Bioremediation Potential in Recalcitrant Areas of PCE in Alluvial Fan Deposits
In the transition zone between aquifers and basal aquitards, the perchloroethene (PCE)-pools are more recalcitrant than those elsewhere in the aquifer. Although biodegradation of chloroethenes occur in this zone, it is a slow process and a remediation strategy is needed. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that combined strategy of biostimulation and in situ chemical reduction (ISCR) is more efficient than the two separated strategies. Four different microcosm experiments with sediment and groundwater of a selected field site where an aged pool exists at the bottom of a transition zone were designed under i) natural conditions, ii) biostimulation with lactic acid, iii) ISCR with zero-value iron (ZVI) and under iv) a combined strategy with lactic acid and ZVI. Biotic and abiotic dehalogenation, terminal electron acceptor processes and evolution of microbial communities were determined for each experiment. The main results were: i) reductive dehalogenation of PCE-pools occurs under sulfate-reducing conditions; ii) biostimulation with lactic acid supports more pronounced reductive dehalogenation of PCE and trichloroethene (TCE), but results in an accumulation of 1,2-cis-dichloroethene (cDCE); iii) ISCR with ZVI produces a sustained dehalogenation of PCE and its metabolites iv) combined strategy of biostimulation and ISCR results in a fast dehalogenation of PCE and TCE and a sustained dehalogenation of cisDCE. These findings suggest that biostimulation and ISCR with ZVI are the most suitable strategies for a complete reductive dehalogenation of PCE-pools in the transition zone and further to enable the dissolution of dense non-aqueous phase liquids.
Effect of Wind and Humidity on Microwave Links in North West Libya
The propagation of microwave is affected by rain and dust particles causing signal attenuation and de-polarization. Computations of these effects require knowledge of the propagation characteristics of microwave and millimeter wave energy in the climate conditions of the studied region. This paper presents effect of wind and humidity on wireless communication such as microwave links in the North West region of Libya (Al-Khoms). The experimental procedure is done on three selected antennae towers (Nagaza station, Al-Khoms center station, Al-Khoms gateway station) for determining the attenuation loss per unit length and cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) change. Dust particles are collected along the region of the study, to measure the particle size distribution (PSD), calculate the concentration, and chemically analyze the contents, then the dielectric constant can be calculated. The results show that humidity and dust, antenna height and the visibility affect both attenuation and phase shift; in which, a few considerations must be taken into account in the communication power budget.
Design Optimization of the Primary Containment Building of a Pressurized Water Reactor
Primary containment structure is one of the five safety layers of a nuclear facility which is needed to be designed in such a manner that it can withstand the pressure and excessive radioactivity during accidental situations. It is also necessary to ensure minimization of cost with maximum possible safety in order to make the design economically feasible and attractive. This paper attempts to identify the optimum design conditions for primary containment structure considering both mechanical and radiation safety keeping the economic aspects in mind. This work takes advantage of commercial simulation software to identify the suitable conditions without the requirement of costly experiments. Generated data may be helpful for further studies.
Anisotropic Total Fractional Order Variation Model in Seismic Data Denoising
In seismic data processing, attenuation of random noise
is the basic step to improve quality of data for further application
of seismic data in exploration and development in different gas
and oil industries. The signal-to-noise ratio of the data also highly
determines quality of seismic data. This factor affects the reliability
as well as the accuracy of seismic signal during interpretation
for different purposes in different companies. To use seismic data
for further application and interpretation, we need to improve the
signal-to-noise ration while attenuating random noise effectively.
