Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Publications Count: 29710

Select areas to restrict search in scientific publication database:
Some Physiological Effects of Momordica charantia and Trigonella foenum-graecum Extracts in Diabetic Rats as Compared with Cidophage®
This study was conducted to evaluate the anti-diabetic properties of ethanolic extract of two plants commonly used in folk medicine, Mormodica charantia (bitter melon) and Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek). The study was performed on STZinduced diabetic rats (DM type-I). Plant extracts of these two plants were given to STZ diabetic rats at the concentration of 500 mg/kg body weight ,50 mg/kg body weight respectively. Cidophage® (metformin HCl) were administered to another group to support the results at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight, the ethanolic extracts and Cidophage administered orally once a day for four weeks using a stomach tube and; serum samples were obtained for biochemical analysis. The extracts caused significant decreases in glucose levels compared with diabetic control rats. Insulin secretions were increased after 4 weeks of treatment with Cidophage® compared with the control non-diabetic rats. Levels of AST and ALT liver enzymes were normalized by all treatments. Decreases in liver cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL in diabetic rats were observed with all treatments. HDL levels were increased by the treatments in the following order: bitter melon, Cidophage®, and fenugreek. Creatinine levels were reduced by all treatments. Serum nitric oxide and malonaldehyde levels were reduced by all extracts. GSH levels were increased by all extracts. Extravasation as measured by the Evans Blue test increased significantly in STZ-induced diabetic animals. This effect was reversed by ethanolic extracts of bitter melon or fenugreek.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI):


[1] Powers A. Diabetes mellitus In: Harrison-s principles of internal medicine (Ed Fauci A). New York: Mc Graw Hill; 2008.
[2] Nadas J, Putz Z, Fovenyi J, Gaal Z, Gyimesi A, Hidvegi T, Hosszufalusi N, et al., (2009): Cardiovascular risk factors characteristic for the metabolic syndrome in adult patients with type 1 diabetes. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 117(3):107-112.
[3] Hannan JMA, Ali L, Rokeya B, Khaleque J, Akhter M, Flatt PR, Abdel- Wahab YHA (2007). Soluble dietary fibre fraction of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seed improves glucose homeostasis in animal models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes by delaying carbohydrate digestion and absorption, and enhancing insulin action. Br J Nutr.;97(3):514-521.
[4] Virdi J, Sivakami S, Shahani S, Suthar AC, Banavalikar MM and Biyani MK (2003): Antihyperglycemic effects of three extracts from Momordica charantia. J Ethnopharmacol 88(1): 107-111.
[5] Elsner M, Guldbakke B, Tiedge M, Munday R, Lenzen S (2000): Relative importance of transport and alkylation for pancreatic beta-cell toxicity of streptozotocin. Diabetologia. 43(12):1528-1533.
[6] Senanayake, G.V., Maruyama, M., Shibuya, K., Sakono, M., Fukuda, (2004): The effects of bitter melon(Momordica charantia) on serum and liver triglycride levels in rats. J. Ethnopharmacol.91(2-3):257-262.
[7] Trinder P (1969): Determination of blood glucose using an oxidaseperoxidase system with a non-carcinogenic chromogen. J Clin Pathol 22(2): 158-161.
[8] Reitman S, Frankel S. (1957): A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases. Am J Clin Pathol. 1957 Jul;28(1):56-63.
[9] Larsen K. (1972): Creatinine assay by a reaction-kinetic principle. Clin Chim Acta. Oct;41:209-217.
[10] Naito H. K. (1984): High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol Kaplan. A et al., clin chem. The c. v. Mosby co. st louis. Toronto. Princeton 1207-1213.
[11] Buccolo G et al., (1973): Quantitative determination of serum triglycerides by use of enzymes. clin chem.. 19(5):476-482.
[12] Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS (1972): Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem. 1972;18(6):499-502.
[13] Beutler E, Duron O, Kelly BM. (1963): Improved method for the determination of blood glutathione. J Lab Clin Med. May;61:882.
