Utilizing the Analytic Hierarchy Process in Improving Performances of Blind Judo
Identifying, structuring, and racking the most important factors related to improving athletes’ performances could pave the way for improve training system. The purpose of this study was to identify the relative importance factors to improve performance of the of judo athletes with visual impairments, including blindness by using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). After reviewing the literature, the relative importance of factors affecting performance of the blind judo was selected. A group of expert reviewed the first draft of the questionnaires, and then finally selected performance factors were classified into the major categories of techniques, physical fitness, and psychological categories. Later, a pre-selected experts group was asked to review the final version of questionnaire and confirm the priories of performance factors. The order of priority was determined by performing pairwise comparisons using Expert Choice 2000. Results indicated that “grappling” (.303) and “throwing” (.234) were the most important lower hierarchy factors for blind judo skills. In addition, the most important physical factors affecting performance were “muscular strength and endurance” (.238). Further, among other psychological factors “competitive anxiety” (.393) was important factor that affects performance. It is important to offer psychological skills training to reduce anxiety of judo athletes with visual impairments and blindness, so they can compete in their optimal states. These findings offer insights into what should be considered when determining factors to improve performance of judo athletes with visual impairments and blindness.
Sparsity-Based Unsupervised Unmixing of Hyperspectral Imaging Data Using Basis Pursuit
Mixing in the hyperspectral imaging occurs due to the low spatial resolutions of the used cameras. The existing pure materials “endmembers” in the scene share the spectra pixels with different amounts called “abundances”. Unmixing of the data cube is an important task to know the present endmembers in the cube for the analysis of these images. Unsupervised unmixing is done with no information about the given data cube. Sparsity is one of the recent approaches used in the source recovery or unmixing techniques. The l1-norm optimization problem “basis pursuit” could be used as a sparsity-based approach to solve this unmixing problem where the endmembers is assumed to be sparse in an appropriate domain known as dictionary. This optimization problem is solved using proximal method “iterative thresholding”. The l1-norm basis pursuit optimization problem as a sparsity-based unmixing technique was used to unmix real and synthetic hyperspectral data cubes.
Blind Speech Separation Using SRP-PHAT Localization and Optimal Beamformer in Two-Speaker Environments
This paper investigates the problem of blind speech separation from the speech mixture of two speakers. A voice activity detector employing the Steered Response Power - Phase Transform (SRP-PHAT) is presented for detecting the activity information of speech sources and then the desired speech signals are extracted from the speech mixture by using an optimal beamformer. For evaluation, the algorithm effectiveness, a simulation using real speech recordings had been performed in a double-talk situation where two speakers are active all the time. Evaluations show that the proposed blind speech separation algorithm offers a good interference suppression level whilst maintaining a low distortion level of the desired signal.
Evaluation and Analysis of the Secure E-Voting Authentication Preparation Scheme
In this paper, we presented an evaluation and analysis of E-Voting Authentication Preparation Scheme (EV-APS). EV-APS applies some modified security aspects that enhance the security measures and adds a strong wall of protection, confidentiality, non-repudiation and authentication requirements. Some of these modified security aspects are Kerberos authentication protocol, PVID scheme, responder certificate validation, and the converted Ferguson e-cash protocol. Authentication and privacy requirements have been evaluated and proved. Authentication guaranteed only eligible and authorized voters were permitted to vote. Also, the privacy guaranteed that all votes will be kept secret. Evaluation and analysis of some of these security requirements have been given. These modified aspects will help in filtering the counter buffer from unauthorized votes by ensuring that only authorized voters are permitted to vote.
The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioural Intervention in Alleviating Social Avoidance for Blind Students
Social Avoidance is one of the most important
problems that face a good number of disabled students. It results from
the negative attitudes of non-disabled students, teachers and others.
Some of the past research has shown that non-disabled individuals
hold negative attitudes toward persons with disabilities. The present
study aims to alleviate Social Avoidance by applying the Cognitive
Behavioral Intervention. 24 Blind students aged 19–24 (university students) were randomly
chosen we compared an experimental group (consisted of 12
students) who went through the intervention program, with a control
group (12 students also) who did not go through such intervention.
