The Islamic Element of Al-‘Adl in Critical
Thinking: the Perception of Muslim
Engineering Undergraduates in Malaysia
 Don E. Kash, "Engineers as Revolutionaries", in Social, Ethical, and
Policy Implications of Engineering, Joseph R. Herkert, Ed. New Jersey:
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 Angelene Gisela McDaniel, "The Role of Engineers: Designing
Society", Retrieved December 30, 2008 from:
 Ibn Manzur, Jamal al-Din Muhammad bin Mukrim, Lisan al-ÔÇÿarab,
Beirut: Dar Sadir, vol. 11, pp. 430 - 436, 1990.
 Murtada al-Zubaydi, Muhammad bin Muhammad, Taj al-ÔÇÿArus Min
Jawahir al-Qamus, vol. 8, pp. 9 - 12, n.d.
 Ahmad bin Muhammad bin ÔÇÿAli al-Fayyumi, al-Misbah al-Munir,
Beirut: Maktabah Lubnan, pp. 150 - 151, 1987.
 Majid Khadduri, The Islamic Conception of Justice, Baltimore and
London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, p. 11, 1984.
 See: Murtada al-Zubaydi, op.cit., vol. 8, p. 9 and Ibn Manzur, op.cit.,
vol. 11, p. 430, 1990.
 Al-Ghazzali, Abu Hamid, Ihya ÔÇÿUlum al-Din, Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-
ÔÇÿIlmiyyah, 3rd ed., Vol. 3, p. 55, 2002. Zulm is also etymologically
related to the notion of darkness and gloom that denies one-s basic right.
As such, zulm is often interpreted as oppression although in reality it
encompasses a broader and deeper meaning. See: Mahmoud Ayoub,
"The Islamic Concept of Justice", in Nimat Hafez Barazangi et.all.
(Eds.), Islamic Identity and the Struggle for Justice, Gainesville:
University Press of Florida, p. 22, 1996.
 In the Islamic law of inheritance, a woman inherits half of what her male
counterpart inherits. However, this inequality in the distribution is
considered fair because a woman has no financial obligation and the
economical responsibility lies on the shoulders of the man in fulfilling
the needs of his family. See: al-Nis─ü- (4): 176.
 Al-Kindi, Ya-qub bin Ishaq, Rasa-il al-Kindi al-Falsafiyyah, ed.
Muhammad ÔÇÿAbd al-Hadi Abu Ridah, Cairo: Matba-ah Hassan, 2nd ed.,
pp. 30 - 36, 1978.
 In fact al-Kindi considers justice as the central of all virtues (such as
wisdom, courage, temperance and others) for its function as the
balancing and coordinating instrument whenever the other virtues come
into operation. See: Majid Khadduri, op.cit., p. 82, 1984.
 Rob Niewoehner, "Critical Thinking in the Engineering Enterprise", The
Magazine for Professional Engineers, Washington D.C.: the National
Society of Professional Engineers, pp. 16 - 17, November 2008.
 Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design, Theoretical
Foundations for Decision Making in Engineering Design, Washington
D.C.: National Academy Press, pp. 8 - 11, at The National Academies
Press: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10566&page=8, 12
 S. Waqar Ahmed Husaini, Islamic Environmental Systems Engineering,
London: The Macmillan Press Ltd, pp. 7 and 72, 1980.
 See: Ibid., pp. 8 - 9.
 Muhammad Fazl Ur Rahman Ansari, The Quranic Foundation and
Structure of Muslim Society, Karachi: The World Federation of Islamic
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 Jamal al-Banna, Nazariyyat al-ÔÇÿAdl Fi al-Fikr al-ÔÇÿUrubiy wa al-Fikr al-
Islamiy, Cairo: Dar al-Fikr al-Islamiy, pp. 95 - 98, n.d..