The Effects of Physical Activity and Serotonin on Depression, Anxiety, Body Image and Mental Health
Sport has found a special place as an effective phenomenon in all societies of the contemporary world. The relationship between physical activity and exercise with different sciences has provided new fields for human study. The range of issues related to exercise and physical education is such that it requires specialized sciences and special studies. In this article, the psychological and social sections of exercise have been investigated for children and adults. It can be used for anyone in different age groups. Exercise and regular physical movements have a great impact on the mental and social health of the individual in addition to body health. It affects the individual's adaptability in society and his/her personality. Exercise affects the treatment of diseases such as depression, anxiety, stress, body image, and memory. Exercise is a safe haven for young people to achieve the optimum human development in its shelter. The effects of sensorimotor skills on mental actions and mental development are such a way that many psychologists and sports science experts believe these activities should be included in training programs in the first place. Familiarity of students and scholars with different programs and methods of sensorimotor activities not only causes their mental actions; but also increases mental health and vitality, enhances self-confidence and, therefore, mental health.
Case Study of the Exercise Habits and Aging Anxiety of Taiwanese Insurance Agents
The rapid aging of the population is a common trend in the world. However, the progress of modern medical technology has increased the average life expectancy. The global population structure has changed dramatically, and the elderly population has risen rapidly. In the face of rapid population growth, it must be noted issues of the aging population must face up to, which are the physiological, psychological, and social problems associated with aging. This study aims to investigate how insurance agents are actively dealing with an aging society, their own aging anxiety, and their exercise habits. Purposive sampling was the sampling method of this study, a total of 204 respondents were surveyed and 204 valid surveys were returned. The returned valid ratio was 100%. Statistical method included descriptive statistics, t-test, and one-way ANOVA. The results of the study found that the insurance agent’s age, seniority, exercise habits to aging anxiety are significantly different.
A Linear Regression Model for Estimating Anxiety Index Using Wide Area Frontal Lobe Brain Blood Volume
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common mental illnesses today. It is believed to be caused by a combination of several factors, including stress. Stress can be quantitatively evaluated using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), one of the best indices to evaluate anxiety. Although STAI scores are widely used in applications ranging from clinical diagnosis to basic research, the scores are calculated based on a self-reported questionnaire. An objective evaluation is required because the subject may intentionally change his/her answers if multiple tests are carried out. In this article, we present a modified index called the “multi-channel Laterality Index at Rest (mc-LIR)” by recording the brain activity from a wider area of the frontal lobe using multi-channel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The presented index aims to measure multiple positions near the Fpz defined by the international 10-20 system positioning. Using 24 subjects, the dependencies on the number of measuring points used to calculate the mc-LIR and its correlation coefficients with the STAI scores are reported. Furthermore, a simple linear regression was performed to estimate the STAI scores from mc-LIR. The cross-validation error is also reported. The experimental results show that using multiple positions near the Fpz will improve the correlation coefficients and estimation than those using only two positions.
The New Educators: The Reasons for Saudi Arabia to Invest More in Student Counseling Programs
Student counseling programs can provide many benefits to students in schools all around the world. In theory, the government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabia) has committed itself to school counseling programs in educational institutions throughout the country. Student counselors face a number of burdens and obstacles that impact student counseling programs. It is also widely known that Saudi Arabia has extremely high prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, anxiety and depression, and diabetes in children. It has also been demonstrated that teachers and staff are inadequately prepared when dealing with health issues relating to diabetes in schools in Saudi Arabia. This study will clearly demonstrate how student counselors in Saudi Arabia could become 'New Educators' in Saudi schools in relation to these health issues. This would allow them to leverage their position as student counselor to improve the management of these health issues in Saudi schools, to improve the quality of care provided to school children, and to overcome burdens and obstacles that are currently negatively affecting student counseling in Saudi schools.
Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Psychosocial Consequences of Sickle Cell Disease: The Case of Patients in a Public Hospital in Ghana
Background: Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is of major public-health concern globally, with majority of patients living in Africa. Despite its relevance, there is a dearth of research to determine the socio-demographic distribution and psychosocial impact of SCD in Africa. The objective of this study therefore was to examine the socio-demographic distribution and psychosocial consequences of SCD among patients in Ghana and to assess their quality of life and coping mechanisms. Methods: A cross-sectional research design was used, involving the completion of questionnaires on socio-demographic characteristics, quality of life of individuals, anxiety and depression. Participants were 387 male and female patients attending a sickle cell clinic in a public hospital. Results: Results showed no gender and marital status differences in anxiety and depression. However, there were age and level of education variances in depression but not in anxiety. In terms of quality of life, patients were more satisfied by the presence of love, friends, relatives as well as home, community and neighbourhood environment. While pains of varied nature and severity were the major reasons for attending hospital in SCD condition, going to the hospital as well as having Faith in God was the frequently reported mechanisms for coping with an unbearable SCD attacks. Multiple regression analysis showed that some socio-demographic and quality of life indicators had strong associations with anxiety and/or depression. Conclusion: It is recommended that a multi-dimensional intervention strategy incorporating psychosocial dimensions should be considered in the treatment and management of SCD.
Analysis of Scientific Attitude, Computer Anxiety, Educational Internet Use, Problematic Internet Use, and Academic Achievement of Middle School Students According to Demographic Variables
In this research, students’ scientific attitude, computer anxiety, educational use of the Internet, academic achievement, and problematic use of the Internet are analyzed based on different variables (gender, parents’ educational level and daily access to the Internet). The research group involves 361 students from two middle schools which are located in the center of Konya. The “general survey method” is adopted in the research. In accordance with the purpose of the study, percentage, mean, standard deviation, independent samples t--‐test, ANOVA (variance) are employed in the study. A total of four scales are implemented. These four scales include a total of 13 sub-dimensions. The scores from these scales and their subscales are studied in terms of various variables. In the research, students’ scientific attitude, computer anxiety, educational use of the Internet, the problematic Internet use and academic achievement (gender, parent educational level, and daily access to the Internet) are investigated based on various variables and some significant relations are found.
Meaning in Life, Hope, and Mental Health: Relation between Meaning in Life, Hope, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress among Afghan Refugees in Iran
The present research was carried out in order to investigate the relationship between meaning in life and hope with depression, anxiety and stress in Afghan Refugees in Alborz province in Iran. In this research, method of study is a descriptive correlation type. One hundred and fifty-eight Afghan refugees (64 male, 94 female) participated in this study. All participants completed the Meaning in Life Questionnaires (MLQ), Hope Scale (HS), and The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). The results revealed that Meaning in Life was positively associated with hope, presence of meaning, search of meaning, and negatively associated with depression and anxiety. Hope was positively associated with presence of meaning and search of meaning, and hope was negatively associated with depression, anxiety, and stress. Depression, anxiety, and stress were positively correlated with each other. Meaning in life and hope could influence on mental health.
An Investigation on Students’ Reticence in Iranian University EFL Classrooms
Reticence is a prominent and complex phenomenon
which occurs in foreign language classrooms and influences students’
oral passivity. The present study investigated the extent in which
students experience reticence in the EFL classrooms and explored the
underlying factors triggering reticence. The participants were 104
Iranian freshmen undergraduate male and female EFL students, who
enrolled in listening and speaking courses, all majoring in English
studying at Islamic Azad University Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch and
University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran. To collect the data, the Reticence
Scale-12 (RS-12) questionnaire which measures the level of reticence
consisting of six dimensions (anxiety, knowledge, timing,
organization, skills, and memory) was administered to the
participants. The statistical analyses showed that the reticent level
was high among the Iranian EFL undergraduate students, and their
major problems were feelings of anxiety and delivery skills.
Moreover, the results revealed that factors such as low English
proficiency, the teaching method, and lack of confidence contributed
to the students’ reticence in Iranian EFL classrooms. It can be
implied that language teachers’ awareness of learners’ reticence can
help them choose more appropriate activities and provide a friendly
environment enhancing hopefully more effective participation of EFL
learners. The findings can have implications for EFL teachers,
learners and policy makers.
Mathematics Anxiety among Male and Female Students
The purpose of this study is to determine the
relationship of anxiety level between male and female undergraduates
at a private university in Malaysia. Convenient sampling method used
in this study in which the students were selected based on the
grouping assigned by the faculty. There were 214 undergraduates
who registered the probability courses had participated in this study.
Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (MARS) was the instrument used
in study which used to determine students’ anxiety level towards
probability. Reliability and validity of instrument was done before the
major study was conducted. In the major study, students were given
briefing about the study conducted. Participation of this study was
voluntary. Students were given consent form to determine whether
they agree to participate in the study. Duration of two weeks was
given for students to complete the given online questionnaire. The
data collected will be analyzed using Statistical Package for the
Social Sciences (SPSS) to determine the level of anxiety. There were
three anxiety level, i.e., low, average and high. Students’ anxiety
level was determined based on their scores obtained compared with
the mean and standard deviation. If the scores obtained were below
mean and standard deviation, the anxiety level was low. If the scores
were at below and above the mean and between one standard
deviation, the anxiety level was average. If the scores were above the
mean and greater than one standard deviation, the anxiety level was
high. Results showed that both of genders were having average
anxiety level. Among low, average and high anxiety level, frequency
of males were found to be higher as compared to females. Hence, the
mean values obtained for males (M = 3.62) was higher than females
(M = 3.42). In order to be significant of anxiety level among the
gender, the p-value should be less than .05. The p-value obtained in
this study was .117. However, this value was greater than .05. Thus,
there was no significant difference of anxiety level among the gender.
In other words, there was no relationship of anxiety level with the
EEG Correlates of Trait and Mathematical Anxiety during Lexical and Numerical Error-Recognition Tasks
EEG correlates of mathematical and trait anxiety level
were studied in 52 healthy Russian-speakers during execution of
error-recognition tasks with lexical, arithmetic and algebraic
conditions. Event-related spectral perturbations were used as a
measure of brain activity. The ERSP plots revealed alpha/beta
desynchronizations within a 500-3000 ms interval after task onset
and slow-wave synchronization within an interval of 150-350 ms.
Amplitudes of these intervals reflected the accuracy of error
recognition, and were differently associated with the three conditions.
The correlates of anxiety were found in theta (4-8 Hz) and beta2 (16-
20 Hz) frequency bands. In theta band the effects of mathematical
anxiety were stronger expressed in lexical, than in arithmetic and
algebraic condition. The mathematical anxiety effects in theta band
were associated with differences between anterior and posterior
cortical areas, whereas the effects of trait anxiety were associated
with inter-hemispherical differences. In beta1 and beta2 bands effects
of trait and mathematical anxiety were directed oppositely. The trait
anxiety was associated with increase of amplitude of
desynchronization, whereas the mathematical anxiety was associated
with decrease of this amplitude. The effect of mathematical anxiety
in beta2 band was insignificant for lexical condition but was the
strongest in algebraic condition. EEG correlates of anxiety in theta
band could be interpreted as indexes of task emotionality, whereas
the reaction in beta2 band is related to tension of intellectual
The Comparison of Parental Childrearing Styles and Anxiety in Children with Stuttering and Normal Population
Family has a crucial role in maintaining the
physical, social and mental health of the children. Most of the
mental and anxiety problems of children reflect the complex
interpersonal situations among family members, especially parents.
In other words, anxiety problems of the children are correlated
with deficit relationships of family members and improper
childrearing styles. The parental child rearing styles leads to
positive and negative consequences which affect the children’s
mental health. Therefore, the present research was aimed to
compare the parental childrearing styles and anxiety of children
with stuttering and normal population. It was also aimed to study
the relationship between parental child rearing styles and anxiety
of children. The research sample included 54 boys with stuttering
and 54 normal boys who were selected from the children (boys) of
Tehran, Iran in the age range of 5 to 8 years in 2013. In order to
collect data, Baum-rind Childrearing Styles Inventory and Spence
Parental Anxiety Inventory were used. Appropriate descriptive
statistical methods and multivariate variance analysis and t test for
independent groups were used to test the study hypotheses.