To improve the signal-to-noise ration and attenuating seismic
random noise by preserving important features and information
about seismic signals, we introduce the concept of anisotropic
total fractional order denoising algorithm. The anisotropic total
fractional order variation model defined in fractional order bounded
variation is proposed as a regularization in seismic denoising. The
split Bregman algorithm is employed to solve the minimization
problem of the anisotropic total fractional order variation model
and the corresponding denoising algorithm for the proposed method
is derived. We test the effectiveness of theproposed method for
synthetic and real seismic data sets and the denoised result is
compared with F-X deconvolution and non-local means denoising
An Analysis of the Results of Trial Blasting of Site Development Project in the Volcanic Island
Trial blasting is conducted to identify the characteristics of the blasting of the applicable ground before production blasting and to investigate various problems posed by blasting. The methods and pattern of production blasting are determined based on an analysis of the results of trial blasting. The bedrock in Jeju Island, South Korea is formed through the volcanic activities unlike the inland areas, composed of porous basalt. Trial blasting showed that the blast vibration frequency of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks in the inland areas is in a high frequency band of about 80 Hz while the blast vibration frequency of Jeju Island is in a low frequency band of 10~25 Hz. The frequency band is analyzed to be low due to the large cycle of blasting pattern as blast vibration passes through the layered structured ground layer where the rock formation and clickers irregularly repeat. In addition, the blast vibration equation derived from trial blasting was R: 0.885, S.E: 0.216 when applying the square root scaled distance (SRSD) relatively suitable for long distance, estimated at the confidence level of 95%.
The Mass Attenuation Coefficients, Effective Atomic Cross Sections, Effective Atomic Numbers and Electron Densities of Some Halides
The total mass attenuation coefficients m/r, of some halides such as, NaCl, KCl, CuCl, NaBr, KBr, RbCl, AgCl, NaI, KI, AgBr, CsI, HgCl2, CdI2 and HgI2 were determined at photon energies 279.2, 320.07, 514.0, 661.6, 1115.5, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV in a well-collimated narrow beam good geometry set-up using a high resolution, hyper pure germanium detector. The mass attenuation coefficients and the effective atomic cross sections are found to be in good agreement with the XCOM values. From these mass attenuation coefficients, the effective atomic cross sections sa, of the compounds were determined. These effective atomic cross section sa data so obtained are then used to compute the effective atomic numbers Zeff. For this, the interpolation of total attenuation cross-sections of photons of energy E in elements of atomic number Z was performed by using the logarithmic regression analysis of the data measured by the authors and reported earlier for the above said energies along with XCOM data for standard energies. The best-fit coefficients in the photon energy range of 250 to 350 keV, 350 to 500 keV, 500 to 700 keV, 700 to 1000 keV and 1000 to 1500 keV by a piecewise interpolation method were then used to find the Zeff of the compounds with respect to the effective atomic cross section sa from the relation obtained by piece wise interpolation method. Using these Zeff values, the electron densities Nel of halides were also determined. The present Zeff and Nel values of halides are found to be in good agreement with the values calculated from XCOM data and other available published values.
Investigation of Regional Differences in Strong Ground Motions for the Iranian Plateau
Regional variations in strong ground motions for the Iranian Plateau have been investigated by using a simple statistical method called Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). In this respect, a large database consisting of 1157 records occurring within the Iranian Plateau with moment magnitudes of greater than or equal to 5 and Joyner-Boore distances up to 200 km has been considered. Geometric averages of horizontal peak ground accelerations (PGA) as well as 5% damped linear elastic response spectral accelerations (SA) at periods of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 sec are used as strong motion parameters. The initial database is divided into two different datasets, for Northern Iran (NI) and Central and Southern Iran (CSI). The comparison between strong ground motions of these two regions reveals that there is no evidence for significant differences; therefore, data from these two regions may be combined to estimate the unknown coefficients of attenuation relationships.
Development of Blast Vibration Equation Considering the Polymorphic Characteristics of Basaltic Ground
Geological structure formed by volcanic activities shows polymorphic characteristics due to repeated cooling and hardening of lava. The Jeju region is showing polymorphic characteristics in which clinker layers are irregularly distributed along with vesicular basalt due to volcanic activities. Accordingly, resident damages and environmental disputes occur frequently in the Jeju region due to blasting. The purpose of this study is to develop a blast vibration equation considering the polymorphic characteristics of basaltic ground in Jeju. The blast vibration equation consists of a functional formula of the blasting vibration constant K that changes according to ground characteristics, and attenuation index n. The case study results in Jeju showed that if there are clinker layers, attenuation index n showed a distribution of -1.32~-1.81, whereas if there are no clinker layers, n was -2.79. Moreover, if there are no clinker layers, the frequency of blast vibration showed a high frequency band from 30Hz to 100Hz, while in rocks with clinker layers it showed a low frequency band from 10Hz to 20Hz.
