Received Signal Strength Indicator Based Localization of Bluetooth Devices Using Trilateration: An Improved Method for the Visually Impaired People
The instantaneous and spatial localization for visually impaired people in dynamically changing environments with unexpected hazards and obstacles, is the most demanding and challenging issue faced by the navigation systems today. Since Bluetooth cannot utilize techniques like Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) and Time of Arrival (TOA), it uses received signal strength indicator (RSSI) to measure Receive Signal Strength (RSS). The measurements using RSSI can be improved significantly by improving the existing methodologies related to RSSI. Therefore, the current paper focuses on proposing an improved method using trilateration for localization of Bluetooth devices for visually impaired people. To validate the method, class 2 Bluetooth devices were used along with the development of a software. Experiments were then conducted to obtain surface plots that showed the signal interferences and other environmental effects. Finally, the results obtained show the surface plots for all Bluetooth modules used along with the strong and weak points depicted as per the color codes in red, yellow and blue. It was concluded that the suggested improved method of measuring RSS using trilateration helped to not only measure signal strength affectively but also highlighted how the signal strength can be influenced by atmospheric conditions such as noise, reflections, etc.
Fabrication of Wearable Antennas through Thermal Deposition
Antennas are devices for transmitting and/or receiving signals which make them a necessary component of any wireless system. In this paper, a thermal deposition technique is utilized as a method to fabricate antenna structures on substrates. Thin-film deposition is achieved by evaporating a source material (metals in our case) in a vacuum which allows vapor particles to travel directly to the target substrate which is encased with a mask that outlines the desired structure. The material then condenses back to solid state. This method is used in comparison to screen printing, chemical etching, and ink jet printing to indicate advantages and disadvantages to the method. The antenna created undergoes various testing of frequency ranges, conductivity, and a series of flexing to indicate the effectiveness of the thermal deposition technique. A single band antenna that is operated at 2.45 GHz intended for wearable and flexible applications was successfully fabricated through this method and tested. It is concluded that thermal deposition presents a feasible technique of producing such antennas.
Comparison of Power Consumption of WiFi Inbuilt Internet of Things Device with Bluetooth Low Energy
The Internet of things (IoT) is currently a highly
researched topic, especially within the context of the smart home.
These are small sensors that are capable of gathering data and
transmitting it to a server. The majority of smart home products use
protocols such as ZigBee or Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE). As these
small sensors are increasing in number, the need to implement these
with much more capable and ubiquitous transmission technology is
necessary. The high power consumption is the reason that holds
these small sensors back from using other protocols such as the
most ubiquitous form of communication, WiFi. Comparing the power
consumption of existing transmission technologies to one with WiFi
inbuilt, would provide a better understanding for choosing between
these technologies. We have developed a small IoT device with WiFi
capability and proven that it is much more efficient than the first
protocol, 433 MHz. We extend our work in this paper and compare
WiFi power consumption with the other most widely used protocol
BLE. The experimental results in this paper would conclude whether
the developed prototype is capable in terms of power consumption to
replace the existing protocol BLE with WiFi.
Intelligent Irrigation Control System Using Wireless Sensors and Android Application
Agriculture is the major occupation in India and forms the backbone of Indian economy in which irrigation plays a crucial role for increasing the quality and quantity of crop yield. In spite of many revolutionary advancements in agriculture, there has not been a dramatic increase in agricultural performance. Lack of irrigation infrastructure and agricultural knowledge are the critical factors influencing agricultural performance. However, by using advanced agricultural equipment, the effect of these factors can be curtailed. The presented system aims at increasing the yield of crops by using an intelligent irrigation controller that makes use of wireless sensors. Sensors are used to monitor primary parameters such as soil moisture, soil pH, temperature and humidity. Irrigation decisions are taken based on the sensed data and the type of crop being grown. The system provides a mobile application in which farmers can remotely monitor and control the irrigation system. Also, the water pump is protected against damages due to voltage variations and dry running.
