Multi-Modal Visualization of Working Instructions for Assembly Operations
Growing individualization and higher numbers of
variants in industrial assembly products raise the complexity of
manufacturing processes. Technical assistance systems considering
both procedural and human factors allow for an increase in product
quality and a decrease in required learning times by supporting
workers with precise working instructions. Due to varying needs of
workers, the presentation of working instructions leads to several
challenges. This paper presents an approach for a multi-modal
visualization application to support assembly work of complex parts.
Our approach is integrated within an interconnected assistance system
network and supports the presentation of cloud-streamed textual
instructions, images, videos, 3D animations and audio files along
with multi-modal user interaction, customizable UI, multi-platform
support (e.g. tablet-PC, TV screen, smartphone or Augmented Reality
devices), automated text translation and speech synthesis. The worker
benefits from more accessible and up-to-date instructions presented
in an easy-to-read way.
Augmenting History: Case Study Measuring Motivation of Students Using Augmented Reality Apps in History Classes
Due to the rapid advances in the use of information technology and students’ familiarity with technology, learning styles in higher education are being reshaped. One of the technology developments that has gained considerable attention in recent years is Augmented Reality (AR), where technology is used to combine overlays of digital data on physical real-world settings. While AR is being heavily promoted for entertainment by mobile phone manufacturers, it has had little adoption in higher education due to the required upfront investment that an instructor needs to undertake in creating relevant AR applications. This paper discusses a case study that uses a low upfront development approach and examines the impact on generation-Z students’ motivation whilst studying design history over a four-semester period. Even though the upfront investment in creating the AR support was minimal, the results showed a noticeable increase in student motivation. The approach used in this paper can be easily transferred to other disciplines and other areas of design education.
Applying Augmented Reality Technology for an E-Learning System
Over the past 20 years, technology was rapidly developed and no one expected what will come next. Advancements in technology open new opportunities for immersive learning environments. There is a need to transmit education to a level that makes it more effective for the student. Augmented reality is one of the most popular technologies these days. This paper is an experience of applying Augmented Reality (AR) technology using a marker-based approach in E-learning system to transmitting virtual objects into the real-world scenes. We present a marker-based approach for transmitting virtual objects into real-world scenes to explain information in a better way after we developed a mobile phone application. The mobile phone application was then tested on students to determine the extent to which it encouraged them to learn and understand the subjects. In this paper, we talk about how the beginnings of AR, the fields using AR, how AR is effective in education, the spread of AR these days and the architecture of our work. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to prove how creating an interactive e-learning system using AR technology will encourage students to learn more.
Simplified Mobile AR Platform Design for Augmented Tourism
This study outlines iterations of designing mobile augmented reality (MAR) applications for tourism specific contexts. Using a design based research model, several cycles of development to implementation were analyzed and refined upon with the goal of building a MAR platform that would facilitate the creation of augmented tours and environments by non-technical users. The project took on several stages, and through the process, a simple framework was begun to be established that can inform the design and use of MAR applications for tourism contexts. As a result of these iterations of development, a platform was developed that can allow novice computer users to create augmented tourism environments. This system was able to connect existing tools in widespread use such as Google Forms and connect them to computer vision algorithms needed for more advanced augmented tourism environments. The study concludes with a discussion of this MAR platform and reveals design elements that have implications for tourism contexts. The study also points to future case uses and design approaches for augmented tourism.
An Overview of Evaluations Using Augmented Reality for Assembly Training Tasks
Augmented Reality (AR) is a strong growing research topic in different training domains such as medicine, sports, military, education and industrial use cases like assembly and maintenance tasks. AR claims to improve the efficiency and skill-transfer of training tasks. This paper gives a comprehensive overview of evaluations using AR for assembly and maintenance training tasks published between 1992 and 2017. We search in a structured way in four different online databases and get 862 results. We select 17 relevant articles focusing on evaluating AR-based training applications for assembly and maintenance tasks. This paper also indicates design guidelines which are necessary for creating a successful application for an AR-based training. We also present five scientific limitations in the field of AR-based training for assembly tasks. Finally, we show our approach to solve current research problems using Design Science Research (DSR).