[14] Giustarini D, Dalle-Donne I, Colombo R, Milzani A, Rossi R. (2004): Adaptation of the Griess reaction for detection of nitrite in human plasma. Free Radic Res. 38(11):1235-1240.
[15] Tatsuki R, Satoh K, Yamamoto A, Hoshi K, Ichihara K. (1997): Lipid peroxidation in the pancreas and other organs in streptozotocin diabetic rats. Jpn J Pharmacol. Nov;75(3):267-273.
[16] Sapin R, Le Galudec V, Gasser F, Pinget M, Grucker D. (2001): Elecsys insulin assay: free insulin determination and the absence of Cross- Reactivity with Insulin Lispro. Clinical Chemistry. 47:602-605.
[17] Verel D (1958): Simultaneous measurement of plasma volume with dextran and Evans Blue: evidence for increased vascular permeability in oedema and infection. Clin Sci (Lond) 17(4): 639-646.
[18] Chakir M, Plante GE, Maheux P. (1998): Reduction of capillary permeability in the fructose-induced hypertensive rat. Am J Hypertens. May;11(5):563-569.
[19] Whitby D. J., Ferguson M. W. J. (1991): Immunohistochemical localization of growth factors in fetal wound healing, Dev. Biol. 147.
[20] SAS (2004): SAS user Guide:Statistics version,SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC-USA.
[21] Cobenas CJ, Spizzirri FD. Microalbuminuria in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus always indicative of diabetic nephropathy? Pediatr Nephrol. 2003 Mar;18(3):309-310.
[22] Amini M, Parvaresh E. Prevalence of macro- and microvascular complications among patients with type 2 diabetes in Iran: a systematic review. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2009;83(1):18-25.
[23] Nerurkar PV, Lee YK, Motosue M, Adeli K and Nerurkar VR (2008): Momordica charantia (bitter melon) reduces plasma apolipoprotein B- 100 and increases hepatic insulin receptor substrate and phosphoinositide-3 kinase interactions. Br J Nutr 100(4): 751-759.
[24] Shih CC, Lin CH, Lin WL and Wu JB (2009): Momordica charantia extract on insulin resistance and the skeletal muscle GLUT4 protein in fructose-fed rats. J Ethnopharmacol 123(1): 82-90.
[25] Doi Y, Kubo M, Yonemoto K, Ninomiya T, Iwase M, Tanizaki Y, et al., (2007): Liver enzymes as a predictor for incident diabetes in a Japanese population: the Hisayama study. Obesity 15(7): 1841-1850.
[26] Inoue K, Matsumoto M, Miyoshi Y and Kobayashi Y (2008): Elevated liver enzymes in women with a family history of diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 79(3): e4-7.
[27] Pepato MT, Magnani MR, Kettelhut IC and Brunetti IL (1999): Effect of oral vanadyl sulfate treatment on serum enzymes and lipids of streptozotocin-diabetic young rats. Mol Cell Biochem 198(1-2): 157- 161.
[28] Ezekwe MO and Martin RJ (1980): The effects of maternal alloxan diabetes on body composition, liver enzymes and metabolism and serum metabolites and hormones of fetal pigs. Horm Metab Res 12(4): 136- 139.
[29] Badria FA, Abou-Seif M, Osama M and Ahmed AF (2006): Evaluation of the hypoglycemic effect and mechanism of action of Balanites aegyptiaca on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. First International Symposia about pharmacology of natural products and BLACPMA Revista Cubana de Farmacia vol. 40.
[30] Martocchia A, Risicato MG, Mattioli C, Antonelli M, Ruco L and Falaschi P (2008): Association of diffuse liver glycogenosis and mild focal macrovesicular steatosis in a patient with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes. Intern Emerg Med 3(3): 273-274.
[31] Kwong,L,K.,Feingold,K.R.,PericGolia,L.,Le,le,T., Karkas, J.D., Alberts, A.W. and Wilson, D.E.,(1991) :Intestinal and hepatic chlestrogenesis in htperchlesterolemic dyslidemia of expermintal diabetetes in dogs.Diabetes.40(12):1630-9.
[32] Chaturvedi P, George S, Milinganyo M and Tripathi YB (2004): Effect of Momordica charantia on lipid profile and oral glucose tolerance in diabetic rats.