Ground Motion Modelling in Bangladesh Using Stochastic Method
Geological and tectonic framework indicates that
Bangladesh is one of the most seismically active regions in the world.
The Bengal Basin is at the junction of three major interacting plates:
the Indian, Eurasian, and Burma Plates. Besides there are many
active faults within the region, e.g. the large Dauki fault in the north.
The country has experienced a number of destructive earthquakes due
to the movement of these active faults. Current seismic provisions of
Bangladesh are mostly based on earthquake data prior to the 1990.
Given the record of earthquakes post 1990, there is a need to revisit
the design provisions of the code. This paper compares the base shear
demand of three major cities in Bangladesh: Dhaka (the capital city),
Sylhet, and Chittagong for earthquake scenarios of magnitudes
7.0MW, 7.5MW, 8.0MW, and 8.5MW using a stochastic model. In
particular, the stochastic model allows the flexibility to input region
specific parameters such as shear wave velocity profile (that were
developed from Global Crustal Model CRUST2.0) and include the
effects of attenuation as individual components. Effects of soil
amplification were analysed using the Extended Component
Attenuation Model (ECAM). Results show that the estimated base
shear demand is higher in comparison with code provisions leading to
the suggestion of additional seismic design consideration in the study
Classification of Precipitation Types Detected in Malaysia
The occurrences of precipitation, also commonly
referred as rain, in the form of "convective" and "stratiform" have
been identified to exist worldwide. In this study, the radar return
echoes or known as reflectivity values acquired from radar scans
have been exploited in the process of classifying the type of rain
endured. The investigation use radar data from Malaysian
Meteorology Department (MMD). It is possible to discriminate the
types of rain experienced in tropical region by observing the vertical
characteristics of the rain structure. .Heavy rain in tropical region
profoundly affects radiowave signals, causing transmission
interference and signal fading. Required wireless system fade margin
depends on the type of rain. Information relating to the two
mentioned types of rain is critical for the system engineers and
researchers in their endeavour to improve the reliability of
communication links. This paper highlights the quantification of
percentage occurrences over one year period in 2009.
Physical Parameter Based Compact Expression for Propagation Constant of SWCNT Interconnects
Novel compact expressions for propagation constant (γ) of SWCNT and bundled SWCNTs interconnect, in terms of physical parameters such as length, operating frequency and diameter of CNTs is proposed in this work. These simplified expressions enable physical insight and accurate estimation of signal attenuation level and its phase change at any length for a particular frequency. The proposed expressions are validated against SPICE simulated results of lumped as well as distributed equivalent electrical RLC nets of CNT interconnect. These expressions also help us to evaluate the cut off frequencies of SWCNTs for different interconnect lengths.
Effect of Geographical Co-Ordinates on the Parameters in the Rain Rate Model for Radio Propagation Applications
Rain attenuation plays a lot of roles in the design of satellite and terrestrial microwave radio links, hence a good knowledge of its effect is of great interest to Engineers and scientists in that it is often required to give a high level of accuracy of the rainrate distribution that expresses rainrate from the lowest value to the highest. This study proposes a model to express rainrate parameters alpha (α) and beta (β) as a function of geographical location at 0.01% of the time. The tropical locations used in the development of the effect were Ilorin, Ile-Ife, Douala, Dar-es-Selam, Nairobi, Lusaka, and Brazilia.
This expression clearly confirms the variability of rainfall from place to place. When consistency test was carried out using the expression to generate rainrate for each location examined, the result obtained was reliable for rain intensities between 5mm/h and 200mm/h. The variability of α and β with latitude also shows that different latitudes have different cumulative rain distribution. The model proposed in this study would be one of the useful tools to Radio Engineers since the precipitation effect in the design of satellite and terrestrial microwave radio links is among the factors to consider when designing communication systems.