Statistical data analyses demonstrated that there was a significant
difference between stuttering boys and normal boys in anxiety (t =
7.601, p< 0.01); but there was no significant difference between
stuttering boys and normal boys in parental childrearing styles (F =
0.129). There was also not found significant relationship between
parental childrearing styles and children anxiety (F = 0.135, p<
0.05). It can be concluded that the influential factors of children’s
society are parents, school, teachers, peers and media. So, parental
childrearing styles are not the only influential factors on anxiety of
children, and other factors including genetic, environment and
child experiences are effective in anxiety as well. Details are
Effect of Trataka on Anxiety among Adolescents
Anxiety is a common psychological problem and also
implicated as a contributor to many chronic diseases which decreased
quality of life even with pharmacological treatment. At the present
time several yogic practices- meditation, pranayama, and mantra,
etcetera are playing important role in treating physiological and
psychological problems. Hence, the present investigation is aimed to
see the effect of Trataka on the level of anxiety among adolescents.
For the present study, a sample of 30 adolescents belonging to the
age range 20-30 years was selected from Devsanskriti Vishwa
Vidyalaya Haridwar through random sampling. In this investigation,
Sinha’s Comprehensive anxiety test has been used to measure the
level of anxiety. Statistical analysis has been done by using t-test.
Findings of this study reveal that Trataka significantly decreases the
level of anxiety among adolescents.
A Comparison of Transdiagnostic Components in Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Unipolar Mood Disorder and Nonclinical Population
Background: Dimensional and transdiagnostic approaches as a result of high comorbidity among mental disorders have captured researchers and clinicians interests for exploring the latent factors to development and maintenance of some psychological disorders. The goal of present study is comparing some of these common factors between generalized anxiety disorder and unipolar mood disorder. Methods: 27 patients with generalized anxiety disorder, 29 patients with depression disorder were recruited by using SCID-I and 69 non-clinical populations were selected by using GHQ cut off point. MANCOVA was used for analyzing data. Results: The results show that worry, rumination, intolerance of uncertainty, maladaptive metacognitive beliefs, and experiential avoidance were all significantly different between GAD and unipolar mood disorder groups. However, there weren’t any significant differences in difficulties in emotion regulation and neuroticism between GAD and unipolar mood disorder groups. Discussion: Results indicate that although there are some transdiagnostic and common factors in GAD and unipolar mood disorder, there may be some specific vulnerability factors for each disorder. Further study is needed for answering these questions.
The Emotional Language and Temperamental Traits
The aim of this study is to describe the associations
between the temperamental traits and the narrative emotional
expression. The Temperament Questionnaire was used: The FCB-TI
of Zawadzki & Strelau. A sample of 85 persons described three
emotional situations: love. hate, and anxiety. This study analyzes the
verbal form of expression by means of a written account of
emotions. The relationship between the narratives of love, hate and
anxiety and temperament characteristics were studied. Results
indicate that vigorousness (VI), perseverance (PE), sensory
sensitivity (SS), emotional reactivity (ER), endurance (EN) and
activeness (AC) have a significant impact on the emotional
expression in narratives. The temperamental traits are linked to the
form of emotional language. It means that temperament has an
impact on cognitive representations of emotions.
Evaluation of Internet Anxiety in SRBIAU Higher Education Students in Research Process
Increase in using internet makes some problems that
one of them is "internet anxiety". Internet anxiety is a type of anxious
that people may feel during surfing internet or using internet for their
educational purpose, blogging or streaming to digital libraries. The
goal of this study is evaluating of internet anxiety among the
management students. In this research Ealy's internet anxiety
questionnaire, consists of positive and negative items, is completed
by 310 participants. According to the findings, about 64.7% of them
were equal or below to mean anxiety score (50). The distribution of
internet anxiety scores was normal and there was no meaningful
difference between men-s and women's anxiety level in this sample.
Results also showed that there is no meaningful difference of internet
anxiety level between different fields of study in Management. This
evaluation will help managers to perform gap analysis between the
existent level and the desired one. Future work would be providing
techniques for abating human anxiety while using internet via human
computer interaction techniques.
The Efficacy of Self-Administered Danger Ideation Reduction Therapy for a 50-year Old Woman with a 20 Year History of Obsessive- Compulsive Disorder: A Case Study
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a common
and disabling condition. Therapist-delivered treatments that use
exposure and response prevention have been found to be very
effective in treating OCD, although they are costly and associated
with high rates of attrition. Effective treatments that can be made
widely available without the need for therapist contact are urgently
needed. This case study represents the first published investigation of
a self-administered cognitive treatment for OCD in a 50-year old
female with a 20 year history of OCD. The treatment evaluation
occurred over 27 weeks, including 12 weeks of self-administration of
the Danger Ideation Reduction Therapy (DIRT) program. Decreases
of between 23% to 33% on measures from pre-treatment to follow-up
were observed. Bearing in mind the methodological limitations
associated with a case study, we conclude that the results reported
here are encouraging and indicate that further research effort
evaluating the effectiveness of self-administered DIRT is warranted.