[33] Sharma RD, Raghuram TC and Rao NS (1990): Effect of fenugreek seeds on blood glucose and serum lipids in type I diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr 44(4): 301-306. Phytother Res 18(11): 954- 956.
[33] Sharma RD, Raghuram TC and Rao NS (1990): Effect of fenugreek seeds on blood glucose and serum lipids in type I diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr 44(4): 301-306.
[34] Iwasaki N, Ogata M, Tomonaga O, Kuroki H, Kasahara T, Yano N and Iwamoto Y (1998): Liver and kidney function in Japanese patients with maturity-onset diabetes of the young. Diabetes Care 21(12): 2144-2148.
[35] Guijarro C, Kasiske BL, Kim Y, O'Donnell MP, Lee HS and Keane WF (1995): Early glomerular changes in rats with dietary-induced hypercholesterolemia. Am J Kidney Dis 26(1): 152-161.
[36] Jafar TH, Schmid CH and Levey AS (2005): Serum creatinine as marker of kidney function in South Asians: a study of reduced GFR in adults in Pakistan. J Am Soc Nephrol 16(5): 1413-1419.
[37] Menini S, Iacobini C, Oddi G, Ricci C, Simonelli P, Fallucca S et al., (2007): Increased glomerular cell (podocyte) apoptosis in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus: role in the development of diabetic glomerular disease. Diabetologia 50(12): 2591-2599.
[38] Hamden K, Masmoudi H, Carreau S and Elfeki A (2010): Immunomodulatory, beta-cell, and neuroprotective actions of fenugreek oil from alloxan-induced diabetes. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2010 Jan 25.
[39] Shetty AK, Kumar GS, Sambaiah K, Salimath PV (2005). Effect of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) on glycaemic status in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 60(3):109- 12.
[40] Kakkar R, Kalra J, Mantha SV and Prasad K (1995): Lipid peroxidation and activity of antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats. Mol Cell Biochem 151(2): 113-119.
[41] Bhatia S, Shukla R, Venkata Madhu S, Kaur Gambhir J and Madhava Prabhu K (2003): Antioxidant status, lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide end products in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus with nephropathy. Clin Biochem 36(7): 557-562.
[42] Lapshina EA, Sudnikovich EJ, Maksimchik JZ, Zabrodskaya SV, Zavodnik LB et al., (2006): Antioxidative enzyme and glutathione Stransferase activities in diabetic rats exposed to long-term ASA treatment. Life Sci 79(19): 1804-1811.
[43] Watanabe C, Kasanuma Y, Dejima Y and Satoh H (1999): The effect of prenatal methylmercury exposure on the GSH level and lipid peroxidation in the fetal brain and placenta of mice. Tohoku J Exp Med 187(2): 121-126.
[44] Colasanti M and Suzuki H (2000): The dual personality of NO. Trends Pharmacol Sci 21(7): 249-252.
[45] Perreault M and Marette A (2001): Targeted disruption of inducible nitric oxide synthase protects against obesity-linked insulin resistance in muscle. Nat Med 7(10): 1138-1143.
[46] Maejima K, Nakano S, Himeno M, Tsuda S, Makiishi H, Ito T, Nakagawa A et al., (2001): Increased basal levels of plasma nitric oxide in Type 2 diabetic subjects. Relationship to microvascular complications. J Diabetes Complications 15(3): 135-143.
[47] Behrendt D and Ganz P (2002): Endothelial function. From vascular biology to clinical applications. Am J Cardiol 90 (10C): 48.
[48] Winterbourn CC. Free radical toxicology and antioxidant defence. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1995 Nov;22(11):877-880.
[49] Joshua IG, Zhang Q, Falcone JC, Bratcher AP, Rodriguez WE and Tyagi SC (2005): Mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction with development of type 1 diabetes mellitus: role of insulin and C-peptide. J Cell Biochem 96(6): 1149-1156.
[50] de Jager J, Dekker JM, Kooy A, Kostense PJ, Nijpels G, Heine RJ, Bouter LM and Stehouwer CDA (2006): Endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation explain much of the excess cardiovascular mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes: the Hoorn Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 26(5): 1086-1093.