Augmented Reality Sandbox and Constructivist Approach for Geoscience Teaching and Learning
Augmented reality sandbox adds new dimensions to education and learning process. It can be a core component of geoscience teaching and learning to understand the geographic contexts and landform processes. Augmented reality sandbox is a useful tool not only to create an interactive learning environment through spatial visualization but also it can provide an active learning experience to students and enhances the cognition process of learning. Augmented reality sandbox can be used as an interactive learning tool to teach geomorphic and landform processes. This article explains the augmented reality sandbox and the constructivism approach for geoscience teaching and learning, and endeavours to explore the ways to teach the geographic processes using the three-dimensional digital environment for the deep learning of the geoscience concepts interactively.
Enhanced Planar Pattern Tracking for an Outdoor Augmented Reality System
In this paper, a scalable augmented reality framework for handheld devices is presented. The presented framework is enabled by using a server-client data communication structure, in which the search for tracking targets among a database of images is performed on the server-side while pixel-wise 3D tracking is performed on the client-side, which, in this case, is a handheld mobile device. Image search on the server-side adopts a residual-enhanced image descriptors representation that gives the framework a scalability property. The tracking algorithm on the client-side is based on a gravity-aligned feature descriptor which takes the advantage of a sensor-equipped mobile device and an optimized intensity-based image alignment approach that ensures the accuracy of 3D tracking. Automatic content streaming is achieved by using a key-frame selection algorithm, client working phase monitoring and standardized rules for content communication between the server and client. The recognition accuracy test performed on a standard dataset shows that the method adopted in the presented framework outperforms the Bag-of-Words (BoW) method that has been used in some of the previous systems. Experimental test conducted on a set of video sequences indicated the real-time performance of the tracking system with a frame rate at 15-30 frames per second. The presented framework is exposed to be functional in practical situations with a demonstration application on a campus walk-around.
Augmenting Navigational Aids: The Development of an Assistive Maritime Navigation Application
On the bridge of a ship the officers are looking for visual aids to guide navigation in order to reconcile the outside world with the position communicated by the digital navigation system. Aids to navigation include: Lighthouses, lightships, sector lights, beacons, buoys, and others. They are designed to help navigators calculate their position, establish their course or avoid dangers. In poor visibility and dense traffic areas, it can be very difficult to identify these critical aids to guide navigation. The paper presents the usage of Augmented Reality (AR) as a means to present digital information about these aids to support navigation. To date, nautical navigation related mobile AR applications have been limited to the leisure industry. If proved viable, this prototype can facilitate the creation of other similar applications that could help commercial officers with navigation. While adopting a user centered design approach, the team has developed the prototype based on insights from initial research carried on board of several ships. The prototype, built on Nexus 9 tablet and Wikitude, features a head-up display of the navigational aids (lights) in the area, presented in AR and a bird’s eye view mode presented on a simplified map. The application employs the aids to navigation data managed by Hydrographic Offices and the tablet’s sensors: GPS, gyroscope, accelerometer, compass and camera. Sea trials on board of a Navy and a commercial ship revealed the end-users’ interest in using the application and further possibility of other data to be presented in AR. The application calculates the GPS position of the ship, the bearing and distance to the navigational aids; all within a high level of accuracy. However, during testing several issues were highlighted which need to be resolved as the prototype is developed further. The prototype stretched the capabilities of Wikitude, loading over 500 objects during tests in a major port. This overloaded the display and required over 45 seconds to load the data. Therefore, extra filters for the navigational aids are being considered in order to declutter the screen. At night, the camera is not powerful enough to distinguish all the lights in the area. Also, magnetic interference with the bridge of the ship generated a continuous compass error of the AR display that varied between 5 and 12 degrees. The deviation of the compass was consistent over the whole testing durations so the team is now looking at the possibility of allowing users to manually calibrate the compass. It is expected that for the usage of AR in professional maritime contexts, further development of existing AR tools and hardware is needed. Designers will also need to implement a user-centered design approach in order to create better interfaces and display technologies for enhanced solutions to aid navigation.
