Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 12

12
10004476
A Prediction Method for Large-Size Event Occurrences in the Sandpile Model
Abstract:

In this research, the occurrences of large size events in various system sizes of the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model are considered. The system sizes (square lattice) of model considered here are 25×25, 50×50, 75×75 and 100×100. The cross-correlation between the ratio of sites containing 3 grain time series and the large size event time series for these 4 system sizes are also analyzed. Moreover, a prediction method of the large-size event for the 50×50 system size is also introduced. Lastly, it can be shown that this prediction method provides a slightly higher efficiency than random predictions.

11
10002549
The Genesis of the Anomalous Sernio Fan, Valtellina, Northern Italy
Abstract:
Massive rock avalanches formed some of the largest landslide deposits on Earth and they represent one of the major geohazards in high-relief mountains. This paper interprets a very large sedimentary fan (the Sernio fan, Valtellina, Northern Italy), located 20 Km SW from Val Pola Rock avalanche (1987), as the deposit of a partial collapse of a Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DSGSD), afterwards eroded and buried by debris flows. The proposed emplacement sequence has been reconstructed based on geomorphological, structural and mechanical evidences. The Sernio fan is actually considered anomalous with reference to the very high ratio between the fan area (≈ 4.5km2) and the basin area (≈ 3km2). The morphology of the fan area is characterised by steep slopes (dip ≈ 20%) and the fan apex is extended for 1.8 km inside the small catchment basin. This sedimentary fan was originated by a landslide that interested a part of a large deep-seated gravitational slope deformation, involving a wide area of about 55 km². The main controlling factor is tectonic and it is related to the proximity to regional fault systems and the consequent occurrence of fault weak rocks (GSI locally lower than 10 with compressive stress lower than 20MPa). Moreover, the fan deposit shows sedimentary evidences of recent debris flow events. The best current explanation of the Sernio fan involves an initial failure of some hundreds of Mm3. The run-out was quite limited because of the morphology of Valtellina’s valley floor, and the deposit filled the main valley forming a landslide dam, as confirmed by the lacustrine deposits detected upstream the fan. Nowadays the debris flow events represent the main hazard in the study area.
10
9999395
Verification of the Simultaneous Local Extraction Method of Base and Thermal Resistance of Bipolar Transistors
Abstract:

In this paper an extensive verification of the extraction method (published earlier) that consistently accounts for self-heating and Early effect to accurately extract both base and thermal resistance of bipolar junction transistors is presented. The method verification is demonstrated on advanced RF SiGe HBTs were the extracted results for the thermal resistance are compared with those from another published method that ignores the effect of Early effect on internal base-emitter voltage and the extracted results of the base resistance are compared with those determined from noise measurements. A self-consistency of our method in the extracted base resistance and thermal resistance using compact model simulation results is also carried out in order to study the level of accuracy of the method.

9
5088
Application of Micro-continuum Approach in the Estimation of Snow Drift Density, Velocity and Mass Transport in Hilly Bound Cold Regions
Abstract:

We estimate snow velocity and snow drift density on hilly terrain under the assumption that the drifting snow mass can be represented using a micro-continuum approach (i.e. using a nonclassical mechanics approach assuming a class of fluids for which basic equations of mass, momentum and energy have been derived). In our model, the theory of coupled stress fluids proposed by Stokes [1] has been employed for the computation of flow parameters. Analyses of bulk drift velocity, drift density, drift transport and mass transport of snow particles have been carried out and computations made, considering various parametric effects. Results are compared with those of classical mechanics (logarithmic wind profile). The results indicate that particle size affects the flow characteristics significantly.

8
9930
Mathematical Modeling of an Avalanche Release and Estimation of Flow Parameters by Numerical Method
Abstract:

Avalanche release of snow has been modeled in the present studies. Snow is assumed to be represented by semi-solid and the governing equations have been studied from the concept of continuum approach. The dynamical equations have been solved for two different zones [starting zone and track zone] by using appropriate initial and boundary conditions. Effect of density (ρ), Eddy viscosity (η), Slope angle (θ), Slab depth (R) on the flow parameters have been observed in the present studies. Numerical methods have been employed for computing the non linear differential equations. One of the most interesting and fundamental innovation in the present studies is getting initial condition for the computation of velocity by numerical approach. This information of the velocity has obtained through the concept of fracture mechanics applicable to snow. The results on the flow parameters have found to be in qualitative agreement with the published results.