Vibration Attenuation Using Functionally Graded Material
The aim of the work was to attenuate the vibration amplitude in CESNA 172 airplane wing by using Functionally Graded Material instead of uniform or composite material. Wing strength was achieved by means of stress analysis study, while wing vibration amplitudes and shapes were achieved by means of Modal and Harmonic analysis. Results were verified by applying the methodology in a simple cantilever plate to the simple model and the results were promising and the same methodology can be applied to the airplane wing model. Aluminum models, Titanium models, and functionally graded materials of Aluminum and titanium results were compared to show a great vibration attenuation after using the FGM. Optimization in FGM gradation satisfied our objective of reducing and attenuating the vibration amplitudes to show the effect of using FGM in vibration behavior. Testing the Aluminum rich models, and comparing it with the titanium rich model was an optimization in this paper. Results have shown a significant attenuation in vibration magnitudes when using FGM instead of Titanium Plate, and Aluminium wing with FGM Spurs instead of Aluminium wings. It was also recommended that in future, changing the graphical scale to 1:10 or even 1:1 when the computers- capabilities allow.
Propagation of Viscous Waves and Activation Energy of Hydrocarbon Fluids
The Euler-s equation of motion is extended to include
the viscosity stress tensor leading to the formulation of Navier–
Stokes type equation. The latter is linearized and applied to
investigate the rotational motion or vorticity in a viscous fluid.
Relations for the velocity of viscous waves and attenuation parameter
are obtained in terms of viscosity (μ) and the density (¤ü) of the fluid.
μ and ¤ü are measured experimentally as a function of temperature for
two different samples of light and heavy crude oil. These data
facilitated to determine the activation energy, velocity of viscous
wave and the attenuation parameter. Shear wave velocity in heavy oil
is found to be much larger than the light oil, whereas the attenuation
parameter in heavy oil is quite low in comparison to light one. The
activation energy of heavy oil is three times larger than light oil.
Active Control for Reduction of Noise Passing through Enclosure and Optimization of Microphone Position
In this study, noise characteristics of structure were analyzed in an effort to reduce noise passing through an opening of an
enclosure surrounding the structure that generates noise. Enclosures
are essential measure to protect noise propagation from operating machinery. Access openings of the enclosures are important path of noise leakage. First, noise characteristics of structure were analyzed
and feed-forward noise control was performed using simulation in
order to reduce noise passing through the opening of enclosure, which
surrounds a structure generating noise. We then implemented a
feed-forward controller to actively control the acoustic power through
the opening. Finally, we conducted optimization of placement of the
reference sensors for several cases of the number of sensors. Good
control performances were achieved using the minimum number of microphones arranged an optimal placement.
Cold Analysis for Dispersion, Attenuation and RF Efficiency Characteristics of a Gyrotron Cavity
In the present paper, a gyrotron cavity is analyzed in the absence of electron beam for dispersion, attenuation and RF efficiency. For all these characteristics, azimuthally symmetric TE0n modes have been considered. The attenuation characteristics for TE0n modes indicated decrease in attenuation constant as the frequency is increased. Interestingly, the lowest order TE01 mode resulted in lowest attenuation. Further, three different cavity wall materials have been selected for attenuation characteristics. The cavity made of material with higher conductivity resulted in lower attenuation. The effect of material electrical conductivity on the RF efficiency has also been observed and has been found that the RF efficiency rapidly decreases as the electrical conductivity of the cavity material decreases. The RF efficiency rapidly decreases with increasing diffractive quality factor. The ohmic loss variation as a function of frequency of operation for three different cavities made of copper, aluminum and nickel has been observed. The ohmic losses are lowest for the copper cavity and hence the highest RF efficiency.
Analysis and Performance Evaluation of Noise-Reduction Transformer
The present paper deals with the analysis and development of noise-reduction transformer that has a filter function for conductive noise transmission. Two types of prototype noise-reduction transformers with two different output voltages are proposed. To determine an optimum design for the noise-reduction transformer, noise attenuation characteristics are discussed based on the experiments and the equivalent circuit analysis. The analysis gives a relation between the circuit parameters and the noise attenuation. High performance step-down noise-reduction transformer for direct power supply to electronics equipment is developed. The input voltage of the transformer is 100 V and the output voltage is 5 V. Frequency characteristics of noise attenuation are discussed, and prevention of pulse noise transmission is demonstrated. Normal mode noise attenuation of this transformer is –80 dB, and common mode exceeds –90 dB. The step-down noise-reduction transformer eliminates pulse noise efficiently.
