Scholarly Research Excellence

Digital Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 25

Methane Production from Biomedical Waste (Blood)

This study investigates the production of renewable energy (biogas) from biomedical hazard waste (blood) and eco-friendly disposal. Biogas is produced by the bacterial anaerobic digestion of biomaterial (blood). During digestion process bacterial feeding result in breaking down chemical bonds of the biomaterial and changing its features, by the end of the digestion (biogas production) the remains become manure as known. That has led to the economic and eco-friendly disposal of hazard biomedical waste (blood). The samples (Whole blood, Red blood cells 'RBCs', Blood platelet and Fresh Frozen Plasma ‘FFP’) are collected and measured in terms of carbon to nitrogen C/N ratio and total solid, then filled in connected flasks (three flasks) using water displacement method. The results of trails showed that the platelet and FFP failed to produce flammable gas, but via a gas analyzer, it showed the presence of the following gases: CO, HC, CO₂, and NOX. Otherwise, the blood and RBCs produced flammable gases: Methane-nitrous CH₃NO (99.45%), which has a blue color flame and carbon dioxide CO₂ (0.55%), which has red/yellow color flame. Methane-nitrous is sometimes used as fuel for rockets, some aircraft and racing cars.

A SiGe Low Power RF Front-End Receiver for 5.8GHz Wireless Biomedical Application

It is necessary to realize new biomedical wireless communication systems which send the signals collected from various bio sensors located at human body in order to monitor our health. Also, it should seamlessly connect to the existing wireless communication systems. A 5.8 GHz ISM band low power RF front-end receiver for a biomedical wireless communication system is implemented using a 0.5 µm SiGe BiCMOS process. To achieve low power RF front-end, the current optimization technique for selecting device size is utilized. The implemented low noise amplifier (LNA) shows a power gain of 9.8 dB, a noise figure (NF) of below 1.75 dB, and an IIP3 of higher than 7.5 dBm while current consumption is only 6 mA at supply voltage of 2.5 V. Also, the performance of a down-conversion mixer is measured as a conversion gain of 11 dB and SSB NF of 10 dB.

Material Selection for Footwear Insole Using Analytical Hierarchal Process

Product performance depends on the type and quality of its building material. Successful product must be made using high quality material, and using the right methods. Many foot problems took place as a result of using poor insole material. Therefore, selecting a proper insole material is crucial to eliminate these problems. In this study, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) is used to provide a systematic procedure for choosing the best material adequate for this application among three material alternatives (polyurethane, poron, and plastzote). Several comparison criteria are used to build the AHP model including: density, stiffness, durability, energy absorption, and ease of fabrication. Poron was selected as the best choice. Inconsistency testing indicates that the model is reasonable, and the materials alternative ranking is effective.

An Efficient Digital Baseband ASIC for Wireless Biomedical Signals Monitoring
A digital baseband Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) (yclic Redundancy Checkis developed for a microchip transponder to transmit signals and temperature levels from biomedical monitoring devices. The transmission protocol is adapted from the ISO/IEC 11784/85 standard. The module has a decimation filter that employs only a single adder-subtractor in its datapath. The filtered output is coded with cyclic redundancy check and transmitted through backscattering Load Shift Keying (LSK) modulation to a reader. Fabricated using the 0.18-μm CMOS technology, the module occupies 0.116 mm2 in chip area (digital baseband: 0.060 mm2, decimation filter: 0.056 mm2), and consumes a total of less than 0.9 μW of power (digital baseband: 0.75 μW, decimation filter: 0.14 μW).
Valuation on MEMS Pressure Sensors and Device Applications
The MEMS pressure sensor has been introduced and presented in this paper. The types of pressure sensor and its theory of operation are also included. The latest MEMS technology, the fabrication processes of pressure sensor are explored and discussed. Besides, various device applications of pressure sensor such as tire pressure-monitoring system, diesel particulate filter and others are explained. Due to further miniaturization of the device nowadays, the pressure sensor with nanotechnology (NEMS) is also reviewed. The NEMS pressure sensor is expected to have better performance as well as lower in its cost. It has gained an excellent popularity in many applications.
Secure Bio Semantic Computing Scheme
In this paper, the secure BioSemantic Scheme is presented to bridge biological/biomedical research problems and computational solutions via semantic computing. Due to the diversity of problems in various research fields, the semantic capability description language (SCDL) plays and important role as a common language and generic form for problem formalization. SCDL is expected the essential for future semantic and logical computing in Biosemantic field. We show several example to Biomedical problems in this paper. Moreover, in the coming age of cloud computing, the security problem is considered to be crucial issue and we presented a practical scheme to cope with this problem.
Maximizing Performance of the Membranes Based on Quaternized Polysulfone/Polyvinil Alcohol for Biomedical Applications: Rheological Investigations

