormwater management and erosion control," Erosion Control, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 42-45, 2004.
 B. Tice, "Synthetic strength: Geosynthetics for erosion control," Erosion Control, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 46-59, 2006.
 P.K. Thakur, J.S. Vinod, B. Indraratna, "Effect of confining pressure and frequency on the deformation of ballast," Geotechnique, vol. 63, no. 9, pp. 786-790, 2013.
 B. Leshchinsky, H. Ling, "Effects of geocell confinement on strength and deformation behavior of gravel," Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, vol. 139, no. 2, pp. 340-352, 2013.
 Q.H. Truong, C. Lee, Y.U. Kim, J.S. Lee, "Small strain stiffness of salt-cemented granular media under low confinement," Geotechnique, vol. 62, no. 10, pp. 949-953, 2012.
 J.B. Belflower, J.K. Bernard, D.K. Gattie, D.W. Hancock, L.M. Risse, C. Alan Rotz, "A case study of the potential environmental impacts of different dairy production systems in Georgia," Agricultural Systems, vol. 108, no., pp. 84-93, 2012.
 K. Mohamed, M. Abouzakhm, M. Elias, "Applications and performance of geosynthetic-reinforced soil abutments on soft subsurface soil conditions," 74-81, 2011.
 J. Aird, "Challenges in slope stabilization: Solving problems with blankets, mesh, soil nails, and cellular confinement systems," Erosion Control, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 18-25, 2010.
 J. Aird, "Channel linings," Erosion Control, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 34-41, 2010.