The Evaluation of Gravity Anomalies Based on Global Models by Land Gravity Data
The Earth system generates different phenomena that are observable at the surface of the Earth such as mass deformations and displacements leading to plate tectonics, earthquakes, and volcanism. The dynamic processes associated with the interior, surface, and atmosphere of the Earth affect the three pillars of geodesy: shape of the Earth, its gravity field, and its rotation. Geodesy establishes a characteristic structure in order to define, monitor, and predict of the whole Earth system. The traditional and new instruments, observables, and techniques in geodesy are related to the gravity field. Therefore, the geodesy monitors the gravity field and its temporal variability in order to transform the geodetic observations made on the physical surface of the Earth into the geometrical surface in which positions are mathematically defined. In this paper, the main components of the gravity field modeling, (Free-air and Bouguer) gravity anomalies are calculated via recent global models (EGM2008, EIGEN6C4, and GECO) over a selected study area. The model-based gravity anomalies are compared with the corresponding terrestrial gravity data in terms of standard deviation (SD) and root mean square error (RMSE) for determining the best fit global model in the study area at a regional scale in Turkey. The least SD (13.63 mGal) and RMSE (15.71 mGal) were obtained by EGM2008 for the Free-air gravity anomaly residuals. For the Bouguer gravity anomaly residuals, EIGEN6C4 provides the least SD (8.05 mGal) and RMSE (8.12 mGal). The results indicated that EIGEN6C4 can be a useful tool for modeling the gravity field of the Earth over the study area.
Regional Low Gravity Anomalies Influencing High Concentrations of Heavy Minerals on Placer Deposits
Regions of low gravity and gravity anomalies both influence heavy mineral concentrations on placer deposits. Economically imported heavy minerals are likely to have higher levels of deposition in low gravity regions of placer deposits. This can be found in coastal regions of Southern Asia, particularly in Sri Lanka and Peninsula India and areas located in the lowest gravity region of the world. The area about 70 kilometers of the east coast of Sri Lanka is covered by a high percentage of ilmenite deposits, and the southwest coast of the island consists of Monazite placer deposit. These deposits are one of the largest placer deposits in the world. In India, the heavy mineral industry has a good market. On the other hand, based on the coastal placer deposits recorded, the high gravity region located around Papua New Guinea, has no such heavy mineral deposits. In low gravity regions, with the help of other depositional environmental factors, the grains have more time and space to float in the sea, this helps bring high concentrations of heavy mineral deposits to the coast. The effect of low and high gravity can be demonstrated by using heavy mineral separation devices. The Wilfley heavy mineral separating table is one of these; it is extensively used in industries and in laboratories for heavy mineral separation. The horizontally oscillating Wilfley table helps to separate heavy and light mineral grains in to deferent fractions, with the use of water. In this experiment, the low and high angle of the Wilfley table are representing low and high gravity respectively. A sample mixture of grain size <0.85 mm of heavy and light mineral grains has been used for this experiment. The high and low angle of the table was 60 and 20 respectively for this experiment. The separated fractions from the table are again separated into heavy and light minerals, with the use of heavy liquid, which consists of a specific gravity of 2.85. The fractions of separated heavy and light minerals have been used for drawing the two-dimensional graphs. The graphs show that the low gravity stage has a high percentage of heavy minerals collected in the upper area of the table than in the high gravity stage. The results of the experiment can be used for the comparison of regional low gravity and high gravity levels of heavy minerals. If there are any heavy mineral deposits in the high gravity regions, these deposits will take place far away from the coast, within the continental shelf.
Application of Building Information Modeling in Energy Management of Individual Departments Occupying University Facilities
To assist individual departments within universities in their energy management tasks, this study explores the application of Building Information Modeling in establishing the ‘BIM based Energy Management Support System’ (BIM-EMSS). The BIM-EMSS consists of six components: (1) sensors installed for each occupant and each equipment, (2) electricity sub-meters (constantly logging lighting, HVAC, and socket electricity consumptions of each room), (3) BIM models of all rooms within individual departments’ facilities, (4) data warehouse (for storing occupancy status and logged electricity consumption data), (5) building energy management system that provides energy managers with various energy management functions, and (6) energy simulation tool (such as eQuest) that generates real time 'standard energy consumptions' data against which 'actual energy consumptions' data are compared and energy efficiency evaluated. Through the building energy management system, the energy manager is able to (a) have 3D visualization (BIM model) of each room, in which the occupancy and equipment status detected by the sensors and the electricity consumptions data logged are displayed constantly; (b) perform real time energy consumption analysis to compare the actual and standard energy consumption profiles of a space; (c) obtain energy consumption anomaly detection warnings on certain rooms so that energy management corrective actions can be further taken (data mining technique is employed to analyze the relation between space occupancy pattern with current space equipment setting to indicate an anomaly, such as when appliances turn on without occupancy); and (d) perform historical energy consumption analysis to review monthly and annually energy consumption profiles and compare them against historical energy profiles. The BIM-EMSS was further implemented in a research lab in the Department of Architecture of NTUST in Taiwan and implementation results presented to illustrate how it can be used to assist individual departments within universities in their energy management tasks.