The rheological response of blends obtained from quaternized polysulfone and polyvinyl alcohol in N-methyl-2- pyrrolidone as against structural peculiarity of polymers from the blend, composition of polymer mixtures, as well as the types of interactions were investigated. Results show that the variation of polyvinyl alcohol composition in the studied system determines changes of the rheological properties, suggesting that the PVA acts as a plasticizer. Consequently, rheological behavior of complex system, described by the nonlinear flow curve, indicates the impact of polyvinil alcohol content to polysulfone solution, in order to facilitate the subsequently preparation of bioactive membranes.

Beta Titanium Alloys: The Lowest Elastic Modulus for Biomedical Applications: A Review

Biometallic materials are the most important materials for use in biomedical applications especially in manufacturing a variety of biological artificial replacements in a modern worlds, e.g. hip, knee or shoulder joints, due to their advanced characteristics. Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are used extensively in biomedical applications based on their high specific strength and excellent corrosion resistance. Beta-Ti alloys containing completely biocompatible elements are exceptionally prospective materials for manufacturing of bioimplants. They have superior mechanical, chemical and electrochemical properties for use as biomaterials. These biomaterials have the ability to introduce the most important property of biochemical compatibility which is low elastic modulus. This review examines current information on the recent developments in alloying elements leading to improvements of beta Ti alloys for use as biomaterials. Moreover, this paper focuses mainly on the evolution, evaluation and development of the modulus of elasticity as an effective factor on the performance of beta alloys.

Cloud Computing Support for Diagnosing Researches

One of the main biomedical problem lies in detecting dependencies in semi structured data. Solution includes biomedical portal and algorithms (integral rating health criteria, multidimensional data visualization methods). Biomedical portal allows to process diagnostic and research data in parallel mode using Microsoft System Center 2012, Windows HPC Server cloud technologies. Service does not allow user to see internal calculations instead it provides practical interface. When data is sent for processing user may track status of task and will achieve results as soon as computation is completed. Service includes own algorithms and allows diagnosing and predicating medical cases. Approved methods are based on complex system entropy methods, algorithms for determining the energy patterns of development and trajectory models of biological systems and logical–probabilistic approach with the blurring of images.