Exploring Pisa Monuments Using Mobile Augmented Reality
Augmented Reality (AR) has taken a big leap with the introduction of mobile applications which co-locate bi-dimensional (e.g. photo, video, text) and tridimensional information with the location of the user enriching his/her experience. This study presents the advantages of using Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR) technologies in traveling applications, improving cultural heritage exploration. We propose a location-based AR application which combines co-location with the augmented visual information about Pisa monuments to establish a friendly navigation in this historic city. AR was used to render contextual visual information in the outdoor environment. The developed Android-based application offers two different options: it provides the ability to identify the monuments positioned close to the user’s position and it offers location information for getting near the key touristic objectives. We present the process of creating the monuments’ 3D map database and the navigation algorithm.
Augmented Reality and Storytelling in Cities: An Application to Lisbon Street Art
Cities are spaces of memory with several zones (parts of cities) with their own history and cultural events. Today, cities are also marked by a form of intangible cultural heritage like street art, which creates a visual culture based on the process of reflection about the city and the world. To link these realities and create a personal user interaction with this cultural heritage it is important to capture the story and aesthetics, and find alternatives to immerse the user in these spaces of memory. To that end, this article presents a project which combines Augmented Reality technologies and concepts of Transmedia Storytelling applied to Lisbon City, using Street Art artifacts as markers in a framework of digital media-art.
Evaluation of AR-4BL-MAST with Multiple Markers Interaction Technique for Augmented Reality Based Engineering Application
Augmented reality (AR) technology has the capability to provide many benefits in the field of education as a modern technology which aided learning and improved the learning experience. This paper evaluates AR based application with multiple markers interaction technique (touch-to-print) which is designed for analyzing the kinematics of 4BL mechanism in mechanical engineering. The application is termed as AR-4BL-MAST and it allows the users to touch the symbols on a paper in natural way of interaction. The evaluation of this application was performed with mechanical engineering students and human–computer interaction (HCI) experts to test its effectiveness as a tangible user interface application where the statistical results show its ability as an interaction technique, and it gives the users more freedom in interaction with the virtual mechanical objects.
Development Framework Based on Mobile Augmented Reality for Pre-Literacy Kit
Mobile technology, augmented reality, and game-based learning are some of the key learning technologies that can be fully optimized to promote pre-literacy skills. The problem is how to design an effective pre-literacy kit that utilizes some of the learning technologies. This paper presents a framework based on mobile augmented reality for the development of pre-literacy kit. This pre-literacy kit incorporates three main components which are contents, design, and tools. A prototype of a mobile app based on the three main components was developed for promoting pre-literacy. The results show that the children and teachers gave positive feedbacks after using the mobile app for the pre-literacy.
Augmented Reality for Maintenance Operator for Problem Inspections
Current production-oriented factories need maintenance operators to work in shifts monitoring and inspecting complex systems and different equipment in the situation of mechanical breakdown. Augmented reality (AR) is an emerging technology that embeds data into the environment for situation awareness to help maintenance operators make decisions and solve problems. An application was designed to identify the problem of steam generators and inspection centrifugal pumps. The objective of this research was to find the best medium of AR and type of problem solving strategies among analogy, focal object method and mean-ends analysis. Two scenarios of inspecting leakage were temperature and vibration. Two experiments were used in usability evaluation and future innovation, which included decision-making process and problem-solving strategy. This study found that maintenance operators prefer build-in magnifier to zoom the components (55.6%), 3D exploded view to track the problem parts (50%), and line chart to find the alter data or information (61.1%). There is a significant difference in the use of analogy (44.4%), focal objects (38.9%) and mean-ends strategy (16.7%). The marked differences between maintainers and operators are of the application of a problem solving strategy. However, future work should explore multimedia information retrieval which supports maintenance operators for decision-making.