Anomaly Detection with ANN and SVM for Telemedicine Networks
In recent years, a wide variety of applications are developed with Support Vector Machines -SVM- methods and Artificial Neural Networks -ANN-. In general, these methods depend on intrusion knowledge databases such as KDD99, ISCX, and CAIDA among others. New classes of detectors are generated by machine learning techniques, trained and tested over network databases. Thereafter, detectors are employed to detect anomalies in network communication scenarios according to user’s connections behavior. The first detector based on training dataset is deployed in different real-world networks with mobile and non-mobile devices to analyze the performance and accuracy over static detection. The vulnerabilities are based on previous work in telemedicine apps that were developed on the research group. This paper presents the differences on detections results between some network scenarios by applying traditional detectors deployed with artificial neural networks and support vector machines.
Outdoor Anomaly Detection with a Spectroscopic Line Detector
One of the tasks of optical surveillance is to detect
anomalies in large amounts of image data. However, if the size of the
anomaly is very small, limited information is available to distinguish
it from the surrounding environment. Spectral detection provides a
useful source of additional information and may help to detect
anomalies with a size of a few pixels or less. Unfortunately, spectral
cameras are expensive because of the difficulty of separating two
spatial in addition to one spectral dimension. We investigate the
possibility of modifying a simple spectral line detector for outdoor
detection. This may be especially useful if the area of interest forms a
line, such as the horizon. We use a monochrome CCD that also
enables detection into the near infrared. A simple camera is attached
to the setup to determine which part of the environment is spectrally
imaged. Our preliminary results indicate that sensitive detection of
very small targets is indeed possible. Spectra could be taken from the
various targets by averaging columns in the line image. By imaging a
set of lines of various widths we found narrow lines that could not be
seen in the color image but remained visible in the spectral line
image. A simultaneous analysis of the entire spectra can produce
better results than visual inspection of the line spectral image. We are
presently developing calibration targets for spatial and spectral
focusing and alignment with the spatial camera. This will present
improved results and more use in outdoor application.
Lithium Oxide Effect on the Thermal and Physical Properties of the Ternary System Glasses (Li2O3-B2O3-Al2O3)
The borate glasses are known by their structural
characterized by existence of unit’s structural composed by triangles
and tetrahedrons boron in different configurations depending on the
percentage of B2O3 in the glass chemical composition. In this paper,
effect of lithium oxide addition on the thermal and physical
properties of an alumina borate glass, was investigated. It was found
that the boron abnormality has a significant effect in the change of
glass properties according to the addition rate of lithium oxide.
A Study on Abnormal Behavior Detection in BYOD Environment
Advancement of communication technologies and smart devices in the recent times is leading to changes into the integrated wired and wireless communication environments. Since early days, businesses had started introducing environments for mobile device application to their operations in order to improve productivity (efficiency) and the closed corporate environment gradually shifted to an open structure. Recently, individual user's interest in working environment using mobile devices has increased and a new corporate working environment under the concept of BYOD is drawing attention. BYOD (bring your own device) is a concept where individuals bring in and use their own devices in business activities. Through BYOD, businesses can anticipate improved productivity (efficiency) and also a reduction in the cost of purchasing devices. However, as a result of security threats caused by frequent loss and theft of personal devices and corporate data leaks due to low security, companies are reluctant about adopting BYOD system. In addition, without considerations to diverse devices and connection environments, there are limitations in detecting abnormal behaviors, such as information leaks, using the existing network-based security equipment. This study suggests a method to detect abnormal behaviors according to individual behavioral patterns, rather than the existing signature-based malicious behavior detection, and discusses applications of this method in BYOD environment.
Autonomously Determining the Parameters for SVDD with RBF Kernel from a One-Class Training Set
The one-class support vector machine “support vector
data description” (SVDD) is an ideal approach for anomaly or outlier
detection. However, for the applicability of SVDD in real-world
applications, the ease of use is crucial. The results of SVDD are
massively determined by the choice of the regularisation parameter C
and the kernel parameter of the widely used RBF kernel. While for
two-class SVMs the parameters can be tuned using cross-validation
based on the confusion matrix, for a one-class SVM this is not
possible, because only true positives and false negatives can occur
during training. This paper proposes an approach to find the optimal
set of parameters for SVDD solely based on a training set from
one class and without any user parameterisation. Results on artificial
and real data sets are presented, underpinning the usefulness of the
An Anomaly Detection Approach to Detect Unexpected Faults in Recordings from Test Drives
In the automotive industry test drives are being conducted
during the development of new vehicle models or as a part of
quality assurance of series-production vehicles. The communication
on the in-vehicle network, data from external sensors, or internal
data from the electronic control units is recorded by automotive
data loggers during the test drives. The recordings are used for fault
analysis. Since the resulting data volume is tremendous, manually
analysing each recording in great detail is not feasible.
