Efficient Broadcasting in Wireless Sensor Networks
In this paper, we study the Minimum Latency Broadcast
Scheduling (MLBS) problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs).
The main issue of the MLBS problem is to compute schedules
with the minimum number of timeslots such that a base station can
broadcast data to all other sensor nodes with no collisions. Unlike
existing works that utilize the traditional omni-directional WSNs,
we target the directional WSNs where nodes can collaboratively
determine and orientate their antenna directions. We first develop
a 7-approximation algorithm, adopting directional WSNs. Our ratio
is currently the best, to the best of our knowledge. We then validate
the performance of the proposed algorithm through simulation.
Improving Topic Quality of Scripts by Using Scene Similarity Based Word Co-Occurrence
Scripts are one of the basic text resources to understand
broadcasting contents. Topic modeling is the method to get the
summary of the broadcasting contents from its scripts. Generally,
scripts represent contents descriptively with directions and speeches,
and provide scene segments that can be seen as semantic units.
Therefore, a script can be topic modeled by treating a scene segment
as a document. Because scene segments consist of speeches mainly,
however, relatively small co-occurrences among words in the scene
segments are observed. This causes inevitably the bad quality of
topics by statistical learning method. To tackle this problem, we
propose a method to improve topic quality with additional word
co-occurrence information obtained using scene similarities. The
main idea of improving topic quality is that the information that
two or more texts are topically related can be useful to learn high
quality of topics. In addition, more accurate topical representations
lead to get information more accurate whether two texts are related
or not. In this paper, we regard two scene segments are related
if their topical similarity is high enough. We also consider that
words are co-occurred if they are in topically related scene segments
together. By iteratively inferring topics and determining semantically
neighborhood scene segments, we draw a topic space represents
broadcasting contents well. In the experiments, we showed the
proposed method generates a higher quality of topics from Korean
drama scripts than the baselines.
Online Topic Model for Broadcasting Contents Using Semantic Correlation Information
This paper proposes a method of learning topics for
broadcasting contents. There are two kinds of texts related to
broadcasting contents. One is a broadcasting script, which is a series of
texts including directions and dialogues. The other is blogposts, which
possesses relatively abstracted contents, stories, and diverse
information of broadcasting contents. Although two texts range over
similar broadcasting contents, words in blogposts and broadcasting
script are different. When unseen words appear, it needs a method to
reflect to existing topic. In this paper, we introduce a semantic
vocabulary expansion method to reflect unseen words. We expand
topics of the broadcasting script by incorporating the words in
blogposts. Each word in blogposts is added to the most semantically
correlated topics. We use word2vec to get the semantic correlation
between words in blogposts and topics of scripts. The vocabularies of
topics are updated and then posterior inference is performed to
rearrange the topics. In experiments, we verified that the proposed
method can discover more salient topics for broadcasting contents.
Survey on Handover Security Issues in WiMAX Networks
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a broadband technology, which can effectively transmit a data across a group of users using Multicast and Broadcast Service. WiMAX belongs to a family of (IEEE 802.16) standards and is evolving as a fourth generation technology. WiMAX is the next generation technology that offers wireless access over long distances. MBS zone, which is a group of base stations that are broadcasting the same multicast packets which defines Multicast and Broadcast services. Handover is a process of transferring an ongoing call or data session from one channel connected to the core network to another channel. The handover causes authentication, delay, packet loss, jitter that mainly affects the communication. In this paper, we present a survey on handover security issues in WiMAX.
Fault-Tolerant Optimal Broadcast Algorithm for the Hypercube Topology
This paper presents an optimal broadcast algorithm
for the hypercube networks. The main focus of the paper is the
effectiveness of the algorithm in the presence of many node faults.
For the optimal solution, our algorithm builds with spanning tree
connecting the all nodes of the networks, through which messages
are propagated from source node to remaining nodes. At any given
time, maximum n − 1 nodes may fail due to crashing. We show
that the hypercube networks are strongly fault-tolerant. Simulation
results analyze to accomplish algorithm characteristics under many
node faults. We have compared our simulation results between our
proposed method and the Fu’s method. Fu’s approach cannot tolerate
n − 1 faulty nodes in the worst case, but our approach can tolerate
n − 1 faulty nodes.
Survey of Key Management Algorithms in WiMAX
WiMAX is a telecommunications technology and it is
specified by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.,
as the IEEE 802.16 standard. The goal of this technology is to
provide a wireless data over long distances in a variety of ways. IEEE
802.16 is a recent standard for mobile communication. In this paper,
we provide an overview of various key management algorithms to
provide security for WiMAX.
