Topographic Mapping of Farmland by Integration of Multiple Sensors on Board Low-Altitude Unmanned Aerial System
This paper introduced a topographic mapping system with time-saving and simplicity advantages based on integration of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data and Post Processing Kinematic Global Positioning System (PPK GPS) data. This topographic mapping system used a low-altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) as a platform to conduct land survey in a low-cost, efficient, and totally autonomous manner. An experiment in a small-scale sugarcane farmland was conducted in Queensland, Australia. Subsequently, we synchronized LiDAR distance measurements that were corrected by using attitude information from gyroscope with PPK GPS coordinates for generation of precision topographic maps, which could be further utilized for such applications like precise land leveling and drainage management. The results indicated that LiDAR distance measurements and PPK GPS altitude reached good accuracy of less than 0.015 m.
 Levidow, L., Zaccaria, D., Maia, R., Vivas, E., Todorovic, M., and Scardigno, A., “Improving water-efficient irrigation: Prospects and difficulties of innovative practices,” Agricultural Water Management, Vol. 146, pp. 84-94, 2014.
 Rickman, J.F., “Manual for laser land leveling, Rice-Wheat Consortium Technical Bulletin Series 5,” India: Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains, pp. 24, 2002.
 Agricultural Land Leveling. Available online: http://www.optisurface.com/agricultural-land-leveling/. Accessed on: 11/09/2017.
 M. L. Jat, Parvesh Chandna, et al. 2006. Laser Land Leveling: A Precursor Technology for Resource Conservation. Rice-Wheat Consortium Technical Bulletin Series 7. New Delhi, India: Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains. 48.
 Yongjian Li, Zuoxi Zhao, “Design of Attitude Measurement System for Flat Shovel of Laser-controlled Land Leveler for Paddy Field,” Journal of Agricultural Mechanization Research, Vol. 2, pp. 69-75, 2012.
 Zebker, Howard A., and Richard M. Goldstein, “Topographic mapping from interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 91.B5, pp. 4993-4999, 1986.
 Remondino F., “Heritage recording and 3D modeling with photogrammetry and 3D scanning,” Remote Sens, Vol. 3, pp. 1104–1138, 2011.
 Moskal L. M., Zheng G., “Retrieving forest inventory variables with terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in urban heterogeneous forest,” Remote Sens, Vol. 4, 1, 2012.
 Du Mengmeng, and Noboru Noguchi, “Monitoring of Wheat Growth Status and Mapping of Wheat Yield’s within-Field Spatial Variations Using Color Images Acquired from UAV-camera System,” Remote Sensing, Vol. 9.3: 289, 2017.