[51] Picchi A, Gao X, Belmadani S, Potter BJ, Focardi M, Chilian WM and Zhang C (2006): Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces endothelial dysfunction in the prediabetic metabolic syndrome. Circ Res 99(1): 69- 77.
[52] Brausewetter F, Jehle PM, Jung MF, Boehm BO, Brueckel J, Hombach V and Osterhues HH (2001): Microvascular permeability is increased in both types of diabetes and correlates differentially with serum levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Horm Metab Res 33(12): 713-720.
[53] Gordon PA. (2004): Effects of diabetes on the vascular system: current research evidence and best practice recommendations. J Vasc Nurs. 22(1):2-11.
[54] Hulthen UL, Rumble J, Cooper ME and Johnston CI (1995): Vascular albumin permeability and hypertrophy in a rat model combining streptozotocin-induced diabetes and genetic hypertension. J Hypertens 13(5): 529-533.
[55] Viberti GC (1983): Increased capillary permeability in diabetes mellitus and its relationship to microvascular angiopathy. Am J Med 75(5B): 81- 84.
[56] Lawson SR, Gabra BH, Guerin B, Neugebauer W, Nantel F, Battistini B and Sirois P (2005): Enhanced dermal and retinal vascular permeability in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes in Wistar rats: blockade with a selective bradykinin B1 receptor antagonist. Regul Pept 124(1-3): 221- 224.
[57] Nakajima K, Morikawa A and Makino I (1994): Natural history of Bcell dysfunction in spontaneously diabetic Chinese hamsters. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 24(3): 131-142.
[58] Abaci A, Oguzhan A, Kahraman S, Eryol NK, Unal S, Arinc H and Ergin A (1999): Effect of diabetes mellitus on formation of coronary collateral vessels. Circulation 99(17): 2239-2242.
[59] Bild DE, Selby JV, Sinnock P, Browner WS, Braveman P and Showstack JA (1989): Lower-extremity amputation in people with diabetes. Epidemiology and prevention. Diabetes Care 12(1): 24-31.
[60] Pinzur MS, Slovenkai MP, Trepman E and Shields NN (2005): Guidelines for diabetic foot care: recommendations endorsed by the Diabetes Committee of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society. Foot Ankle Int 26(1): 113-119.
[61] Jeffcoate WJ, Price P, Harding KG (2004). International Working Group on Wound Healing and Treatments for People with Diabetic Foot Ulcers. Wound healing and treatments for people with diabetic foot ulcer. Diabetes Metab Res Rev; 20: 878-89.
[62] Qiu Z, Kwon AH, Kamiyama Y (2006). Effects of plasma fibronectin on the healing of full-thickness skin wounds in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Surg Res; 138: 64-70.
[63] Kawanabe T, Kawakami T, Yatomi Y et al., (2007): Sphingosine 1- phosphate accelerates wound healing in diabetic mice. J Dermatol Sci; 48: 53-60.
[64] Sardari K, Kakhki EG, Mohri M. (2007): Evaluation of wound contraction and epithelialization after subcutaneous administration of Theranekron- in cows. Comp Clin Pathol; 16: 197-200.
[65] Serarslan G, Altug E, Kontas T et al., (2007). Caffeic acid phenethyl ester accelerates cutaneous wound healing in a rat model and decreases oxidative stress. Clin Exp Dermatol; 32: 709-15.
[66] Szkudelski, T., (2001): The mechanism of alloxan and streptozotocin action in beta cells of rat pancreas. Physiol. Res., 50, 536.