Mobile Augmented Reality for Collaboration in Operation
Mobile augmented reality (MAR) tracking targets from the surroundings and aids operators for interactive data and procedures visualization, potential equipment and system understandably. Operators remotely communicate and coordinate with each other for the continuous tasks, information and data exchange between control room and work-site. In the routine work, distributed control system (DCS) monitoring and work-site manipulation require operators interact in real-time manners. The critical question is the improvement of user experience in cooperative works through applying Augmented Reality in the traditional industrial field. The purpose of this exploratory study is to find the cognitive model for the multiple task performance by MAR. In particular, the focus will be on the comparison between different tasks and environment factors which influence information processing. Three experiments use interface and interaction design, the content of start-up, maintenance and stop embedded in the mobile application. With the evaluation criteria of time demands and human errors, and analysis of the mental process and the behavior action during the multiple tasks, heuristic evaluation was used to find the operators performance with different situation factors, and record the information processing in recognition, interpretation, judgment and reasoning. The research will find the functional properties of MAR and constrain the development of the cognitive model. Conclusions can be drawn that suggest MAR is easy to use and useful for operators in the remote collaborative works.
A Fast Silhouette Detection Algorithm for Shadow Volumes in Augmented Reality
Real-time shadow generation in virtual environments
and Augmented Reality (AR) was always a hot topic in the last
three decades. Lots of calculation for shadow generation among AR
needs a fast algorithm to overcome this issue and to be capable of
implementing in any real-time rendering. In this paper, a silhouette
detection algorithm is presented to generate shadows for AR systems.
Δ+ algorithm is presented based on extending edges of occluders
to recognize which edges are silhouettes in the case of real-time
rendering. An accurate comparison between the proposed algorithm
and current algorithms in silhouette detection is done to show the
reduction calculation by presented algorithm. The algorithm is tested
in both virtual environments and AR systems. We think that this
algorithm has the potential to be a fundamental algorithm for shadow
generation in all complex environments.
Augmented Reality in Advertising and Brand Communication: An Experimental Study
Digital technologies offer many opportunities in the
design and implementation of brand communication and advertising.
Augmented reality (AR) is an innovative technology in marketing
communication that focuses on the fact that virtual interaction with a
product ad offers additional value to consumers. AR enables
consumers to obtain (almost) real product experiences by the way of
virtual information even before the purchase of a certain product.
Aim of AR applications in relation with advertising is in-depth
examination of product characteristics to enhance product knowledge
as well as brand knowledge. Interactive design of advertising
provides observers with an intense examination of a specific
advertising message and therefore leads to better brand knowledge.
The elaboration likelihood model and the central route to persuasion
strongly support this argumentation. Nevertheless, AR in brand
communication is still in an initial stage and therefore scientific
findings about the impact of AR on information processing and brand
attitude are rare. The aim of this paper is to empirically investigate
the potential of AR applications in combination with traditional print
advertising. To that effect an experimental design with different
levels of interactivity is built to measure the impact of interactivity of
an ad on different variables o advertising effectiveness.
Applying Theory of Inventive Problem Solving to Develop Innovative Solutions: A Case Study
Good service design can increase organization revenue and consumer satisfaction while reducing labor and time costs. The problems facing consumers in the original serve model for eyewear and optical industry includes the following issues: 1. Insufficient information on eyewear products 2. Passively dependent on recommendations, insufficient selection 3. Incomplete records on progression of vision conditions 4. Lack of complete customer records. This study investigates the case of Kobayashi Optical, applying the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) to develop innovative solutions for eyewear and optical industry. Analysis results raise the following conclusions and management implications: In order to provide customers with improved professional information and recommendations, Kobayashi Optical is suggested to establish customer purchasing records. Overall service efficiency can be enhanced by applying data mining techniques to analyze past consumer preferences and purchase histories. Furthermore, Kobayashi Optical should continue to develop a 3D virtual trial service which can allow customers for easy browsing of different frame styles and colors. This 3D virtual trial service will save customer waiting times in during peak service times at stores.
An Augmented-Reality Interactive Card Game for Teaching Elementary School Students
Game-based learning can enhance the learning
motivation of students and provide a means for them to learn through
playing games. This study used augmented reality technology to
develop an interactive card game as a game-based teaching aid for
delivering elementary school science course content with the aim of
enhancing student learning processes and outcomes. Through playing
the proposed card game, students can familiarize themselves with
appearance, features, and foraging behaviors of insects. The system
records the actions of students, enabling teachers to determine their
students’ learning progress. In this study, 37 students participated in an
assessment experiment and provided feedback through questionnaires.
