Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Publications Count: 29644


Select areas to restrict search in scientific publication database:
10010352
The Paralinguistic Function of Emojis in Twitter Communication
Abstract:
In response to the dearth of information about emoji use for different purposes in different settings, this paper investigates the paralinguistic function of emojis within Twitter communication in the United States. To conduct this investigation, the Twitter feeds from 16 population centers spread throughout the United States were collected from the Twitter public API. One hundred tweets were collected from each population center, totaling to 1,600 tweets. Tweets containing emojis were next extracted using the “emot” Python package; these were then analyzed via the IBM Watson API Natural Language Understanding module to identify the topics discussed. A manual content analysis was then conducted to ascertain the paralinguistic and emotional features of the emojis used in these tweets. We present our characterization of emoji usage in Twitter and discuss implications for the design of Twitter and other text-based communication tools.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

References:

[1] Danah M. Boyd and Nicole B. Ellison. 2007. Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 13, 1 (2007), 210–230.
[2] H. K. M. Meeren, C. C. R. J. Van Heijnsbergen, and B.De Gelder. 2005. Rapid perceptual integration of facial expression and emotional body language. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102, 45 (2005), 16518–16523. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0507650102.
[3] Nefeli Gkoni, Edo Druiventak, Yamila Bollen, and Steven Ecott. 2017. Snapchat Fams as a Subculture: How Influencers Use Emojis for Commodifying Cross-Platform Engagement. New Media and Digital Culture, M. A. (October 2017).
[4] Hamza Alshenqeeti. 2016. Are Emojis Creating a New or Old Visual Language for New Generations? A Socio-semiotic Study. Advances in Language and Literary Studies 7, 6 (2016). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.alls.v.7n.6p.56B.
[5] Henning Pohl, Christian Domin, and Michael Rohs. 2017. Beyond Just Text. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 24, 1 (2017), 1–42. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3039685.
[6] Akshay Java, Xiaodan Song, Tim Finin, Belle Tseng, Why we twitter: understanding microblogging usage and communities, Proceedings of the 9th WebKDD and 1st SNA-KDD 2007 workshop on Web mining and social network analysis, p.56-65, August 12-12, 2007, San Jose, California. DOI:10.1145/1348549.1348556.
[7] Paige Cooper. 2019. 28 Twitter Statistics All Marketers Should Know in 2019. (January 2019). Retrieved February 21, 2019 from https://blog.hootsuite.com/twitter-statistics/.
[8] Haewoon Kwak, Changhyun Lee, Hosung Park, and Sue Moon. 2010. What is Twitter, a social network or a news media? Proceedings of the 19th international conference on World wide web - WWW 10 (2010). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1772690.1772751.
[9] Klaus R. Scherer, Harvey London, and Jared J. Wolf. 1973. The voice of confidence: Paralinguistic cues and audience evaluation. Journal of Research in Personality 7, 1 (1973), 31–44. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0092-6566(73)90030-5.
[10] Starkey Duncan and Donald W. Fiske. 1979. Dynamic Patterning in Conversation: Language, paralinguistic sounds, intonation, facial expressions, and gestures combine to form the detailed structure and strategy of face-to-face interactions. American Scientist 67, 1 (1979), 90–98. W.
[11] Reid Goldsborough. 2005. Putting your emotions on screen. Teacher Librarian 43 (October 2005), 64–67.
[12] Michael Schandorf. 2012. Mediated gesture. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies 19, 3 (2012), 319–344. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1354856512439501.
[13] Paul Ekman. Duchenne and facial expression of emotion. The mechanism of human facial expression, 270–284. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511752841.027W.
[14] Francesco Barbieri, Miguel Ballesteros, and Horacio Saggion. 2017. Are Emojis Predictable? Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Volume 2, Short Papers (2017). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18653/v1/e17-2017C.
[15] J. Francesco Barbieri, Miguel Ballesteros, Francesco Ronzano, and Horacio Saggion. 2018. Multimodal Emoji Prediction. Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Short Papers) (2018). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18653/v1/n18-2107M.