Tele-Diagnosis System for Rural Thailand
Thailand-s health system is challenged by the rising number of patients and decreasing ratio of medical practitioners/patients, especially in rural areas. This may tempt inexperienced GPs to rush through the process of anamnesis with the risk of incorrect diagnosis. Patients have to travel far to the hospital and wait for a long time presenting their case. Many patients try to cure themselves with traditional Thai medicine. Many countries are making use of the Internet for medical information gathering, distribution and storage. Telemedicine applications are a relatively new field of study in Thailand; the infrastructure of ICT had hampered widespread use of the Internet for using medical information. With recent improvements made health and technology professionals can work out novel applications and systems to help advance telemedicine for the benefit of the people. Here we explore the use of telemedicine for people with health problems in rural areas in Thailand and present a Telemedicine Diagnosis System for Rural Thailand (TEDIST) for diagnosing certain conditions that people with Internet access can use to establish contact with Community Health Centers, e.g. by mobile phone. The system uses a Web-based input method for individual patients- symptoms, which are taken by an expert system for the analysis of conditions and appropriate diseases. The analysis harnesses a knowledge base and a backward chaining component to find out, which health professionals should be presented with the case. Doctors have the opportunity to exchange emails or chat with the patients they are responsible for or other specialists. Patients- data are then stored in a Personal Health Record.
Characterization of Lubricity of Mucins at Polymeric Surfaces for Biomedical Applications
The lubricating properties of commercially available mucins originating from different animal organs, namely bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM) and porcine gastric mucin (PGM), have been characterized at polymeric surfaces for biomedical applications. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and pin-on-disk tribometry have been employed for tribological studies at nanoscale and macroscale contacts, respectively. Polystyrene (PS) was employed to represent ‘rigid’ contacts, whereas poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) was employed to represent ‘soft contacts’. To understand the lubricating properties of mucins in correlation with the coverage on surfaces, adsorption properties of mucins onto the polymeric substrates have been characterized by means of optical waveguide light-mode spectroscopy (OWLS). Both mucins showed facile adsorption onto both polymeric substrates, but the lubricity was highly dependent upon the pH change between 2 and 7.
White Blood Cells Identification and Counting from Microscopic Blood Image
The counting and analysis of blood cells allows the evaluation and diagnosis of a vast number of diseases. In particular, the analysis of white blood cells (WBCs) is a topic of great interest to hematologists. Nowadays the morphological analysis of blood cells is performed manually by skilled operators. This involves numerous drawbacks, such as slowness of the analysis and a nonstandard accuracy, dependent on the operator skills. In literature there are only few examples of automated systems in order to analyze the white blood cells, most of which only partial. This paper presents a complete and fully automatic method for white blood cells identification from microscopic images. The proposed method firstly individuates white blood cells from which, subsequently, nucleus and cytoplasm are extracted. The whole work has been developed using MATLAB environment, in particular the Image Processing Toolbox.
Influence of Microstructural Features on Wear Resistance of Biomedical Titanium Materials
The field of biomedical materials plays an imperative requisite and a critical role in manufacturing a variety of biological artificial replacements in a modern world. Recently, titanium (Ti) materials are being used as biomaterials because of their superior corrosion resistance and tremendous specific strength, free- allergic problems and the greatest biocompatibility compared to other competing biomaterials such as stainless steel, Co-Cr alloys, ceramics, polymers, and composite materials. However, regardless of these excellent performance properties, Implantable Ti materials have poor shear strength and wear resistance which limited their applications as biomaterials. Even though the wear properties of Ti alloys has revealed some improvements, the crucial effectiveness of biomedical Ti alloys as wear components requires a comprehensive deep understanding of the wear reasons, mechanisms, and techniques that can be used to improve wear behavior. This review examines current information on the effect of thermal and thermomechanical processing of implantable Ti materials on the long-term prosthetic requirement which related with wear behavior. This paper focuses mainly on the evolution, evaluation and development of effective microstructural features that can improve wear properties of bio grade Ti materials using thermal and thermomechanical treatments.
Automatic Classification of Initial Categories of Alzheimer's Disease from Structural MRI Phase Images: A Comparison of PSVM, KNN and ANN Methods

An early and accurate detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an important stage in the treatment of individuals suffering from AD. We present an approach based on the use of structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) phase images to distinguish between normal controls (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD patients with clinical dementia rating (CDR) of 1. Independent component analysis (ICA) technique is used for extracting useful features which form the inputs to the support vector machines (SVM), K nearest neighbour (kNN) and multilayer artificial neural network (ANN) classifiers to discriminate between the three classes. The obtained results are encouraging in terms of classification accuracy and effectively ascertain the usefulness of phase images for the classification of different stages of Alzheimer-s disease.

An Inductive Coupling Based CMOS Wireless Powering Link for Implantable Biomedical Applications

A closed-loop controlled wireless power transmission circuit block for implantable biomedical applications is described in this paper. The circuit consists of one front-end rectifier, power management sub-block including bandgap reference and low drop-out regulators (LDOs) as well as transmission power detection / feedback circuits. Simulation result shows that the front-end rectifier achieves 80% power efficiency with 750-mV single-end peak-to-peak input voltage and 1.28-V output voltage under load current of 4 mA. The power management block can supply 1.8mA average load current under 1V consuming only 12μW power, which is equivalent to 99.3% power efficiency. The wireless power transmission block described in this paper achieves a maximum power efficiency of 80%. The wireless power transmission circuit block is designed and implemented using UMC 65-nm CMOS/RF process. It occupies 1 mm × 1.2 mm silicon area.

