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Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Publications Count: 29137

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Study Concerning the Energy-to-Mass Ratio in Pneumatic Muscles
The utilization of pneumatic muscles in the actuation of industrial systems is still in its early stages, hence studies on the constructive solutions which include an assessment of their functional performance with a focus on one of the most important characteristics-energy efficiency are required. A quality indicator that adequately reflects the energy efficiency of an actuator is the energy-to-mass ratio. This ratio is computed in the paper for various types and sizes of pneumatic muscles manufactured by Festo, and is subsequently compared to the similar ratios determined for two categories of pneumatic cylinders.
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[1] E. Pashkov, Y. Osinskiy, A. Chetviorkin, Electropneumatics in Manufacturing Processes. Isdatelstvo SevNTU Sevastopol, 2004.
[2] S. Hesse, The Fluidic Muscle in Application. Blue Digest on Automation, Esslingen, 2003
[3] A.H. Morin, Elastic Diaphragm. U.S. Patent No. 2642091, 1953.
[4] J.M. Yarlott, H. Mass, Fluid Actuator. U.S. Patent No. 3645173, 1972.
[5] T. Takagi, Y. Sakaguchi, Pneumatic Actuator for Manipulator. U.S. Patent No. 4615260, 1986.
[6] M. Kukolj, Axially Contractible Actuator. U.S. Patent No. 4733603, 1988.
[7] H.M. Paynter, Hyperboloid of Revolution Fluid-Driven Tension Actuators and Method of Making. U.S. Patent No. 4721030, 1988.
[8] Daerden, F., Conception and Realization of Pleated Pneumatic Artificial Muscles and Their Use as Compliant Actuation Elements. Ph.D. Thesis, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Brussels, Belgium, 1999.
[9] Fluidic Muscle DMSP/MAS, Festo Product Flyer, 2015,
[10] N. Tsagarakis, D.G. Caldwell D.G, “Improved modelling and assessment of pneumatic muscle actuators,” in Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics & Automation, April 2000, San Francisco, USA, pp. 3641-3646.
[11] N. Nakamura, M. Sekiguchi, K. Kawashima, T. Fujita, T. Kagawa, “Developing a robot arm using pneumatic artificial rubber muscles,” in Bath Workshop on Power Transmission & Motion Control, 2002.
[12] G.A. Medrano-Cerda, C.J. Bowler, D.G. Caldwell, “Adaptive position control of antagonistic pneumatic muscle actuators,” in Proc. of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Pittsburgh, USA, 1995, pp. 378-383.
[13] Festo: Precisely to the point: membrane technology, (2014)
[14] M. Santora, Membrane technology flexes its muscle – precisely, Pneumatic Tips. A Fluid Power World Resource, 2015.
[15] D.H. Plettenburg, “Pneumatic Actuators: a Comparison of Energy-to-Mass Ratio’s”, in Proc. of the 2005 IEEE 9th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics, Chicago, IL, USA, 2005, pp. 545-549.
[16] Festo Fluidic Muscle DMSP/MAS,

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