Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 17

Modeling and Simulation of Underwater Flexible Manipulator as Raleigh Beam Using Bond Graph
This paper presents modeling and simulation of flexible robot in an underwater environment. The underwater environment completely contrasts with ground or space environment. The robot in an underwater situation is subjected to various dynamic forces like buoyancy forces, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic forces. The underwater robot is modeled as Rayleigh beam. The developed model further allows estimating the deflection of tip in two directions. The complete dynamics of the underwater robot is analyzed, which is the main focus of this investigation. The control of robot trajectory is not discussed in this paper. Simulation is performed using Symbol Shakti software.
Analysis of Electrical Networks Using Phasors: A Bond Graph Approach

This paper proposes a phasor representation of electrical networks by using bond graph methodology. A so-called phasor bond graph is built up by means of two-dimensional bonds, which represent the complex plane. Impedances or admittances are used instead of the standard bond graph elements. A procedure to obtain the steady-state values from a phasor bond graph model is presented. Besides the presentation of a phasor bond graph library in SIDOPS code, also an application example is discussed.

Phasor Analysis of a Synchronous Generator: A Bond Graph Approach

This paper presents the use of phasor bond graphs to obtain the steady-state behavior of a synchronous generator. The phasor bond graph elements are built using 2D multibonds, which represent the real and imaginary part of the phasor. The dynamic bond graph model of a salient-pole synchronous generator is showed, and verified viz. a sudden short-circuit test. The reduction of the dynamic model into a phasor representation is described. The previous test is executed on the phasor bond graph model, and its steady-state values are compared with the dynamic response. Besides, the widely used power (torque)-angle curves are obtained by means of the phasor bond graph model, to test the usefulness of this model.

Electrical and Magnetic Modelling of a Power Transformer: A Bond Graph Approach
Bond graph models of an electrical transformer including the nonlinear saturation are presented. The transformer using electrical and magnetic circuits are modelled. These models determine the relation between self and mutual inductances, and the leakage and magnetizing inductances of power transformers with two windings using the properties of a bond graph. The equivalence between electrical and magnetic variables is given. The modelling and analysis using this methodology to three phase power transformers can be extended.
Model Inversion of a Two Degrees of Freedom Linearized PUMA from Bicausal Bond Graphs
A bond graph model of a two degrees of freedom PUMA is described. System inversion gives the system input required to generate a given system output. In order to get the system inversion of the PUMA manipulator, a linearization of the nonlinear bond graph is obtained. Hence, the bicausality of the linearized bond graph of the PUMA manipulator is applied. Thus, the bicausal bond graph provides a systematic way of generating the equations of the system inversion. Simulation results to verify the calculated input for a given output are shown.
Observers Design for Systems Modelled by Bond Graphs with Multivariable Monotone Nonlinearities
A methodology to design a nonlinear observer in a bond graph approach is proposed. The class of nonlinear observer with multivariable nonlinearities is considered. A junction structure of the bond graph observer is proposed. The proposed methodology to an electrical transformer and a DC motor including the nonlinear saturation is applied. Nonlinear observers for the transformer and DC motor based on multivariable circle criterion in the physical domain are proposed. In order to show the saturation effects on the transformer and DC motor, simulation results are obtained. Finally, the paper describes that convergence of the estimates to the true states is achieved.
Dynamic Modeling of Underplateform Damper used in Turbomachinery
The present work deals with the structural analysis of turbine blades and modeling of turbine blades. A common failure mode for turbine machines is high cycle of fatigue of compressor and turbine blades due to high dynamic stresses caused by blade vibration and resonance within the operation range of the machinery. In this work, proper damping system will be analyzed to reduce the vibrating blade. The main focus of the work is the modeling of under platform damper to evaluate the dynamic analysis of turbine-blade vibrations. The system is analyzed using Bond graph technique. Bond graph is one of the most convenient ways to represent a system from the physical aspect in foreground. It has advantage of putting together multi-energy domains of a system in a single representation in a unified manner. The bond graph model of dry friction damper is simulated on SYMBOLS-shakti® software. In this work, the blades are modeled as Timoshenko beam. Blade Vibrations under different working conditions are being analyzed numerically.
Bond Graph and Bayesian Networks for Reliable Diagnosis
Bond Graph as a unified multidisciplinary tool is widely used not only for dynamic modelling but also for Fault Detection and Isolation because of its structural and causal proprieties. A binary Fault Signature Matrix is systematically generated but to make the final binary decision is not always feasible because of the problems revealed by such method. The purpose of this paper is introducing a methodology for the improvement of the classical binary method of decision-making, so that the unknown and identical failure signatures can be treated to improve the robustness. This approach consists of associating the evaluated residuals and the components reliability data to build a Hybrid Bayesian Network. This network is used in two distinct inference procedures: one for the continuous part and the other for the discrete part. The continuous nodes of the network are the prior probabilities of the components failures, which are used by the inference procedure on the discrete part to compute the posterior probabilities of the failures. The developed methodology is applied to a real steam generator pilot process.
Analysis of a Singular Perturbed Synchronous Generator with a Bond Graph Approach
An analysis of a synchronous generator in a bond graph approach is proposed. This bond graph allows to determine the simplified models of the system by using singular perturbations. Firstly, the nonlinear bond graph of the generator is linearized. Then, the slow and fast state equations by applying singular perturbations are obtained. Also, a bond graph to get the quasi-steady state of the slow dynamic is proposed. In order to verify the effectiveness of the singularly perturbed models, simulation results of the complete system and reduced models are shown.
A Comprehensive model for developing of Steer-By-Wire System

Steer-By-Wire ( SBW ) has several advantages of packaging flexibility , advanced vehicle control system ,and superior performance . SBW has no mechanical linkage between the steering gear and the steering column. It is possible to control the steering wheel and the front-wheel steering independently. SBW system is composed of two motors controlled by ECU. One motor in the steering wheel is to improve the driver's steering feel and the other motor in the steering linkage is to improve the vehicle maneuverability and stability. This paper shows a new approach at modeling of SBW system by Bond Graph theory. The mechanical parts , the steering wheel motor and the front wheel motor will be modeled by this theory. The work in the paper will help to guide further researches on control algorithm of the SBW system .

