Standalone Docking Station with Combined Charging Methods for Agricultural Mobile Robots
One of the biggest concerns in the field of agriculture is around the energy efficiency of robots that will perform agriculture’s activity and their charging methods. In this paper, two different charging methods for agricultural standalone docking stations are shown that will take into account various variants as field size and its irregularities, work’s nature to which the robot will perform, deadlines that have to be respected, among others. Its features also are dependent on the orchard, season, battery type and its technical specifications and cost. First charging base method focuses on wireless charging, presenting more benefits for small field. The second charging base method relies on battery replacement being more suitable for large fields, thus avoiding the robot stop for recharge. Existing many methods to charge a battery, the CC CV was considered the most appropriate for either simplicity or effectiveness. The choice of the battery for agricultural purposes is if most importance. While the most common battery used is Li-ion battery, this study also discusses the use of graphene-based new type of batteries with 45% over capacity to the Li-ion one. A Battery Management Systems (BMS) is applied for battery balancing. All these approaches combined showed to be a promising method to improve a lot of technical agricultural work, not just in terms of plantation and harvesting but also about every technique to prevent harmful events like plagues and weeds or even to reduce crop time and cost.
 S. Das, A. Wasif, N. Kumar, and E. Karim, “Wireless powering by magnetic resonant coupling : Recent trends in wireless power transfer system and its applications,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 51, pp. 1525–1552, 2015.
 A. Agbaeze, S. Kamal, A. Rahim, C. Yen, and S. Jayaprakasam, “Low-power near- fi eld magnetic wireless energy transfer links : A review of architectures and design approaches,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 77, pp. 486–505, 2017.
 M. Bonani, V. Longchamp, R. Philippe, D. Burnier, G. Roulet, F. Vaussard, H. Bleuler, and F. Mondada, “The MarXbot , a Miniature Mobile Robot Opening new Perspectives for the Collective-robotic Research,” in Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 4187–4193, Taipei, Taiwan, Dec, 2010.
 A. Khaligh, S. Member, Z. Li, and S. Member, “Battery, Ultracapacitor, Fuel Cell, and Hybrid Energy Storage Systems for Electric, Hybrid Electric, Fuel Cell, and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: State of the Art,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 59(6), pp. 2806–2814, 2010.
 I. H. Son, J. H. Park, S. Park, K. Park, S. Han, J. Shin, S. Doo, Y. Hwang, H. Chang, and J. W. Choi, “Graphene balls for lithium rechargeable batteries with fast charging and high volumetric energy densities,” Nat. Commun. 1561, pp. 1–10, 2017.
 J. Faria, J. Pombo, S. Mariano, and R. Calado, “Power Management Strategy for Standalone PV applications with Hybrid Energy Storage System,” Proc 18th IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering IEEE EEEIC18), Palermo, Italy, 2018.
 J. P. D. Faria, “Estratégias de Operação para Sistemas Fotovoltaicos com Armazenamento Híbrido de Energia Elétrica,” Dissertação de Mestrado em Engenharia Eletrotécnica e de Computadores, Universidade da Beira Interior, 2018.
 W. Shen, T. T. Vo, and A. Kapoor, “Charging Algorithms of Lithium-Ion Batteries : an Overview,” Proceedings of the 2012 7th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA), pp. 1567–1572, Singapore, Republic of Singapore, Nov., 2012.
 A. A. Hussein and I. Batarseh, “A Review of Charging Algorithms for Nickel and Lithium Battery Chargers,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 60(3), pp. 830–838, 2011.
 M. Di Yin, J. Cho, and D. Park, “Pulse-Based Fast Battery IoT Charger Using Dynamic Frequency and Duty Control Techniques Based on Multi-Sensing of Polarization Curve,” Energies 9(3), pp. 209, 2016.
 L. Chen, “A Design of an Optimal Battery Pulse Charge System by Frequency-Varied Technique,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 54(1), pp. 398–405, 2007.