Their responses indicated that they were significantly more motivated
to learn after playing the game, and their feedback was mostly
Improvement of Realization Quality of Aerospace Products Using Augmented Reality Technology
In the aviation industry, many faults may occur frequently during the maintenance processes and assembly operations of complex structured aircrafts because of their high dependencies of components. These faults affect the quality of aircraft parts or developed modules adversely. Technical employee requires long time and high labor force while checking the correctness of each component. In addition, the person must be trained regularly because of the ever-growing and changing technology. Generally, the cost of this training is very high. Augmented Reality (AR) technology reduces the cost of training radically and improves the effectiveness of the training. In this study, the usage of AR technology in the aviation industry has been investigated and the effectiveness of AR with heads-up display glasses has been examined. An application has been developed for comparison of production process with AR and manual one.
Factory Virtual Environment Development for Augmented and Virtual Reality
Machine visualization is an area of interest with fast
and progressive development. We present a method of machine
visualization which will be applicable in real industrial conditions
according to current needs and demands. Real factory data were
obtained in a newly built research plant. Methods described in this
paper were validated on a case study. Input data were processed and
the virtual environment was created. The environment contains
information about dimensions, structure, disposition, and function.
Hardware was enhanced by modular machines, prototypes, and
accessories. We added functionalities and machines into the virtual
environment. The user is able to interact with objects such as testing
and cutting machines, he/she can operate and move them. Proposed
design consists of an environment with two degrees of freedom of
movement. Users are in touch with items in the virtual world which
are embedded into the real surroundings. This paper describes development of the virtual environment. We
compared and tested various options of factory layout virtualization
and visualization. We analyzed possibilities of using a 3D scanner in
the layout obtaining process and we also analyzed various virtual
reality hardware visualization methods such as: Stereoscopic (CAVE)
projection, Head Mounted Display (HMD) and augmented reality
(AR) projection provided by see-through glasses.
The Next Frontier for Mobile Based Augmented Reality: An Evaluation of AR Uptake in India
Augmented and Virtual Realties is quickly becoming
a hotbed of activity with millions of dollars being spent on R & D
and companies such as Google and Microsoft rushing to stake their
claim. Augmented reality (AR) is however marching ahead due to the
spread of the ideal AR device – the smartphone. Despite its potential,
there remains a deep digital divide between the Developed and
Developing Countries. The Technological Acceptance Model (TAM)
and Hofstede cultural dimensions also predict the behaviour intention
to uptake AR in India will be large. This paper takes a quantified
approach by collecting 340 survey responses to AR scenarios and
analyzing them through statistics. The Survey responses show that
the Intention to Use, Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Enjoyment
dimensions are high among the urban population in India. This along
with the exponential smartphone indicates that India is on the cusp of
a boom in the AR sector.
Development of a Catalogs System for Augmented Reality Applications
Augmented Reality is a technology that involves the
overlay of virtual content, which is context or environment sensitive,
on images of the physical world in real time. This paper presents the
development of a catalog system that facilitates and allows the
creation, publishing, management and exploitation of augmented
multimedia contents and Augmented Reality applications, creating an
own space for anyone that wants to provide information to real
objects in order to edit and share it then online with others. These
spaces would be built for different domains without the initial need of
expert users. Its operation focuses on the context of Web 2.0 or
Social Web, with its various applications, developing contents to
enrich the real context in which human beings act permitting the
evolution of catalog’s contents in an emerging way.
Multiplayer RC-Car Driving System in a Collaborative Augmented Reality Environment
We developed a prototype system for multiplayer RC-car driving in a collaborative augmented reality (AR) environment. The tele-existence environment is constructed by superimposing digital data onto images captured by a camera on an RC-car, enabling players to experience an augmented coexistence of the digital content and the real world. Marker-based tracking was used for estimating position and orientation of the camera. The plural RC-cars can be operated in a field where square markers are arranged. The video images captured by the camera are transmitted to a PC for visual tracking. The RC-cars are also tracked by using an infrared camera attached to the ceiling, so that the instability is reduced in the visual tracking. Multimedia data such as texts and graphics are visualized to be overlaid onto the video images in the geometrically correct manner. The prototype system allows a tele-existence sensation to be augmented in a collaborative AR environment.