We used the Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SADS) to assess
social anxiety and distress behavior. The author used many
techniques of cognitive behavioral intervention such as modeling,
cognitive restructuring, extension, contingency contracts, selfmonitoring,
assertiveness training, role play, encouragement and
others. Statistically, T-test was employed to test the research
hypothesis. Result showed that there is a significance difference between the
experimental group and the control group after the intervention and
also at the follow up stages of the Social Avoidance and Distress
Scale. Also for the experimental group, there is a significance
difference before the intervention and the follow up stages for the
scale. Results showed that, there is a decrease in social avoidance.
Accordingly, cognitive behavioral intervention program was
successful in decreasing social avoidance for blind students.
Buddha Images in Mudras Representing Days of a Week: Tactile Texture Design for the Blind
The research “Buddha Images in Mudras Representing Days of a Week: Tactile Texture Design for the Blind” aims to provide original tactile format to institutions for the blind, as supplementary textbooks, to accumulate Buddhist knowledge, so that it could be extracurricular learning. The research studied on 33 students with both total and partial blindness, the latter with the ability to read Braille’s signs, of elementary 4 – 6, who are pursuing their studies on the second semester of the academic year 2013 at Bangkok School for the Blind. The researcher opted samples specifically, studied data acquired from both documents and fieldworks. Those methods must be related to the blind, tactile format production, and Buddha images in mudras representing days of a week. Afterwards, the formats will be analyzed and designed so that there would be 8 format pictures of Buddha images in mudras representing days of the week. Experts will next evaluate the media and try out.
An Efficient Separation for Convolutive Mixtures
This paper describes a new efficient blind source separation method; in this method we uses a non-uniform filter bank and a new structure with different sub-bands. This method provides a reduced permutation and increased convergence speed comparing to the full-band algorithm. Recently, some structures have been suggested to deal with two problems: reducing permutation and increasing the speed of convergence of the adaptive algorithm for correlated input signals. The permutation problem is avoided with the use of adaptive filters of orders less than the full-band adaptive filter, which operate at a sampling rate lower than the sampling rate of the input signal. The decomposed signals by analysis bank filter are less correlated in each sub-band than the input signal at full-band, and can promote better rates of convergence.
Muscle: The Tactile Texture Designed for the Blind
The research objective focuses on creating a prototype
media of the tactile texture of muscles for educational institutes to
help visually impaired students learn massage extra learning
materials further than the ordinary curriculum. This media is
designed as an extra learning material. The population in this study
was 30 blinded students between 4th - 6th grades who were able to
read Braille language. The research was conducted during the second
semester in 2012 at The Bangkok School for the Blind. The method
in choosing the population in the study was purposive sampling. The
methodology of the research includes collecting data related to
visually impaired people, the production of the tactile texture media,
human anatomy and Thai traditional massage from literature reviews
and field studies. This information was used for analyzing and
designing 14 tactile texture pictures presented to experts to evaluate
and test the media.
Identification of Author and Reviewer from Single and Double Blind Paper
Research leads to the development of science and technology and hence it leads to the betterment of humankind also. Journals and Conferences provide a platform to receive large number of research papers for publications and presentations before the expert and peer-level scientific community. In order to assure quality of such papers, they are also sent to reviewers for their comments. In order to maintain good ethical standards, the research papers are sent to reviewers in such a way authors and reviewers do not know each other’s identity. This technique is called Double-blind Review Process. It is called Single-blind Review Process, if identity of any one party, generally authors’, is disclosed to the other. This paper presents the techniques by which identity of author as well as reviewer could be found even through Double-blind Review process. It is proposed that the characteristics and techniques presented here will help journals and conferences in assuring intentional or un-intentional disclosure of identity revealing information by the either party.
Blind Identification Channel Using Higher Order Cumulants with Application to Equalization for MC−CDMA System
In this paper we propose an algorithm based on
higher order cumulants, for blind impulse response identification
of frequency radio channels and downlink (MC−CDMA) system
Equalization. In order to test its efficiency, we have compared with
another algorithm proposed in the literature, for that we considered
on theoretical channel as the Proakis’s ‘B’ channel and practical
frequency selective fading channel, called Broadband Radio Access
Network (BRAN C), normalized for (MC−CDMA) systems, excited
by non-Gaussian sequences. In the part of (MC−CDMA), we use the
Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) equalizer after the channel
identification to correct the channel’s distortion. The simulation
results, in noisy environment and for different signal to noise ratio
(SNR), are presented to illustrate the accuracy of the proposed
A Way of Converting Color Images to Gray Scale Ones for the Color-Blind -Applying to the Part of the Tokyo Subway Map-
This paper proposes a way of removing noises and reducing the number of colors contained in a JPEG image. Main purpose of this project is to convert color images to monochrome images for the color-blind. We treat the crispy color images like the Tokyo subway map. Each color in the image has an important information. But for the color blinds, similar colors cannot be distinguished. If we can convert those colors to different gray values, they can distinguish them. Therefore we try to convert color images to monochrome images.