This paper proposes to use machine learning to support domainexperts
by preventing them from contemplating irrelevant data and
rather pointing them to the relevant parts in the recordings. The
underlying idea is to learn the normal behaviour from available
recordings, i.e. a training set, and then to autonomously detect
unexpected deviations and report them as anomalies.
The one-class support vector machine “support vector data description”
is utilised to calculate distances of feature vectors. SVDDSUBSEQ
is proposed as a novel approach, allowing to classify subsequences
in multivariate time series data. The approach allows to
detect unexpected faults without modelling effort as is shown with
experimental results on recordings from test drives.
Research on Hybrid Neural Network in Intrusion Detection System
This paper presents an intrusion detection system of hybrid neural network model based on RBF and Elman. It is used for anomaly detection and misuse detection. This model has the memory function .It can detect discrete and related aggressive behavior effectively. RBF network is a real-time pattern classifier, and Elman network achieves the memory ability for former event. Based on the hybrid model intrusion detection system uses DARPA data set to do test evaluation. It uses ROC curve to display the test result intuitively. After the experiment it proves this hybrid model intrusion detection system can effectively improve the detection rate, and reduce the rate of false alarm and fail.
Anomaly Based On Frequent-Outlier for Outbreak Detection in Public Health Surveillance
Public health surveillance system focuses on outbreak detection and data sources used. Variation or aberration in the frequency distribution of health data, compared to historical data is often used to detect outbreaks. It is important that new techniques be developed to improve the detection rate, thereby reducing wastage of resources in public health. Thus, the objective is to developed technique by applying frequent mining and outlier mining techniques in outbreak detection. 14 datasets from the UCI were tested on the proposed technique. The performance of the effectiveness for each technique was measured by t-test. The overall performance shows that DTK can be used to detect outlier within frequent dataset. In conclusion the outbreak detection technique using anomaly-based on frequent-outlier technique can be used to identify the outlier within frequent dataset.
Increase of Heat Index over Bangladesh: Impact of Climate Change
Heat Index describes the combined effect of
temperature and humidity on human body. This combined effect is
causing a serious threat to the health of people because of the
changing climate. With climate change, climate variability and thus
the occurrence of heat waves is likely to increase. Evidence is
emerging from the analysis of long-term climate records of an
increase in the frequency and duration of extreme temperature events
in all over Bangladesh particularly during summer. Summer season
has prolonged while winters have become short in Bangladesh.
Summers have become hotter and thus affecting the lives of the
people engaged in outdoor activities during scorching sun hours. In
2003 around 62 people died due to heat wave across the country. In
this paper Bangladesh is divided in four regions and heat index has
been calculated from 1960 to 2010 in these regions of the country.
The aim of this paper is to identify the spots most vulnerable to heat
strokes and heat waves due to high heat index. The results show
upward trend of heat index in almost all the regions of Bangladesh.
The highest increase in heat index value has been observed in areas
of South-west region and North-west Region. The highest change in
average heat index has been found in Jessore by almost 5.50C.
Genetic-based Anomaly Detection in Logs of Process Aware Systems
Nowaday-s, many organizations use systems that
support business process as a whole or partially. However, in some
application domains, like software development and health care
processes, a normative Process Aware System (PAS) is not suitable,
because a flexible support is needed to respond rapidly to new
process models. On the other hand, a flexible Process Aware System
may be vulnerable to undesirable and fraudulent executions, which
imposes a tradeoff between flexibility and security. In order to make
this tradeoff available, a genetic-based anomaly detection model for
logs of Process Aware Systems is presented in this paper. The
detection of an anomalous trace is based on discovering an
appropriate process model by using genetic process mining and
detecting traces that do not fit the appropriate model as anomalous
trace; therefore, when used in PAS, this model is an automated
solution that can support coexistence of flexibility and security.
Fuzzy Hyperbolization Image Enhancement and Artificial Neural Network for Anomaly Detection
A prototype of an anomaly detection system was
developed to automate process of recognizing an anomaly of
roentgen image by utilizing fuzzy histogram hyperbolization image
enhancement and back propagation artificial neural network.
The system consists of image acquisition, pre-processor, feature
extractor, response selector and output. Fuzzy Histogram
Hyperbolization is chosen to improve the quality of the roentgen
image. The fuzzy histogram hyperbolization steps consist of
fuzzyfication, modification of values of membership functions and
defuzzyfication. Image features are extracted after the the quality of
the image is improved. The extracted image features are input to the
artificial neural network for detecting anomaly. The number of nodes
in the proposed ANN layers was made small.