Alive Cemeteries with Augmented Reality and Semantic Web Technologies
Due the proliferation of smartphones in everyday use, several different outdoor navigation systems have become available. Since these smartphones are able to connect to the Internet, the users can obtain location-based information during the navigation as well. The users could interactively get to know the specifics of a particular area (for instance, ancient cultural area, Statue Park, cemetery) with the help of thus obtained information. In this paper, we present an Augmented Reality system which uses Semantic Web technologies and is based on the interaction between the user and the smartphone. The system allows navigating through a specific area and provides information and details about the sight an interactive manner.
Selection of a Tower Crane Using Augmented Reality in Smart Devices
Appropriate selection of lifting equipments for a high-rise building construction project is one of the important factors to the project’s success. Proper position of a tower crane on a construction site is so important to be determined by an expert or an experienced construction manager who draws working range of a tower crane and moves it over a 2D (dimensional) site layout plan. But it is not usual to use 3D CAD, BIM or virtual reality for temporary facility planning or selection of a tower crane. This study proposes a method to use augmented reality to select proper position of tower cranes. An augmented reality prototype is implemented on a smart device to verify the practicability of the proposed method.
Augmented Reality on Android
Augmented Reality is an application which combines a live view of real-world environment and computer-generated images. This paper studies and demonstrates an efficient Augmented Reality development in the mobile Android environment with the native Java language and Android SDK. Major components include Barcode Reader, File Loader, Marker Detector, Transform Matrix Generator, and a cloud database.
Intelligent Control of Robotized Workcell by Augmented Reality Application
The computer aided for design, analysis, control, visualization and simulation of robotized workcells is very interesting in this time. Computer Aided Robot Control (CARC) is a subsystem of the system CIM including the computer aided systems of all activities connected with visualization and working of robotized workcells. There are three basic ideas: current CAD/CAM/CAE systems for design and 3D visualization, special PC based control and simulation systems and Augmented Reality Aided Manufacturing (ARAM) systems. This paper describes example of Open Source software application that can to be utilized at planning of the robotized workcells, visualization and off-line programming the automated processes realized by authors.
Application of Augmented Reality for Simulation of Robotized Workcell Activity
Augmented Reality (AR) shows great promises for
its usage as a tool for simulation and verification of design proposal
of new technological systems. Main advantage of augmented reality
application usage is possibility of creation and simulation of new
technological unit before its realization. This may contribute to
increasing of safety and ergonomics and decreasing of economical
aspects of new proposed unit. Virtual model of proposed workcell
could reveal hidden errors which elimination in later stage of new
workcell creation should cause great difficulties. Paper describes
process of such virtual model creation and possibilities of its
simulation and verification by augmented reality tools.
Classification of the Latin Alphabet as Pattern on ARToolkit Markers for Augmented Reality Applications
augmented reality is a technique used to insert virtual objects in real scenes. One of the most used libraries in the area is the ARToolkit library. It is based on the recognition of the markers that are in the form of squares with a pattern inside. This pattern which is mostly textual is source of confusing. In this paper, we present the results of a classification of Latin characters as a pattern on the ARToolkit markers to know the most distinguishable among them.
Augmented Reality Interaction System in 3D Environment
It is important to give input information without other device in AR system. One solution is using hand for augmented reality application. Many researchers have proposed different solutions for hand interface in augmented reality. Analyze Histogram and connecting factor is can be example for that. Various Direction searching is one of robust way to recognition hand but it takes too much calculating time. And background should be distinguished with skin color. This paper proposes a hand tracking method to control the 3D object in augmented reality using depth device and skin color. Also in this work discussed relationship between several markers, which is based on relationship between camera and marker. One marker used for displaying virtual object and three markers for detecting hand gesture and manipulating the virtual object.