Development of a Computer Vision System for the Blind and Visually Impaired Person
Eyes are an essential and conspicuous organ of the human body. Human eyes are outward and inward portals of the body that allows to see the outside world and provides glimpses into ones inner thoughts and feelings. Inevitable blindness and visual impairments may results from eye-related disease, trauma, or congenital or degenerative conditions that cannot be corrected by conventional means. The study emphasizes innovative tools that will serve as an aid to the blind and visually impaired (VI) individuals. The researchers fabricated a prototype that utilizes the Microsoft Kinect for Windows and Arduino microcontroller board. The prototype facilitates advanced gesture recognition, voice recognition, obstacle detection and indoor environment navigation. Open Computer Vision (OpenCV) performs image analysis, and gesture tracking to transform Kinect data to the desired output. A computer vision technology device provides greater accessibility for those with vision impairments.
Implementation of RSA Blind Signature on CryptO-0N2 Protocol
Blind Signature were introduced by Chaum. In this
scheme, a signer can “sign” a document without knowing the
document contain. This is particularly important in electronic voting.
CryptO-0N2 is an electronic voting protocol which is development of
CryptO-0N. During its development this protocol has not been
furnished with the requirement of blind signature, so the choice of
voters can be determined by counting center. In this paper will be
presented of implementation of blind signature using RSA algorithm.
Himmapan Creatures: The Tactile Texture Designed for the Blind
The main purpose of this research aimed to create tactile texture designed media for the blind used for extra learning outside classrooms in order to enhance imagination of the blind about Himmapan creatures, furthermore, the main objective of the research focused on improving the visual disabled perception to be equal to normal people. The target group of the research is blinded students studying in The Bangkok school for the blind between grade 4-6 in the second semester of 2011 who are able to read the braille language. The research methodology consisted of the field study and the documentary study related to the blind, tactile texture designed media and Himmapan creatures. 10 pictures of tactile texture designed media were created in the designing process which began after the analysis had conducted based the primary and secondary data. The works had presented to experts in the visual disabled field who evaluated the works. After approval, the works used as prototype to teach the blind. KeywordsBlind, Himmapan Creatures, Tactile Texture.
A Way of Converting Color Images to Gray Scale Ones for the Color Blinds -Reducing the Colors for Tokyo Subway Map-
We proposes a way of removing noises and reducing the number of colors contained in a JPEG image. Main purpose of this project is to convert color images to monochrome images for the color blinds. We treat the crispy color images like the Tokyo subway map. Each color in the image has an important information. But for the color blinds, similar colors cannot be distinguished. If we can convert those colors to different gray values, they can distinguish them.
A New Design Partially Blind Signature Scheme Based on Two Hard Mathematical Problems
Recently, many existing partially blind signature scheme based on a single hard problem such as factoring, discrete logarithm, residuosity or elliptic curve discrete logarithm problems. However sooner or later these systems will become broken and vulnerable, if the factoring or discrete logarithms problems are cracked. This paper proposes a secured partially blind signature scheme based on factoring (FAC) problem and elliptic curve discrete logarithms (ECDL) problem. As the proposed scheme is focused on factoring and ECDLP hard problems, it has a solid structure and will totally leave the intruder bemused because it is very unlikely to solve the two hard problems simultaneously. In order to assess the security level of the proposed scheme a performance analysis has been conducted. Results have proved that the proposed scheme effectively deals with the partial blindness, randomization, unlinkability and unforgeability properties. Apart from this we have also investigated the computation cost of the proposed scheme. The new proposed scheme is robust and it is difficult for the malevolent attacks to break our scheme.
Mechanical Structure Design Optimization by Blind Number Theory: Time-dependent Reliability
In a product development process, understanding the functional behavior of the system, the role of components in achieving functions and failure modes if components/subsystem fails its required function will help develop appropriate design validation and verification program for reliability assessment. The integration of these three issues will help design and reliability engineers in identifying weak spots in design and planning future actions and testing program. This case study demonstrate the advantage of unascertained theory described in the subjective cognition uncertainty, and then applies blind number (BN) theory in describing the uncertainty of the mechanical system failure process and the same time used the same theory in bringing out another mechanical reliability system model. The practical calculations shows the BN Model embodied the characters of simply, small account of calculation but betterforecasting capability, which had the value of macroscopic discussion to some extent.