7
7309
Study of Effect of Removal of Shiftrows and Mixcolumns Stages of AES and AES-KDS on their Encryption Quality and Hence Security
Abstract:
This paper demonstrates the results when either Shiftrows stage or Mixcolumns stage and when both the stages are omitted in the well known block cipher Advanced Encryption Standard(AES) and its modified version AES with Key Dependent S-box(AES-KDS), using avalanche criterion and other tests namely encryption quality, correlation coefficient, histogram analysis and key sensitivity tests.
6
4799
A New Physical Modeling for Multiquantum Well Structure APD Considering Nonuniformity of Electric Field in Active Regin
Abstract:
In the present work we model a Multiquantum Well structure Separate Absorption and Charge Multiplication Avalanche Photodiode (MQW-SACM-APD), while the Absorption region coincide with the MQW. We consider the nonuniformity of electric field using split-step method in active region. This model is based on the carrier rate equations in the different regions of the device. Using the model we obtain the photocurrent, and dark current. As an example, InGaAs/InP SACM-APD and MQW-SACM-APD are simulated. There is a good agreement between the simulation and experimental results.
5
698
Analysis of Explosive Shock Wave and its Application in Snow Avalanche Release
Abstract:

Avalanche velocity (from start to track zone) has been estimated in the present model for an avalanche which is triggered artificially by an explosive devise. The initial development of the model has been from the concept of micro-continuum theories [1], underwater explosions [2] and from fracture mechanics [3] with appropriate changes to the present model. The model has been computed for different slab depth R, slope angle θ, snow density ¤ü, viscosity μ, eddy viscosity η*and couple stress parameter η. The applicability of the present model in the avalanche forecasting has been highlighted.

4
9545
A Case Study of Key-Dependent Permutations in Feistel Ciphers
Abstract:

Many attempts have been made to strengthen Feistel based block ciphers. Among the successful proposals is the key- dependent S-box which was implemented in some of the high-profile ciphers. In this paper a key-dependent permutation box is proposed and implemented on DES as a case study. The new modified DES, MDES, was tested against Diehard Tests, avalanche test, and performance test. The results showed that in general MDES is more resistible to attacks than DES with negligible overhead. Therefore, it is believed that the proposed key-dependent permutation should be considered as a valuable primitive that can help strengthen the security of Substitution-Permutation Network which is a core design in many Feistel based block ciphers.

3
9381
New Analysis Methods on Strict Avalanche Criterion of S-Boxes
Abstract:
S-boxes (Substitution boxes) are keystones of modern symmetric cryptosystems (block ciphers, as well as stream ciphers). S-boxes bring nonlinearity to cryptosystems and strengthen their cryptographic security. They are used for confusion in data security An S-box satisfies the strict avalanche criterion (SAC), if and only if for any single input bit of the S-box, the inversion of it changes each output bit with probability one half. If a function (cryptographic transformation) is complete, then each output bit depends on all of the input bits. Thus, if it were possible to find the simplest Boolean expression for each output bit in terms of the input bits, each of these expressions would have to contain all of the input bits if the function is complete. From some important properties of S-box, the most interesting property SAC (Strict Avalanche Criterion) is presented and to analyze this property three analysis methods are proposed.
2
2384
Method to Improve Channel Coding Using Cryptography
Authors:
Abstract:
A new approach for the improvement of coding gain in channel coding using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) and Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) algorithm is proposed. This new approach uses the avalanche effect of block cipher algorithm AES and soft output values of MAP decoding algorithm. The performance of proposed approach is evaluated in the presence of Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). For the verification of proposed approach, computer simulation results are included.
1
11536
System Performance Comparison of Turbo and Trellis Coded Optical CDMA Systems
Abstract:

In this paper, we have compared the performance of a Turbo and Trellis coded optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system. The comparison of the two codes has been accomplished by employing optical orthogonal codes (OOCs). The Bit Error Rate (BER) performances have been compared by varying the code weights of address codes employed by the system. We have considered the effects of optical multiple access interference (OMAI), thermal noise and avalanche photodiode (APD) detector noise. Analysis has been carried out for the system with and without double optical hard limiter (DHL). From the simulation results it is observed that a better and distinct comparison can be drawn between the performance of Trellis and Turbo coded systems, at lower code weights of optical orthogonal codes for a fixed number of users. The BER performance of the Turbo coded system is found to be better than the Trellis coded system for all code weights that have been considered for the simulation. Nevertheless, the Trellis coded OCDMA system is found to be better than the uncoded OCDMA system. Trellis coded OCDMA can be used in systems where decoding time has to be kept low, bandwidth is limited and high reliability is not a crucial factor as in local area networks. Also the system hardware is less complex in comparison to the Turbo coded system. Trellis coded OCDMA system can be used without significant modification of the existing chipsets. Turbo-coded OCDMA can however be employed in systems where high reliability is needed and bandwidth is not a limiting factor.

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