Self-Esteem and Stress Level among Traumatic Brain Injured Adults with Mild, Moderate and Severe Injuries attending a Day Program Rehabilitation Facility
The purpose of the study was to determine if, among
32 brain injured adults in community rehabilitation programs, there is
a statistically significant relationship between the degree of severity
of brain injury and these adults- level of self-esteem and stress. The
researcher hypothesized there would be a statistically significant
difference and a statistically significant relationship in self-esteem
and stress levels among and TBI adults. A Pearson product moment
correlational analysis was implemented and results found a
statistically significant relationship between self-esteem and stress
levels. Future recommendations were suggested upon completion of
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy to Treat Social Anxiety Disorder: A Psychology Case
Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy is the first
cognitive behavior therapy which was introduced by Albert Ellis.
This is a systematic and structured psychotherapy which is effective
in treating various psychological problems. A patient, 25 years old
male, experienced intense fear and situational panic attack to return
to his faculty and to face his class-mates after a long absence (2
years). This social anxiety disorder was a major factor that impeded
the progress of his study. He was treated with the use of behavioural
technique such as relaxation breathing technique and cognitive
techniques such as imagery, cognitive restructuring, rationalization
technique and systematic desensitization. The patient reported
positive improvement in the anxiety disorder, able to progress well in
studies and lead a better quality of life as a student.
The Effect of Relaxation Training on First Year Nursing Students Anxiety in Clinical Setting
The investigating and assessing the effects of
relaxation training on the levels of state anxiety concerning first year
female nursing students at their initial experience in clinical setting.
This research is a quasi experimental study that was carried out in
nursing and midwifery faculty of Tehran university of medical
sciences .The sample of research consists 60 first term female
nursing students were selected through convenience and random
sampling. 30 of them were the experimental group and 30 of them
were in control group. The Instruments of data-collection has been a
questionnaire which consists of 3 parts. The first part includes 10
questions about demographic characteristics .the second part includes
20 question about anxiety (test 'Spielberg' ). The 3rd part includes
physiological indicators of anxiety (BP, P, R, body temperature). The
statistical tests included t-test and and fisher test, Data were
analyzed by SPSS software.
Modality and Redundancy Effects on Music Theory Learning Among Pupils of Different Anxiety Levels
The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of
modality and redundancy principles on music theory learning among
pupils of different anxiety levels. The lesson of music theory was
developed in three different modes, audio and image (AI), text with
image (TI) and audio with image and text (AIT). The independent
variables were the three modes of courseware. The moderator
variable was the anxiety level, while the dependent variable was the
post test score. The study sample consisted of 405 third-grade pupils.
Descriptive and inferential statistics were conducted to analyze the
collected data. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) and Post hoc
were carried out to examine the main effects as well as the
interaction effects of the independent variables on the dependent
variable. The findings of this study showed that medium anxiety
pupils performed significantly better than low and high anxiety
pupils in all the three treatment modes. The AI mode was found to
help pupils with high anxiety significantly more than the TI and AIT
Gender Differences of Elementary Prospective Teachers in Mathematical Beliefs and Mathematics Teaching Anxiety
In this study, any possible differences between mathematics beliefs and anxiety of prospective elementary mathematics teachers have been investigated according to their gender. In this purpose, 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th grade students from a Government University in Turkey were selected as a sample. Mathematics Teaching Anxiety Scale (MATAS) and Beliefs About Mathematics Survey (BAMS) has been used as data collection tools. As a result of the study, it has been observed that prospective male teachers have more instrumentalist approach in learning mathematics than females according to their mathematical beliefs. On the other hand, females have more mathematics teaching anxiety than males especially, for subject knowledge in mathematics and selfconfidence.