Account Management Method with Blind Signature Scheme
Reducing the risk of information leaks is one of
the most important functions of identity management systems. To
achieve this purpose, Dey et al. have already proposed an account
management method for a federated login system using a blind
signature scheme. In order to ensure account anonymity for the
authentication provider, referred to as an IDP (identity provider),
a blind signature scheme is utilized to generate an authentication
token on an authentication service and the token is sent to an IDP.
However, there is a problem with the proposed system. Malicious
users can establish multiple accounts on an IDP by requesting such
accounts. As a measure to solve this problem, in this paper, the
authors propose an account checking method that is performed before
Wavelet Enhanced CCA for Minimization of Ocular and Muscle Artifacts in EEG
Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings are often
contaminated with ocular and muscle artifacts. In this paper, the
canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is used as blind source
separation (BSS) technique (BSS-CCA) to decompose the artifact
contaminated EEG into component signals. We combine the BSSCCA
technique with wavelet filtering approach for minimizing both
ocular and muscle artifacts simultaneously, and refer the proposed
method as wavelet enhanced BSS-CCA. In this approach, after
careful visual inspection, the muscle artifact components are
discarded and ocular artifact components are subjected to wavelet
filtering to retain high frequency cerebral information, and then clean
EEG is reconstructed. The performance of the proposed wavelet
enhanced BSS-CCA method is tested on real EEG recordings
contaminated with ocular and muscle artifacts, for which power
spectral density is used as a quantitative measure. Our results suggest
that the proposed hybrid approach minimizes ocular and muscle
artifacts effectively, minimally affecting underlying cerebral activity
in EEG recordings.
A Semi- One Time Pad Using Blind Source Separation for Speech Encryption
We propose a new perspective on speech
communication using blind source separation. The original speech is
mixed with key signals which consist of the mixing matrix, chaotic
signals and a random noise. However, parts of the keys (the mixing
matrix and the random noise) are not necessary in decryption. In
practice implement, one can encrypt the speech by changing the noise
signal every time. Hence, the present scheme obtains the advantages
of a One Time Pad encryption while avoiding its drawbacks in key
exchange. It is demonstrated that the proposed scheme is immune
against traditional attacks.
A Frequency Grouping Approach for Blind Deconvolution of Fairly Motionless Sources
A frequency grouping approach for multi-channel
instantaneous blind source separation (I-BSS) of convolutive
mixtures is proposed for a lower net residual inter-symbol
interference (ISI) and inter-channel interference (ICI) than the
conventional short-time Fourier transform (STFT) approach. Starting
in the time domain, STFTs are taken with overlapping windows to
convert the convolutive mixing problem into frequency domain
instantaneous mixing. Mixture samples at the same frequency but
from different STFT windows are grouped together forming unique
The individual frequency group vectors are input to the I-BSS
algorithm of choice, from which the output samples are dispersed
back to their respective STFT windows. After applying the inverse
STFT, the resulting time domain signals are used to construct the
complete source estimates via the weighted overlap-add method
(WOLA). The proposed algorithm is tested for source deconvolution
given two mixtures, and simulated along with the STFT approach to
illustrate its superiority for fairly motionless sources.
FPGA Implementation of a Vision-Based Blind Spot Warning System
Vision-based intelligent vehicle applications often require large amounts of memory to handle video streaming and image processing, which in turn increases complexity of hardware and software. This paper presents an FPGA implement of a vision-based blind spot warning system. Using video frames, the information of the blind spot area turns into one-dimensional information. Analysis of the estimated entropy of image allows the detection of an object in time. This idea has been implemented in the XtremeDSP video starter kit. The blind spot warning system uses only 13% of its logic resources and 95k bits block memory, and its frame rate is over 30 frames per sec (fps).
Blind Source Separation for Convoluted Signals Based on Properties of Acoustic Transfer Function in Real Environments
Frequency domain independent component analysis has
a scaling indeterminacy and a permutation problem. The scaling
indeterminacy can be solved by use of a decomposed spectrum. For
the permutation problem, we have proposed the rules in terms of gain
ratio and phase difference derived from the decomposed spectra and
the source-s coarse directions.