Odor Discrimination Using Neural Decoding of Olfactory Bulbs in Rats
This paper presents a novel method for inferring the odor based on neural activities observed from rats- main olfactory bulbs. Multi-channel extra-cellular single unit recordings were done by micro-wire electrodes (tungsten, 50μm, 32 channels) implanted in the mitral/tufted cell layers of the main olfactory bulb of anesthetized rats to obtain neural responses to various odors. Neural response as a key feature was measured by substraction of neural firing rate before stimulus from after. For odor inference, we have developed a decoding method based on the maximum likelihood (ML) estimation. The results have shown that the average decoding accuracy is about 100.0%, 96.0%, 84.0%, and 100.0% with four rats, respectively. This work has profound implications for a novel brain-machine interface system for odor inference.
The Influence of Surface Potential on the Kinetics of Bovine Serum Albumin Adsorption on a Biomedical Grade 316LVM Stainless Steel Surface
Polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) in combination with electrochemistry, was employed to study the influence of surface charge (potential) on the kinetics of bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption on a biomedical-grade 316LVM stainless steel surface is discussed. The BSA adsorption kinetics was found to greatly depend on the surface potential. With an increase in surface potential towards more negative values, both the BSA initial adsorption rate and the equilibrium (saturated) surface concentration also increased. Both effects were explained on the basis of replacement of well-ordered water molecules at the 316LVM / solution interface, i.e. by the increase in entropy of the system.
Classifying Biomedical Text Abstracts based on Hierarchical 'Concept' Structure
Classifying biomedical literature is a difficult and challenging task, especially when a large number of biomedical articles should be organized into a hierarchical structure. In this paper, we present an approach for classifying a collection of biomedical text abstracts downloaded from Medline database with the help of ontology alignment. To accomplish our goal, we construct two types of hierarchies, the OHSUMED disease hierarchy and the Medline abstract disease hierarchies from the OHSUMED dataset and the Medline abstracts, respectively. Then, we enrich the OHSUMED disease hierarchy before adapting it to ontology alignment process for finding probable concepts or categories. Subsequently, we compute the cosine similarity between the vector in probable concepts (in the “enriched" OHSUMED disease hierarchy) and the vector in Medline abstract disease hierarchies. Finally, we assign category to the new Medline abstracts based on the similarity score. The results obtained from the experiments show the performance of our proposed approach for hierarchical classification is slightly better than the performance of the multi-class flat classification.
A Web Service Platform for Support Multiple Programming Language to Access Biomedical Image Databases
Images are important in disease research, education, and clinical medicine. This paper presents a Web Service Platform (WSP) for support multiple programming languages to access image from biomedical databases. The main function WSP is to allow web users access image from biomedical databases. The WSP will receive web user-s queries. After that, it will send to Querying Server (QS) and the QS will search and retrieve data from biomedical databases. Finally, the information will display to the web users. Simple application is developed and tested for experiment purpose. Result from experiment indicated WSP can be used in biomedical environment.
EPR Hiding in Medical Images for Telemedicine
Medical image data hiding has strict constrains such as high imperceptibility, high capacity and high robustness. Achieving these three requirements simultaneously is highly cumbersome. Some works have been reported in the literature on data hiding, watermarking and stegnography which are suitable for telemedicine applications. None is reliable in all aspects. Electronic Patient Report (EPR) data hiding for telemedicine demand it blind and reversible. This paper proposes a novel approach to blind reversible data hiding based on integer wavelet transform. Experimental results shows that this scheme outperforms the prior arts in terms of zero BER (Bit Error Rate), higher PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio), and large EPR data embedding capacity with WPSNR (Weighted Peak Signal to Noise Ratio) around 53 dB, compared with the existing reversible data hiding schemes.
Fuzzy Wavelet Packet based Feature Extraction Method for Multifunction Myoelectric Control