Experimental results indicate that the fuzzy histogram
hyperbolization method can be used to improve the quality of the
image. The system is capable to detect the anomaly in the roentgen
Anomaly Detection and Characterization to Classify Traffic Anomalies Case Study: TOT Public Company Limited Network
This paper represents four unsupervised clustering algorithms namely sIB, RandomFlatClustering, FarthestFirst, and FilteredClusterer that previously works have not been used for network traffic classification. The methodology, the result, the products of the cluster and evaluation of these algorithms with efficiency of each algorithm from accuracy are shown. Otherwise, the efficiency of these algorithms considering form the time that it use to generate the cluster quickly and correctly. Our work study and test the best algorithm by using classify traffic anomaly in network traffic with different attribute that have not been used before. We analyses the algorithm that have the best efficiency or the best learning and compare it to the previously used (K-Means). Our research will be use to develop anomaly detection system to more efficiency and more require in the future.
Anomaly Detection using Neuro Fuzzy system
As the network based technologies become
omnipresent, demands to secure networks/systems against threat
increase. One of the effective ways to achieve higher security is
through the use of intrusion detection systems (IDS), which are a
software tool to detect anomalous in the computer or network. In this
paper, an IDS has been developed using an improved machine
learning based algorithm, Locally Linear Neuro Fuzzy Model
(LLNF) for classification whereas this model is originally used for
system identification. A key technical challenge in IDS and LLNF
learning is the curse of high dimensionality. Therefore a feature
selection phase is proposed which is applicable to any IDS. While
investigating the use of three feature selection algorithms, in this
model, it is shown that adding feature selection phase reduces
computational complexity of our model. Feature selection algorithms
require the use of a feature goodness measure. The use of both a
linear and a non-linear measure - linear correlation coefficient and
mutual information- is investigated respectively
Health Assessment of Electronic Products using Mahalanobis Distance and Projection Pursuit Analysis
With increasing complexity in electronic systems
there is a need for system level anomaly detection and fault isolation.
Anomaly detection based on vector similarity to a training set is used
in this paper through two approaches, one the preserves the original
information, Mahalanobis Distance (MD), and the other that
compresses the data into its principal components, Projection Pursuit
Analysis. These methods have been used to detect deviations in
system performance from normal operation and for critical parameter
isolation in multivariate environments. The study evaluates the
detection capability of each approach on a set of test data with known
faults against a baseline set of data representative of such “healthy"
A Rule-based Approach for Anomaly Detection in Subscriber Usage Pattern
In this report we present a rule-based approach to
detect anomalous telephone calls. The method described here uses
subscriber usage CDR (call detail record) data sampled over two
observation periods: study period and test period. The study period
contains call records of customers- non-anomalous behaviour.
Customers are first grouped according to their similar usage
behaviour (like, average number of local calls per week, etc). For
customers in each group, we develop a probabilistic model to describe
their usage. Next, we use maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) to
estimate the parameters of the calling behaviour. Then we determine
thresholds by calculating acceptable change within a group. MLE is
used on the data in the test period to estimate the parameters of the
calling behaviour. These parameters are compared against thresholds.
Any deviation beyond the threshold is used to raise an alarm. This
method has the advantage of identifying local anomalies as compared
to techniques which identify global anomalies. The method is tested
for 90 days of study data and 10 days of test data of telecom
customers. For medium to large deviations in the data in test window,
the method is able to identify 90% of anomalous usage with less than
1% false alarm rate.
Network Anomaly Detection using Soft Computing
One main drawback of intrusion detection system is the
inability of detecting new attacks which do not have known
signatures. In this paper we discuss an intrusion detection method
that proposes independent component analysis (ICA) based feature
selection heuristics and using rough fuzzy for clustering data. ICA is
to separate these independent components (ICs) from the monitored
variables. Rough set has to decrease the amount of data and get rid of
redundancy and Fuzzy methods allow objects to belong to several
clusters simultaneously, with different degrees of membership. Our
approach allows us to recognize not only known attacks but also to
detect activity that may be the result of a new, unknown attack. The
experimental results on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining-
(KDDCup 1999) dataset.
Svision: Visual Identification of Scanning and Denial of Service Attacks
We propose a novel graphical technique (SVision) for
intrusion detection, which pictures the network as a community of
hosts independently roaming in a 3D space defined by the set of
services that they use. The aim of SVision is to graphically cluster
the hosts into normal and abnormal ones, highlighting only the ones
that are considered as a threat to the network. Our experimental
results using DARPA 1999 and 2000 intrusion detection and
evaluation datasets show the proposed technique as a good candidate
for the detection of various threats of the network such as vertical
and horizontal scanning, Denial of Service (DoS), and Distributed
DoS (DDoS) attacks.