The present paper experimentally clarifies that the gain ratio and
the phase difference work effectively in a real environment but their
performance depends on frequency bands, a microphone-space and
a source-microphone distance. From these facts it is seen that it is
difficult to attain a perfect solution for the permutation problem in a
real environment only by either the gain ratio or the phase difference.
For the perfect solution, this paper gives a solution to the problems
in a real environment. The proposed method is simple, the amount of
calculation is small. And the method has high correction performance
without depending on the frequency bands and distances from source
signals to microphones. Furthermore, it can be applied under the real
environment. From several experiments in a real room, it clarifies
that the proposed method has been verified.
GPS Navigator for Blind Walking in a Campus
We developed a GPS-based navigation device for the
blind, with audio guidance in Thai language. The device is composed
of simple and inexpensive hardware components. Its user interface is
quite simple. It determines optimal routes to various landmarks in our
university campus by using heuristic search for the next waypoints.
We tested the device and made note of its limitations and possible
Blind Image Deconvolution by Neural Recursive Function Approximation
This work explores blind image deconvolution by recursive function approximation based on supervised learning of neural networks, under the assumption that a degraded image is linear convolution of an original source image through a linear shift-invariant (LSI) blurring matrix. Supervised learning of neural networks of radial basis functions (RBF) is employed to construct an embedded recursive function within a blurring image, try to extract non-deterministic component of an original source image, and use them to estimate hyper parameters of a linear image degradation model. Based on the estimated blurring matrix, reconstruction of an original source image from a blurred image is further resolved by an annealed Hopfield neural network. By numerical simulations, the proposed novel method is shown effective for faithful estimation of an unknown blurring matrix and restoration of an original source image.
Blind Source Separation based on the Estimation for the Number of the Blind Sources under a Dynamic Acoustic Environment
Independent component analysis can estimate unknown
source signals from their mixtures under the assumption that the
source signals are statistically independent. However, in a real environment,
the separation performance is often deteriorated because
the number of the source signals is different from that of the sensors.
In this paper, we propose an estimation method for the number of
the sources based on the joint distribution of the observed signals
under two-sensor configuration. From several simulation results, it
is found that the number of the sources is coincident to that of
peaks in the histogram of the distribution. The proposed method can
estimate the number of the sources even if it is larger than that of
the observed signals. The proposed methods have been verified by
Atrial Fibrillation Analysis Based on Blind Source Separation in 12-lead ECG
Atrial Fibrillation is the most common sustained
arrhythmia encountered by clinicians. Because of the invisible
waveform of atrial fibrillation in atrial activation for human, it is
necessary to develop an automatic diagnosis system. 12-Lead ECG
now is available in hospital and is appropriate for using Independent
Component Analysis to estimate the AA period. In this research, we
also adopt a second-order blind identification approach to transform
the sources extracted by ICA to more precise signal and then we use
frequency domain algorithm to do the classification. In experiment,
we gather a significant result of clinical data.
A Study of Color Transformation on Website Images for the Color Blind
In this paper, we study on color transformation
method on website images for the color blind. The most common
category of color blindness is red-green color blindness which is
viewed as beige color. By transforming the colors of the images, the
color blind can improve their color visibility. They can have a better
view when browsing through the websites. To transform colors on
the website images, we study on two algorithms which are the
conversion techniques from RGB color space to HSV color space and
self-organizing color transformation. The comparative study focuses
on criteria based on the ease of use, quality, accuracy and efficiency.
The outcome of the study leads to enhancement of website images to
meet the color blinds- vision requirements in perceiving image
Floating-Point Scaling for BSS Gain Control
In Blind Source Separation (BSS) processing, taking
advantage of scaling factor indetermination and based on the floatingpoint
representation, we propose a scaling technique applied to the
separation matrix, to avoid the saturation or the weakness in the
recovered source signals. This technique performs an Automatic Gain
Control (AGC) in an on-line BSS environment. We demonstrate
the effectiveness of this technique by using the implementation of
a division free BSS algorithm with two input, two output. This
technique is computationally cheaper and efficient for a hardware
A Double Referenced Contrast for Blind Source Separation
This paper addresses the problem of blind source separation
(BSS). To recover original signals, from linear instantaneous
mixtures, we propose a new contrast function based on the use of a
double referenced system. Our approach assumes statistical independence
sources. The reference vectors will be incrusted in the cumulant
to evaluate the independence. The estimation of the separating matrix
will be performed in two steps: whitening observations and joint
diagonalization of a set of referenced cumulant matrices. Computer
simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the