[16] Christa Dürscheid and Christina Margrit Siever. 2017. Jenseits des Alphabets – Kommunikation mit Emojis. Zeitschrift für germanistische Linguistik 45, 2 (2017). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/zgl-2017-0013W.
[17] Umashanthi Pavalanathan and Jacob Eisenstein. 2016. More emojis, less :) The competition for paralinguistic function in microblog writing. First Monday 21, 11 (November 2016). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v21i11.6879.
[18] Hannah Miller, Daniel Kluver, Jacob Thebault-Spieker, Loren Terveen, and Brent Hecht. 2017. Understanding Emoji Ambiguity in Context: The Role of Text in Emoji-Related Miscommunication. Eleventh International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media (2017), 152–161.
[19] Jean Ann Graham and Michael Argyle. 1975. A Cross-Cultural Study of the Communication of Extra-Verbal Meaning by Gesture. International Journal of Psychology 10, 1 (1975), 57–67. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207597508247319.
[20] Nada A. Algharabali and Hanan A. Taqi. 2018. Taming the Sting: The Use of Evaluative Emojis by College Students in Kuwait. International Journal of Linguistics and Communication 6, 1 (2018). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15640/ijlc.v6n1a4W.-K.
[21] Chen, Zhenpeng & Lu, Xuan & Shen, Sheng & Ai, Wei & Liu, Xuanzhe & Mei, Qiaozhu. (2017). Through a Gender Lens: An Empirical Study of Emoji Usage over Large-Scale Android Users.
[22] Susan C. Herring and Ashley R. Dainas. 2018. Receiver interpretations of emoji functions: A gender perspective. 1st International Workshop on Emoji Understanding and Applications in Social Media (2018).
[23] Lifen Cheng. 2017. ¿Digo lo que siento y siento lo que digo? Una aproximación transcultural al uso de los emoticonos y emojis en los mensajes en CMC. Fonseca, Journal of Communication 15, 15 (2017), 199. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14201/fjc201715199217S.
[24] Benjamin Weissman and Darren Tanner. 2018. A strong wink between verbal and emoji-based irony: How the brain processes ironic emojis during language comprehension. Plos One 13, 8 (2018). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0201727.
[25] Nikola Ljubešić and Darja Fišer. 2016. A Global Analysis of Emoji Usage. Proceedings of the 10th Web as Corpus Workshop (2016). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18653/v1/w16-2610.
[26] Noa Naaman, Hannah Provenza, and Orion Montoya. 2017. Varying Linguistic Purposes of Emoji in (Twitter) Context. Proceedings of ACL 2017, Student Research Workshop (2017). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18653/v1/p17-3022.
[27] Na Sun, Elise Lavoue, Chulakorn Aritajati, Aurelien Tabard, and Mary Beth Rosson. Using and Perceiving Emoji in Design Peer Feedback. Computer Supported Collaborative Learning.
[28] Phillip R. Shaver, Hillary J. Morgan, and Shelley Wu. Is love a “basic” emotion?. Personal Relationships 3, 1, 81–96. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1475-6811.
[29] Sarah J. Isherwood, Siné J.P. Mcdougall, and Martin B. Curry. 2007. Icon Identification in Context: The Changing Role of Icon Characteristics with User Experience. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 49, 3 (2007), 465–476. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1518/001872007x200102.
[30] Bin Lin, Fiorella Zampetti, Gabriele Bavota, Massimiliano Di Penta, Michele Lanza, and Rocco Oliveto. 2018. Sentiment analysis for software engineering. Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Software Engineering - ICSE 18 (2018). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3180155.3180195.