Bond Graph Modeling of Inter-Actuator Interactions in a Multi-Cylinder Hydraulic System
In this paper, a bond graph dynamic model for a valvecontrolled hydraulic cylinder has been developed. A simplified bond graph model of the inter-actuator interactions in a multi-cylinder hydraulic system has also been presented. The overall bond graph model of a valve-controlled hydraulic cylinder was developed by combining the bond graph sub-models of the pump, spool valve and the actuator using junction structures. Causality was then assigned in order to obtain a computational model which could be simulated. The causal bond graph model of the hydraulic cylinder was verified by comparing the open loop state responses to those of an ODE model which had been developed in literature based on the same assumptions. The results were found to correlate very well both in the shape of the curves, magnitude and the response times, thus indicating that the developed model represents the hydraulic dynamics of a valve-controlled cylinder. A simplified model for interactuator interaction was presented by connecting an effort source with constant pump pressure to the zero-junction from which the cylinders in a multi-cylinder system are supplied with a constant pressure from the pump. On simulating the state responses of the developed model under different situations of cylinder operations, indicated that such a simple model can be used to predict the inter-actuator interactions.
Steady State of Passive and Active Suspensions in the Physical Domain
The steady state response of bond graphs representing passive and active suspension is presented. A bond graph with preferred derivative causality assignment to get the steady state is proposed. A general junction structure of this bond graph is proposed. The proposed methodology to passive and active suspensions is applied.
A NonLinear Observer of an Electrical Transformer: A Bond Graph Approach
A bond graph model of an electrical transformer including the nonlinear saturation is presented. A nonlinear observer for the transformer based on multivariable circle criterion in the physical domain is proposed. In order to show the saturation and hysteresis effects on the electrical transformer, simulation results are obtained. Finally, the paper describes that convergence of the estimates to the true states is achieved.
Bond Graph Modeling of Mechanical Dynamics of an Excavator for Hydraulic System Analysis and Design
This paper focuses on the development of bond graph dynamic model of the mechanical dynamics of an excavating mechanism previously designed to be used with small tractors, which are fabricated in the Engineering Workshops of Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. To develop a mechanical dynamics model of the manipulator, forward recursive equations similar to those applied in iterative Newton-Euler method were used to obtain kinematic relationships between the time rates of joint variables and the generalized cartesian velocities for the centroids of the links. Representing the obtained kinematic relationships in bondgraphic form, while considering the link weights and momenta as the elements led to a detailed bond graph model of the manipulator. The bond graph method was found to reduce significantly the number of recursive computations performed on a 3 DOF manipulator for a mechanical dynamic model to result, hence indicating that bond graph method is more computationally efficient than the Newton-Euler method in developing dynamic models of 3 DOF planar manipulators. The model was verified by comparing the joint torque expressions of a two link planar manipulator to those obtained using Newton- Euler and Lagrangian methods as analyzed in robotic textbooks. The expressions were found to agree indicating that the model captures the aspects of rigid body dynamics of the manipulator. Based on the model developed, actuator sizing and valve sizing methodologies were developed and used to obtain the optimal sizes of the pistons and spool valve ports respectively. It was found that using the pump with the sized flow rate capacity, the engine of the tractor is able to power the excavating mechanism in digging a sandy-loom soil.
Modeling, Simulation and Monitoring of Nuclear Reactor Using Directed Graph and Bond Graph
The main objective developed in this paper is to find a graphic technique for modeling, simulation and diagnosis of the industrial systems. This importance is much apparent when it is about a complex system such as the nuclear reactor with pressurized water of several form with various several non-linearity and time scales. In this case the analytical approach is heavy and does not give a fast idea on the evolution of the system. The tool Bond Graph enabled us to transform the analytical model into graphic model and the software of simulation SYMBOLS 2000 specific to the Bond Graphs made it possible to validate and have the results given by the technical specifications. We introduce the analysis of the problem involved in the faults localization and identification in the complex industrial processes. We propose a method of fault detection applied to the diagnosis and to determine the gravity of a detected fault. We show the possibilities of application of the new diagnosis approaches to the complex system control. The industrial systems became increasingly complex with the faults diagnosis procedures in the physical systems prove to become very complex as soon as the systems considered are not elementary any more. Indeed, in front of this complexity, we chose to make recourse to Fault Detection and Isolation method (FDI) by the analysis of the problem of its control and to conceive a reliable system of diagnosis making it possible to apprehend the complex dynamic systems spatially distributed applied to the standard pressurized water nuclear reactor.
Analysis of a Hydroelectric Plant connected to Electrical Power System in the Physical Domain
A bond graph model of a hydroelectric plant is proposed. In order to analyze the system some structural properties of a bond graph are used. The structural controllability of the hydroelctric plant is described. Also, the steady state of the state variables applying the bond graph in a derivative causality assignment is obtained. Finally, simulation results of the system are shown.
Analysis of an Electrical Transformer: A Bond Graph Approach
Bond graph models of an electrical transformer including the nonlinear saturation are presented. These models determine the relation between self and mutual inductances, and the leakage and magnetizing inductances of power transformers with two and three windings using the properties of a bond graph. The modelling and analysis using this methodology to three phase power transformers or transformers with internal incipient faults can be extended.
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