Study on Radio Link Availability in Millimeter Wave Range
In this paper, the link quality in SHF and EHF ranges
are studied. In order to achieve high data rate higher frequencies must
be used – centimeter waves (SHF), millimeter waves (EHF) or optical
range. However, there are significant problem when a radio link work
in that diapason – rain attenuation and attenuation in earth-s
atmosphere. Based on statistical rain rates data for Bulgaria, the link
availability can be determined, depending on the working frequency,
the path length and the Power Budget of the link. For the calculations
of rain attenuation and atmosphere-s attenuation the ITU
recommendations are used.
Determination and Assessment of Ground Motion and Spectral Parameters for Iran
Many studies have been conducted for derivation of
attenuation relationships worldwide, however few relationships have
been developed to use for the seismic region of Iranian plateau and
only few of these studies have been conducted for derivation of
attenuation relationships for parameters such as uniform duration.
Uniform duration is the total time during which the acceleration is
larger than a given threshold value (default is 5% of PGA). In this
study, the database was same as that used previously by Ghodrati
Amiri et al. (2007) with same correction methods for earthquake
records in Iran. However in this study, records from earthquakes with
MS< 4.0 were excluded from this database, each record has
individually filtered afterward, and therefore the dataset has been
expanded. These new set of attenuation relationships for Iran are
derived based on tectonic conditions with soil classification into rock
and soil. Earthquake parameters were chosen to be
hypocentral distance and magnitude in order to make it easier to use
the relationships for seismic hazard analysis. Tehran is the capital
city of Iran wit ha large number of important structures. In this study,
a probabilistic approach has been utilized for seismic hazard
assessment of this city. The resulting uniform duration against return
period diagrams are suggested to be used in any projects in the area.
Analysing of Indoor Radio Wave Propagation on Ad-hoc Network by Using TP-LINK Router
This paper presents results of measurements campaign
carried out at a carrier frequency of 24GHz with the help of TPLINK
router in indoor line-of-sight (LOS) scenarios. Firstly, the
radio wave propagation strategies are analyzed in some rooms with
router of point to point Ad hoc network. Then floor attenuation is
defined for 3 floors in experimental region. The free space model and
dual slope models are modified by considering the influence of
corridor conditions on each floor. Using these models, indoor signal
attenuation can be estimated in modeling of indoor radio wave
propagation. These results and modified models can also be used in
planning the networks of future personal communications services.
Estimation of Attenuation and Phase Delay in Driving Voltage Waveform of a Digital-Noiseless, Ultra-High-Speed Image Sensor
Since 2004, we have been developing an in-situ storage image sensor (ISIS) that captures more than 100 consecutive images at a frame rate of 10 Mfps with ultra-high sensitivity as well as the video camera for use with this ISIS. Currently, basic research is continuing in an attempt to increase the frame rate up to 100 Mfps and above. In order to suppress electro-magnetic noise at such high frequency, a digital-noiseless imaging transfer scheme has been developed utilizing solely sinusoidal driving voltages. This paper presents highly efficient-yet-accurate expressions to estimate attenuation as well as phase delay of driving voltages through RC networks of an ultra-high-speed image sensor. Elmore metric for a fundamental RC chain is employed as the first-order approximation. By application of dimensional analysis to SPICE data, we found a simple expression that significantly improves the accuracy of the approximation. Similarly, another simple closed-form model to estimate phase delay through fundamental RC networks is also obtained. Estimation error of both expressions is much less than previous works, only less 2% for most of the cases . The framework of this analysis can be extended to address similar issues of other VLSI structures.
Estimation of Attenuation and Phase Delay in Driving Voltage Waveform of an Ultra-High-Speed Image Sensor by Dimensional Analysis
We present an explicit expression to estimate driving voltage attenuation through RC networks representation of an ultrahigh- speed image sensor. Elmore delay metric for a fundamental RC chain is employed as the first-order approximation. By application of dimensional analysis to SPICE simulation data, we found a simple expression that significantly improves the accuracy of the approximation. Estimation error of the resultant expression for uniform RC networks is less than 2%. Similarly, another simple closed-form model to estimate 50 % delay through fundamental RC networks is also derived with sufficient accuracy. The framework of this analysis can be extended to address delay or attenuation issues of other VLSI structures.