Vol:13 No:05 2019Vol:13 No:04 2019Vol:13 No:03 2019Vol:13 No:02 2019Vol:13 No:01 2019
Vol:12 No:12 2018Vol:12 No:11 2018Vol:12 No:10 2018Vol:12 No:09 2018Vol:12 No:08 2018Vol:12 No:07 2018Vol:12 No:06 2018Vol:12 No:05 2018Vol:12 No:04 2018Vol:12 No:03 2018Vol:12 No:02 2018Vol:12 No:01 2018
Vol:11 No:12 2017Vol:11 No:11 2017Vol:11 No:10 2017Vol:11 No:09 2017Vol:11 No:08 2017Vol:11 No:07 2017Vol:11 No:06 2017Vol:11 No:05 2017Vol:11 No:04 2017Vol:11 No:03 2017Vol:11 No:02 2017Vol:11 No:01 2017
Vol:10 No:12 2016Vol:10 No:11 2016Vol:10 No:10 2016Vol:10 No:09 2016Vol:10 No:08 2016Vol:10 No:07 2016Vol:10 No:06 2016Vol:10 No:05 2016Vol:10 No:04 2016Vol:10 No:03 2016Vol:10 No:02 2016Vol:10 No:01 2016
Vol:9 No:12 2015Vol:9 No:11 2015Vol:9 No:10 2015Vol:9 No:09 2015Vol:9 No:08 2015Vol:9 No:07 2015Vol:9 No:06 2015Vol:9 No:05 2015Vol:9 No:04 2015Vol:9 No:03 2015Vol:9 No:02 2015Vol:9 No:01 2015
Vol:8 No:12 2014Vol:8 No:11 2014Vol:8 No:10 2014Vol:8 No:09 2014Vol:8 No:08 2014Vol:8 No:07 2014Vol:8 No:06 2014Vol:8 No:05 2014Vol:8 No:04 2014Vol:8 No:03 2014Vol:8 No:02 2014Vol:8 No:01 2014
Vol:7 No:12 2013Vol:7 No:11 2013Vol:7 No:10 2013Vol:7 No:09 2013Vol:7 No:08 2013Vol:7 No:07 2013Vol:7 No:06 2013Vol:7 No:05 2013Vol:7 No:04 2013Vol:7 No:03 2013Vol:7 No:02 2013Vol:7 No:01 2013
Vol:6 No:12 2012Vol:6 No:11 2012Vol:6 No:10 2012Vol:6 No:09 2012Vol:6 No:08 2012Vol:6 No:07 2012Vol:6 No:06 2012Vol:6 No:05 2012Vol:6 No:04 2012Vol:6 No:03 2012Vol:6 No:02 2012Vol:6 No:01 2012
Vol:5 No:12 2011Vol:5 No:11 2011Vol:5 No:10 2011Vol:5 No:09 2011Vol:5 No:08 2011Vol:5 No:07 2011Vol:5 No:06 2011Vol:5 No:05 2011Vol:5 No:04 2011Vol:5 No:03 2011Vol:5 No:02 2011Vol:5 No:01 2011
Vol:4 No:12 2010Vol:4 No:11 2010Vol:4 No:10 2010Vol:4 No:09 2010Vol:4 No:08 2010Vol:4 No:07 2010Vol:4 No:06 2010Vol:4 No:05 2010Vol:4 No:04 2010Vol:4 No:03 2010Vol:4 No:02 2010Vol:4 No:01 2010
Vol:3 No:12 2009Vol:3 No:11 2009Vol:3 No:10 2009Vol:3 No:09 2009Vol:3 No:08 2009Vol:3 No:07 2009Vol:3 No:06 2009Vol:3 No:05 2009Vol:3 No:04 2009Vol:3 No:03 2009Vol:3 No:02 2009Vol:3 No:01 2009
Vol:2 No:12 2008Vol:2 No:11 2008Vol:2 No:10 2008Vol:2 No:09 2008Vol:2 No:08 2008Vol:2 No:07 2008Vol:2 No:06 2008Vol:2 No:05 2008Vol:2 No:04 2008Vol:2 No:03 2008Vol:2 No:02 2008Vol:2 No:01 2008
Vol:1 No:12 2007Vol:1 No:11 2007Vol:1 No:10 2007Vol:1 No:09 2007Vol:1 No:08 2007Vol:1 No:07 2007Vol:1 No:06 2007Vol:1 No:05 2007Vol:1 No:04 2007Vol:1 No:03 2007Vol:1 No:02 2007Vol:1 No:01 2007