Performance Analysis of Bluetooth Low Energy Mesh Routing Algorithm in Case of Disaster Prediction
Ubiquity of natural disasters during last few decades
have risen serious questions towards the prediction of such events
and human safety. Every disaster regardless its proportion has a
precursor which is manifested as a disruption of some environmental
parameter such as temperature, humidity, pressure, vibrations and
etc. In order to anticipate and monitor those changes, in this paper
we propose an overall system for disaster prediction and monitoring,
based on wireless sensor network (WSN). Furthermore, we introduce
a modified and simplified WSN routing protocol built on the top
of the trickle routing algorithm. Routing algorithm was deployed
using the bluetooth low energy protocol in order to achieve low
power consumption. Performance of the WSN network was analyzed
using a real life system implementation. Estimates of the WSN
parameters such as battery life time, network size and packet delay are
determined. Based on the performance of the WSN network, proposed
system can be utilized for disaster monitoring and prediction due to
its low power profile and mesh routing feature.
Optimizing Resource Allocation and Indoor Location Using Bluetooth Low Energy
The recent tendency of ”Internet of Things” (IoT) has
developed in the last years, causing the emergence of innovative
communication methods among multiple devices. The appearance of
Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has allowed a push to IoT in relation
to smartphones. In this moment, a set of new applications related to
several topics like entertainment and advertisement has begun to be
developed but not much has been done till now to take advantage
of the potential that these technologies can offer on many business
areas and in everyday tasks. In the present work, the application of
BLE technology and smartphones is proposed on some business areas
related to the optimization of resource allocation in huge facilities
like airports. An indoor location system has been developed through
triangulation methods with the use of BLE beacons. The described
system can be used to locate all employees inside the building
in such a way that any task can be automatically assigned to a
group of employees. It should be noted that this system cannot
only be used to link needs with employees according to distances,
but it also takes into account other factors like occupation level or
category. In addition, it has been endowed with a security system
to manage business and personnel sensitive data. The efficiency of
communications is another essential characteristic that has been taken
into account in this work.
Hospital Based Electrocardiogram Sensor Grid
The technological concepts such as wireless hospital
and portable cardiac telemetry system require the development of
physiological signal acquisition devices to be easily integrated into
the hospital database. In this paper we present the low cost, portable
wireless ECG acquisition hardware that transmits ECG signals to a
dedicated computer.The front end of the system obtains and
processes incoming signals, which are then transmitted via a
microcontroller and wireless Bluetooth module. A monitoring
purpose Bluetooth based end user application integrated with patient
database management module is developed for the computers. The
system will act as a continuous event recorder, which can be used to
follow up patients who have been resuscitatedfrom cardiac arrest,
ventricular tachycardia but also for diagnostic purposes for patients
with arrhythmia symptoms. In addition, cardiac information can be
saved into the patient-s database of the hospital.
Image Transmission in Low-Power Networks in Mobile Communications Channel
This paper studies a vital issue in wireless
communications, which is the transmission of images over Wireless
Personal Area Networks (WPANs) through the Bluetooth network. It
presents a simple method to improve the efficiency of error control
code of old Bluetooth versions over mobile WPANs through
Interleaved Error Control Code (IECC) technique. The encoded
packets are interleaved by simple block interleaver. Also, the paper
presents a chaotic interleaving scheme as a tool against bursts of
errors which depends on the chaotic Baker map. Also, the paper
proposes using the chaotic interleaver instead of traditional block
interleaver with Forward Error Control (FEC) scheme. A comparison
study between the proposed and standard techniques for image
transmission over a correlated fading channel is presented.
Simulation results reveal the superiority of the proposed chaotic
interleaving scheme to other schemes. Also, the superiority of FEC
with proposed chaotic interleaver to the conventional interleavers
with enhancing the security level with chaotic interleaving packetby-
Embedded Throughput Improving of Low-rate EDR Packets for Lower-latency
With increasing utilization of the wireless devices in
different fields such as medical devices and industrial fields, the
paper presents a method for simplify the Bluetooth packets with
throughput enhancing. The paper studies a vital issue in wireless
communications, which is the throughput of data over wireless
networks. In fact, the Bluetooth and ZigBee are a Wireless Personal
Area Network (WPAN). With taking these two systems competition
consideration, the paper proposes different schemes for improve the
throughput of Bluetooth network over a reliable channel. The
proposition depends on the Channel Quality Driven Data Rate
(CQDDR) rules, which determines the suitable packet in the
transmission process according to the channel conditions. The
proposed packet is studied over additive White Gaussian Noise
(AWGN) and fading channels. The Experimental results reveal the
capability of extension of the PL length by 8, 16, 24 bytes for classic
and EDR packets, respectively. Also, the proposed method is suitable
for the low throughput Bluetooth.