A Pragmatics Study on Jokes and the Implicature in Broadcast Messages
The study of implicature which is one of the
discussions of pragmatics is such an interesting and challenging topic
to discuss. Implicature is such a meaning which is implied in such an
utterance which is not the same as its literal meaning. The rapid
development of information technology results social networks as
media to broadcast messages. The broadcast messages may be in the
form of jokes which contain implicature. The research applies the
pragmatic equivalent method to analyze the topics of jokes based on
the implicatures contained in them. Furthermore, the method is also
applied to reveal the purpose of creating implicature in jokes. The
findings include the kinds of implicature found in jokes which are
classified into conventional implicature and conversational
implicature. Then, in detailed analysis, implicature in jokes is divided
into implicature related to gender, culture, and social phenomena.
Furthermore, implicature in jokes may not only be used to give
entertainment but also to soften criticisms or satire so that it does not
sound rude and harsh.
An Investigation of Community Radio Broadcasting in Phutthamonthon District, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand
This study aims to explore and compare the current
condition of community radio stations in Phutthamonthon district,
Nakhon Pathom province, Thailand, as well as the challenges they
are facing. Qualitative research tools including in-depth interviews;
documentary analysis; focus group interviews; and observation, are
used to examine the content, programming, and management
structure of three community radio stations currently in operation
within the district. Research findings indicate that the management
and operational approaches adopted by the two non-profit stations
included in the study, Salaya Pattana and Voice of Dhamma, are
more structured and effective than that of the for-profit Tune Radio.
Salaya Pattana – backed by the Faculty of Engineering, Mahidol
University, and the charity-funded Voice of Dhamma, are
comparatively free from political and commercial influence, and able
to provide more relevant and consistent community-oriented content
to meet the real demand of the audience. Tune Radio, on the other
hand, has to rely solely on financial support from political factions
and business groups, which heavily influence its content.
Broadcasting Stabilization for Dynamical Multi-Agent Systems
This paper deals with a stabilization problem for
multi-agent systems, when all agents in a multi-agent system receive
the same broadcasting control signal and the controller can measure
not each agent output but the sum of all agent outputs. It is
analytically shown that when the sum of all agent outputs is bounded
with a certain broadcasting controller for a given reference, each agent
output is separately bounded: stabilization of the sum of agent outputs
always results in the stability of every agent output. A numerical
example is presented to illustrate our theoretic findings in this paper.
An Adaptive Cooperative Scheme for Reliability of Transmission Using STBC and CDD in Wireless Communications
In broadcasting and cellular system, a cooperative
scheme is proposed for the improvement of performance of bit error
rate. Up to date, the coverage of broadcasting system coexists with the
coverage of cellular system. Therefore each user in a cellular coverage
is frequently involved in a broadcasting coverage. The proposed
cooperative scheme is derived from the shared areas. The users receive
signals from both broadcasting station and cellular station. The
proposed scheme selects a cellular base station of a worse channel to
achieve better performance of bit error rate in cooperation. The
performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated in fading channel.
Digitization of Television Broadcasting in Nigeria Review
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has opened up new and robust ways of sending and receiving information at global level. Any type of information including voice and video is sent to the diverse publics, who equally have variety of choices. Thus, the development of any nation is tied to efficient information dissemination. In Nigeria, television broadcasting started in 1959 with the establishment of the Western Nigeria Television (WNTV) by the opposition leader, Chief Obafemi Awolowo. Later on, the government took over the station and fully controlled it. Subsequently, regional stations were opened to propagate government policies and programs. The television industry in Nigeria continued to grow in terms of viewership and number with over fifty national television stations and twenty five private ones. Thus, existing documents on digitization of television broadcasting industry and related literature were used as the main source of information. Therefore, this paper analyses the efforts being made by the Nigerian government through its ICT policy towards digitization of its television broadcasting in order to cope with the global trend. Recommendations are proffered with a view to achieving the target goal.
Extension of the Client-Centric Approach under Small Buffer Space
Periodic broadcast is a cost-effective solution for large-scale distribution of popular videos because this approach guarantees constant worst service latency, regardless of the number of video requests. An essential periodic broadcast method is the client-centric approach (CCA), which allows clients to use smaller receiving bandwidth to download broadcast data. An enhanced version, namely CCA++, was proposed to yield a shorter waiting time. This work further improves CCA++ in reducing client buffer requirements. The new scheme decreases the buffer requirements by as much as 52% when compared to CCA++. This study also provides an analytical evaluation to demonstrate the performance advantage, as compared with particular schemes.
Energy Efficient Transmission of Image over DWT-OFDM System
In many applications retransmissions of lost packets are not permitted. OFDM is a multi-carrier modulation scheme having excellent performance which allows overlapping in frequency domain. With OFDM there is a simple way of dealing with multipath relatively simple DSP algorithms.
In this paper, an image frame is compressed using DWT, and the compressed data is arranged in data vectors, each with equal number of coefficients. These vectors are quantized and binary coded to get the bit steams, which are then packetized and intelligently mapped to the OFDM system. Based on one-bit channel state information at the transmitter, the descriptions in order of descending priority are assigned to the currently good channels such that poorer sub-channels can only affect the lesser important data vectors. We consider only one-bit channel state information available at the transmitter, informing only about the sub-channels to be good or bad. For a good sub-channel, instantaneous received power should be greater than a threshold Pth. Otherwise, the sub-channel is in fading state and considered bad for that batch of coefficients. In order to reduce the system power consumption, the mapped descriptions onto the bad sub channels are dropped at the transmitter. The binary channel state information gives an opportunity to map the bit streams intelligently and to save a reasonable amount of power. By using MAT LAB simulation we can analysis the performance of our proposed scheme, in terms of system energy saving without compromising the received quality in terms of peak signal-noise ratio.