Cultural Anxiety and Its Impact on Students- Life: A Case Study of International Students in Wuhan University
This article illustrates that how non similar culture become a cause of constant anxiety among international students in China. For that, a survey was carried out among international students of Wuhan University, China. The association among non similar culture, non familiarity of Chinese culture, self finance students and food problem is looked at through a regression line, and in the light of empirical results, a model is anticipated which elucidates these results. Some suggestions were directed at the end which will help to mitigate the anxiety among prospective students in Chinese universities.
Self-Efficacy, Anxiety, and Performance in the English Language among Middle-School Students in English Language Program in Satri Si Suriyothai School, Bangkok
This study investigated students- perception of self
efficacy and anxiety in acquiring English language, and consequently
examined the relationship existing among the independent variables,
confounding variables and students- performances in the English
language. The researcher tested the research hypotheses using a
sample group of 318 respondents out of the population size of 400
students. The results obtained revealed that there was a significant
moderate negative relationship between English language anxiety
and performance in English language, but no significant relationship
between self-efficacy and English language performance, among the
middle-school students. There was a significant moderate negative
relationship between English language anxiety and self-efficacy. It
was discovered that general self-efficacy and English language
anxiety represented a significantly more powerful set of predictors
than the set of confounding variables. Thus, the study concluded that
English language anxiety and general self-efficacy were significant
predictors of English language performance among middle-school
students in Satri Si Suriyothai School.
Anxiolytic-like Effects of Dichloromethane Extracts of Valerian (DEV) in Adult Male Wistar Rats
Anxiety is a common disorder that attacks many people in society and often accompanied by physiological sensations such as tachycardia, chest pain, shortness of breath, insensitivity and etc. The purpose of this study is to characterize the putative anxiolytic-like effects of DEV (dichloromethane extracts of valerian) using the elevated plus maze (EPM) in rats. DEV was dissolved in DMSO and orally administered at different doses to adult male wistar rats, 0.5, 1.5 and 3 hours before behavioral evaluation in an EPM respectively. Control rats were treated with an equal volume of DMSO. Single treatment of DEV (at 0.1,0.2. 0.3, and 0.4 g/kg) significantly increased time-spent and arm entries into open arms of EPM versus control groups (p<0.05).However, no changes in the locomotor activity ccured. This result suggests that DEV might prove to be an effective anxiolytic agent.
Assessing Pre-Service Teachers' Computer PhobiaLevels in terms of Gender and Experience, Turkish Sample
In this study it is aimed to determine the level of preservice teachers- computer phobia. Whether or not computer phobia meaningfully varies statistically according to gender and computer experience has been tested in the study. The study was performed on 430 pre-service teachers at the Education Faculty in Rize/Turkey. Data in the study were collected through the Computer Phobia Scale consisting of the “Personal Knowledge Questionnaire", “Computer Anxiety Rating Scale", and “Computer Thought Survey". In this study, data were analyzed with statistical processes such as t test, and correlation analysis. According to results of statistical analyses, computer phobia of male pre-service teachers does not statistically vary depending on their gender. Although male preservice teachers have higher computer anxiety scores, they have lower computer thought scores. It was also observed that there is a negative and intensive relation between computer experience and computer anxiety. Meanwhile it was found out that pre-service teachers using computer regularly indicated lower computer anxiety. Obtained results were tried to be discussed in terms of the number of computer classes in the Education Faculty curriculum, hours of computer class and the computer availability of student teachers.
Attachment Styles of Children Raised in Nursery vs. Those Who are Raised in the Family in Iran
In studies on psychological health and children-s personality development and in researches on emotional distresses, children-s behavioral disorders associated with mother deprivation, are known as the major cause of mental disorders. Therefore, for identification of children-s attachment styles in nursery-s children are of significant importance. For this purpose, to compare the attachment styles between children of nursery with those provided care by their families, the Separation Anxiety Test (SAT) of Slough and et al was administered on 72 children (36 in nursery and 36 family-cared). The results indicated, almost half of children in both groups have insecure attachment styles. Tendency ratio of both groups of children towards Secure and Ambivalent Insecure styles are almost the same. However the avoidant style of attachment in children of nursery is more than those provided care by their families. The children under family care compared to the children of nursery, in the situations of separation from their mothers in the first day of school and sleeping in their room, have shown more self reliance.