A Quantitative Analysis of GSM Air Interface Based on Radiating Columns and Prediction Model
This paper explains the cause of nonlinearity in floor
attenuation hither to left unexplained. The performance degradation
occurring in air interface for GSM signals is quantitatively analysed
using the concept of Radiating Columns of buildings. The signal
levels were measured using Wireless Network Optimising Drive Test
Tool (E6474A of Agilent Technologies). The measurements were
taken in reflected signal environment under usual fading conditions
on actual GSM signals radiated from base stations. A mathematical
model is derived from the measurements to predict the GSM signal
levels in different floors. It was applied on three buildings and found
that the predicted signal levels deviated from the measured levels
with in +/- 2 dB for all floors. It is more accurate than the prediction
models based on Floor Attenuation Factor. It can be used for
planning proper indoor coverage in multi storey buildings.
Sediment Fixation of Arsenic in the Ash Lagoon of a Coal-Fired Power Plant, Philippines
Arsenic in the sediments of the ash lagoons of the coal-fired power plant in Pagbilao, Quezon Province in the Philippines was sequentially extracted to determine its potential for leaching to the groundwater and the adjacent marine environment. Results show that 89% of the As is bound to the quasi-crystalline Fe/Mn oxides and hydroxide matrix in the sediments, whereas, the adsorbed and exchangeable As hosted by the clay minerals, representing those that are easiest to release from the sediment matrix, is below 10% of the acid leachable As. These As in these sediment matrices represent the possible maximum amount of As that can be released and supplied to the groundwater and the adjacent marine environment. Of the 89% reducible As, up to 4% is associated with the easily reducible variety, whereas, the rest is more strongly bonded by the moderately reducible variety. Based on the long-term As content of the lagoon water, the average desorption rate of As is calculated to be very low -- 0.3-0.5% on the average and 0.6% on the maximum. This indicates that As is well-fixed by its sediment matrices in the ash lagoon, attenuating the influx of As into the adjacent groundwater and marine environments.
Performance Evaluation of Single-mode and Multimode Fiber in LAN Environment
Optical networks are high capacity networks that meet
the rapidly growing demand for bandwidth in the terrestrial
telecommunications industry. This paper studies and evaluates singlemode
and multimode fiber transmission by varying the distance. It
focuses on their performance in LAN environment. This is achieved
by observing the pulse spreading and attenuation in optical spectrum
and eye-diagram that are obtained using OptSim simulator. The
behaviors of two modes with different distance of data transmission
are studied, evaluated and compared.
Attenuation in Transferred RF Power to a Biomedical Implant due to the Misalignment Coils
In biomedical implant field, a new formula is given
for the study of Radio Frequency power attenuation by simultaneous
effects of side and angular misalignment of the supply/data transfer
coils. A confrontation with the practical measurements done into a
Faraday cage, allowed a checking of the obtained theoretical results.
The DC supply systems without material connection and the data
transmitters used in the case of biomedical implants, can be well
dimensioned by taking into account the possibility of power
attenuation by misalignment of transfer coils
Attenuation in Transferred RF Power to a Biomedical Implant due to the Absorption of Biological Tissue
In a transcutanious inductive coupling of a biomedical
implant, a new formula is given for the study of the Radio Frequency
power attenuation by the biological tissue. The loss of the signal
power is related to its interaction with the biological tissue and the
composition of this one. A confrontation with the practical
measurements done with a synthetic muscle into a Faraday cage,
allowed a checking of the obtained theoretical results. The
supply/data transfer systems used in the case of biomedical implants,
can be well dimensioned by taking in account this type of power
Fade Dynamics Investigation Applying Statistics of Fade Duration and Level Crossing Rate
The impact of rain attenuation on wireless communication signals is predominant because of the used high frequency (above 10 GHz). The knowledge of statistics of attenuation is very important for planning point-to-point microwave links operating in high frequency band. Describing the statistics of attenuation is possible for instance with fade duration or level crossing rate. In our examination we determine these statistics from one year measured data for a given microwave link, and we are going to make an attempt to transform the level crossing rate statistic to fade duration statistic.