Vol:13 No:06 2019Vol:13 No:05 2019Vol:13 No:04 2019Vol:13 No:03 2019Vol:13 No:02 2019Vol:13 No:01 2019
Vol:12 No:12 2018Vol:12 No:11 2018Vol:12 No:10 2018Vol:12 No:09 2018Vol:12 No:08 2018Vol:12 No:07 2018Vol:12 No:06 2018Vol:12 No:05 2018Vol:12 No:04 2018Vol:12 No:03 2018Vol:12 No:02 2018Vol:12 No:01 2018
Vol:11 No:12 2017Vol:11 No:11 2017Vol:11 No:10 2017Vol:11 No:09 2017Vol:11 No:08 2017Vol:11 No:07 2017Vol:11 No:06 2017Vol:11 No:05 2017Vol:11 No:04 2017Vol:11 No:03 2017Vol:11 No:02 2017Vol:11 No:01 2017
Vol:10 No:12 2016Vol:10 No:11 2016Vol:10 No:10 2016Vol:10 No:09 2016Vol:10 No:08 2016Vol:10 No:07 2016Vol:10 No:06 2016Vol:10 No:05 2016Vol:10 No:04 2016Vol:10 No:03 2016Vol:10 No:02 2016Vol:10 No:01 2016
Vol:9 No:12 2015Vol:9 No:11 2015Vol:9 No:10 2015Vol:9 No:09 2015Vol:9 No:08 2015Vol:9 No:07 2015Vol:9 No:06 2015Vol:9 No:05 2015Vol:9 No:04 2015Vol:9 No:03 2015Vol:9 No:02 2015Vol:9 No:01 2015
Vol:8 No:12 2014Vol:8 No:11 2014Vol:8 No:10 2014Vol:8 No:09 2014Vol:8 No:08 2014Vol:8 No:07 2014Vol:8 No:06 2014Vol:8 No:05 2014Vol:8 No:04 2014Vol:8 No:03 2014Vol:8 No:02 2014Vol:8 No:01 2014
Vol:7 No:12 2013Vol:7 No:11 2013Vol:7 No:10 2013Vol:7 No:09 2013Vol:7 No:08 2013Vol:7 No:07 2013Vol:7 No:06 2013Vol:7 No:05 2013Vol:7 No:04 2013Vol:7 No:03 2013Vol:7 No:02 2013Vol:7 No:01 2013
Vol:6 No:12 2012Vol:6 No:11 2012Vol:6 No:10 2012Vol:6 No:09 2012Vol:6 No:08 2012Vol:6 No:07 2012Vol:6 No:06 2012Vol:6 No:05 2012Vol:6 No:04 2012Vol:6 No:03 2012Vol:6 No:02 2012Vol:6 No:01 2012
Vol:5 No:12 2011Vol:5 No:11 2011Vol:5 No:10 2011Vol:5 No:09 2011Vol:5 No:08 2011Vol:5 No:07 2011Vol:5 No:06 2011Vol:5 No:05 2011Vol:5 No:04 2011Vol:5 No:03 2011Vol:5 No:02 2011Vol:5 No:01 2011
Vol:4 No:12 2010Vol:4 No:11 2010Vol:4 No:10 2010Vol:4 No:09 2010Vol:4 No:08 2010Vol:4 No:07 2010Vol:4 No:06 2010Vol:4 No:05 2010Vol:4 No:04 2010Vol:4 No:03 2010Vol:4 No:02 2010Vol:4 No:01 2010
Vol:3 No:12 2009Vol:3 No:11 2009Vol:3 No:10 2009Vol:3 No:09 2009Vol:3 No:08 2009Vol:3 No:07 2009Vol:3 No:06 2009Vol:3 No:05 2009Vol:3 No:04 2009Vol:3 No:03 2009Vol:3 No:02 2009Vol:3 No:01 2009
Vol:2 No:12 2008Vol:2 No:11 2008Vol:2 No:10 2008Vol:2 No:09 2008Vol:2 No:08 2008Vol:2 No:07 2008Vol:2 No:06 2008Vol:2 No:05 2008Vol:2 No:04 2008Vol:2 No:03 2008Vol:2 No:02 2008Vol:2 No:01 2008
Vol:1 No:12 2007Vol:1 No:11 2007Vol:1 No:10 2007Vol:1 No:09 2007Vol:1 No:08 2007Vol:1 No:07 2007Vol:1 No:06 2007Vol:1 No:05 2007Vol:1 No:04 2007Vol:1 No:03 2007Vol:1 No:02 2007Vol:1 No:01 2007