Mobile Qibla and Prayer Time Finder using PDA and External Digital Compass
These days people love to travel around the world.
Regardless of their location and time, they especially Muslims still
need to perform their prayers. Normally for travelers, they need to
bring maps, compass and for Muslim, they even have to bring Qibla
pointer when they travel. It is slightly difficult to determine the Qibla
direction and to know the time for each prayer. As the technology
grows, many PDA equip with maps and GPS to locate their location.
In this paper we present a new electronic device called Mobile Qibla
and Prayer Time Finder to locate the Qibla direction and to
determine each prayer time based on the current user-s location using
PDA. This device use PIC microcontroller equipped with digital
compass where it will communicate with PDA using Bluetooth
technology and display the exact Qibla direction and prayer time
automatically at any place in the world. This device is reliable and
accurate in determining the Qibla direction and prayer time.
Design and Simulation of Portable Telemedicine System for High Risk Cardiac Patients
Deaths from cardiovascular diseases have decreased substantially over the past two decades, largely as a result of advances in acute care and cardiac surgery. These developments have produced a growing population of patients who have survived a myocardial infarction. These patients need to be continuously monitored so that the initiation of treatment can be given within the crucial golden hour. The available conventional methods of monitoring mostly perform offline analysis and restrict the mobility of these patients within a hospital or room. Hence the aim of this paper is to design a Portable Cardiac Telemedicine System to aid the patients to regain their independence and return to an active work schedule, there by improving the psychological well being. The portable telemedicine system consists of a Wearable ECG Transmitter (WET) and a slightly modified mobile phone, which has an inbuilt ECG analyzer. The WET is placed on the body of the patient that continuously acquires the ECG signals from the high-risk cardiac patients who can move around anywhere. This WET transmits the ECG to the patient-s Bluetooth enabled mobile phone using blue tooth technology. The ECG analyzer inbuilt in the mobile phone continuously analyzes the heartbeats derived from the received ECG signals. In case of any panic condition, the mobile phone alerts the patients care taker by an SMS and initiates the transmission of a sample ECG signal to the doctor, via the mobile network.
Interactive PTZ Camera Control System Using Wii Remote and Infrared Sensor Bar
This paper proposes an alternative control mechanism
for an interactive Pan/Tilt/Zoom (PTZ) camera control system.
Instead of using a mouse or a joystick, the proposed mechanism
utilizes a Nintendo Wii remote and infrared (IR) sensor bar. The Wii
remote has buttons that allows the user to control the movement of a
PTZ camera through Bluetooth connectivity. In addition, the Wii
remote has a built-in motion sensor that allows the user to give
control signals to the PTZ camera through pitch and roll movement.
A stationary IR sensor bar, placed at some distance away opposite the
Wii remote, enables the detection of yaw movement. In addition, the
Wii remote-s built-in IR camera has the ability to detect its spatial
position, and thus generates a control signal when the user moves the
Wii remote. Some experiments are carried out and their performances
are compared with an industry-standard PTZ joystick.
Zero-knowledge-like Proof of Cryptanalysis of Bluetooth Encryption
This paper presents a protocol aiming at proving that an encryption system contains structural weaknesses without disclosing any information on those weaknesses. A verifier can check in a polynomial time that a given property of the cipher system output has been effectively realized. This property has been chosen by the prover in such a way that it cannot been achieved by known attacks or exhaustive search but only if the prover indeed knows some undisclosed weaknesses that may effectively endanger the cryptosystem security. This protocol has been denoted zero-knowledge-like proof of cryptanalysis. In this paper, we apply this protocol to the Bluetooth core encryption algorithm E0, used in many mobile environments and thus we suggest that its security can seriously be put into question.
Performance Evaluation of Bluetooth Links in the Presence of Specific Types of Interference
In the last couple of years Bluetooth has gained a large share in the market of home and personal appliances. It is now a well established technology a short range supplement to the wireless world of 802.11. The two main trends of research that have sprung from these developments are directed towards the coexistence and performance issues of Bluetooth and 802.11 as well as the co-existence in the very short range of multiple Bluetooth devices. Our work aims at thoroughly investigating different aspects of co-channel interference and effects of transmission power, distance and 802.11 interference on Bluetooth connections.