The myoelectric signal (MES) is one of the Biosignals utilized in helping humans to control equipments. Recent approaches in MES classification to control prosthetic devices employing pattern recognition techniques revealed two problems, first, the classification performance of the system starts degrading when the number of motion classes to be classified increases, second, in order to solve the first problem, additional complicated methods were utilized which increase the computational cost of a multifunction myoelectric control system. In an effort to solve these problems and to achieve a feasible design for real time implementation with high overall accuracy, this paper presents a new method for feature extraction in MES recognition systems. The method works by extracting features using Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT) applied on the MES from multiple channels, and then employs Fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm to generate a measure that judges on features suitability for classification. Finally, Principle Component Analysis (PCA) is utilized to reduce the size of the data before computing the classification accuracy with a multilayer perceptron neural network. The proposed system produces powerful classification results (99% accuracy) by using only a small portion of the original feature set.
Computer Software Applicable in Rehabilitation, Cardiology and Molecular Biology
We have developed a computer program consisting of 6 subtests assessing the children hand dexterity applicable in the rehabilitation medicine. We have carried out a normative study on a representative sample of 285 children aged from 7 to 15 (mean age 11.3) and we have proposed clinical standards for three age groups (7-9, 9-11, 12-15 years). We have shown statistical significance of differences among the corresponding mean values of the task time completion. We have also found a strong correlation between the task time completion and the age of the subjects, as well as we have performed the test-retest reliability checks in the sample of 84 children, giving the high values of the Pearson coefficients for the dominant and non-dominant hand in the range 0.740.97 and 0.620.93, respectively. A new MATLAB-based programming tool aiming at analysis of cardiologic RR intervals and blood pressure descriptors, is worked out, too. For each set of data, ten different parameters are extracted: 2 in time domain, 4 in frequency domain and 4 in Poincaré plot analysis. In addition twelve different parameters of baroreflex sensitivity are calculated. All these data sets can be visualized in time domain together with their power spectra and Poincaré plots. If available, the respiratory oscillation curves can be also plotted for comparison. Another application processes biological data obtained from BLAST analysis.
Investigating the Possible use of Session Initiation Protocol for Extending Mobility Service to the Biomedical Engineers
Today, the Internet based communication has widen the opportunity of event monitoring system in the medical field. There is always a need of analyzing and designing secure and reliable mobile communication between the hospital and biomedical engineers mobile units. This study has been carried out to find possible solution using SIP-based event notification for alerting the technical staff about the Biomedical Device (BMD) status and Patients treatment session. The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) can be used to create a medical event notification system. SIP can work on a variety of devices. Its adoption as the protocol of choice for third generation wireless networks allows for a robust and scalable environment. One of the advantages of SIP is that it supports personal mobility through the separation of user addressing and device addressing. The solution for Telemed alert notification system is based on SIP - Specific Event Notification. The aim of this project is to extend mobility service to the hospital technicians who are using Telemedicine system.
Attenuation in Transferred RF Power to a Biomedical Implant due to the Misalignment Coils
In biomedical implant field, a new formula is given for the study of Radio Frequency power attenuation by simultaneous effects of side and angular misalignment of the supply/data transfer coils. A confrontation with the practical measurements done into a Faraday cage, allowed a checking of the obtained theoretical results. The DC supply systems without material connection and the data transmitters used in the case of biomedical implants, can be well dimensioned by taking into account the possibility of power attenuation by misalignment of transfer coils
EEG-Based Fractal Analysis of Different Motor Imagery Tasks using Critical Exponent Method

The objective of this paper is to characterize the spontaneous Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals of four different motor imagery tasks and to show hereby a possible solution for the present binary communication between the brain and a machine ora Brain-Computer Interface (BCI). The processing technique used in this paper was the fractal analysis evaluated by the Critical Exponent Method (CEM). The EEG signal was registered in 5 healthy subjects,sampling 15 measuring channels at 1024 Hz.Each channel was preprocessed by the Laplacian space ltering so as to reduce the space blur and therefore increase the spaceresolution. The EEG of each channel was segmented and its Fractaldimension (FD) calculated. The FD was evaluated in the time interval corresponding to the motor imagery and averaged out for all the subjects (each channel). In order to characterize the FD distribution,the linear regression curves of FD over the electrodes position were applied. The differences FD between the proposed mental tasks are quantied and evaluated for each experimental subject. The obtained results of the proposed method are a substantial fractal dimension in the EEG signal of motor imagery tasks and can be considerably utilized as the multiple-states BCI applications.

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