Digital Terrestrial Broadcasting Technologies and Implementation Status
Digital broadcasting has been an area of active
research, development, innovation and business models development
in recent years. This paper presents a survey on the characteristics of
the digital terrestrial television broadcasting (DTTB) standards, and
implementation status of DTTB worldwide showing the standards
adopted. It is clear that only the developed countries and some in the
developing ones shall be able to beat the ITU set analogue to digital
broadcasting migration deadline because of the challenges that these
countries faces in digitizing their terrestrial broadcasting. The
challenges to keep on track the DTTB migration plan are also
discussed in this paper. They include financial, technology gap,
policies alignment with DTTB technology, etc. The reported
performance comparisons for the different standards are also
presented. The interesting part is that the results for many
comparative studies depends to a large extent on the objective behind
such studies, hence counter claims are common.
Network Coding-based ARQ scheme with Overlapping Selection for Resource Limited Multicast/Broadcast Services
Network coding has recently attracted attention as an efficient technique in multicast/broadcast services. The problem of finding the optimal network coding mechanism maximizing the bandwidth efficiency is hard to solve and hard to approximate. Lots of network coding-based schemes have been suggested in the literature to improve the bandwidth efficiency, especially network coding-based automatic repeat request (NCARQ) schemes. However, existing schemes have several limitations which cause the performance degradation in resource limited systems. To improve the performance in resource limited systems, we propose NCARQ with overlapping selection (OS-NCARQ) scheme. The advantages of OS-NCARQ scheme over the traditional ARQ scheme and existing NCARQ schemes are shown through the analysis and simulations.
A Review on Terrestrial Multimedia Communication using OFDM Technology
The development of wireless communication technologies has changed our living style in global level. After the international success of mobile telephony standards, the location and time independent voice connection has become a default method in daily telecommunications. As for today, highly advanced multimedia messaging plays a key role in value added service handling. Along with evolving data services, the need for more complex applications can be seen, including the mobile usage of broadcast technologies. Here performance of a system design for terrestrial multimedia content is examined with emphasis on mobile reception. This review paper has accommodated the understanding of physical layer role and the flavour of terrestrial channel effects on the terrestrial multimedia transmission using OFDM keeping DVB-H as benchmark standard.
Transmitter Macrodiversity in Multihopping- SFN Based Algorithm for Improved Node Reachability and Robust Routing
A novel idea presented in this paper is to combine
multihop routing with single-frequency networks (SFNs) for a
broadcasting scenario. An SFN is a set of multiple nodes that transmit
the same data simultaneously, resulting in transmitter macrodiversity.
Two of the most important performance factors of multihop
networks, node reachability and routing robustness, are analyzed.
Simulation results show that our proposed SFN-D routing algorithm
improves the node reachability by 37 percentage points as compared
to non-SFN multihop routing. It shows a diversity gain of 3.7 dB,
meaning that 3.7 dB lower transmission powers are required for the
same reachability. Even better results are possible for larger
networks. If an important node becomes inactive, this algorithm can
find new routes that a non-SFN scheme would not be able to find.
Thus, two of the major problems in multihopping are addressed;
achieving robust routing as well as improving node reachability or
reducing transmission power.
A Delay-Tolerant Distributed Query Processing Architecture for Mobile Environment
The intermittent connectivity modifies the “always
on" network assumption made by all the distributed query processing
systems. In modern- day systems, the absence of network
connectivity is considered as a fault. Since the last upload, it might
not be feasible to transmit all the data accumulated right away over
the available connection. It is possible that vital information may be
delayed excessively when the less important information takes place
of the vital information. Owing to the restricted and uneven
bandwidth, it is vital that the mobile nodes make the most
advantageous use of the connectivity when it arrives. Hence, in order
to select the data that needs to be transmitted first, some sort of data
prioritization is essential. A continuous query processing system for
intermittently connected mobile networks that comprises of a delaytolerant
continuous query processor distributed across the mobile
hosts has been proposed in this paper. In addition, a mechanism for
prioritizing query results has been designed that guarantees enhanced
accuracy and reduced delay. It is illustrated that our architecture
reduces the client power consumption, increases query efficiency by
the extensive simulation results.
Regular Data Broadcasting Plan with Grouping in Wireless Mobile Environment
The broadcast problem including the plan design is
considered. The data are inserted and numbered at predefined order
into customized size relations. The server ability to create a full,
regular Broadcast Plan (RBP) with single and multiple channels after
some data transformations is examined. The Regular Geometric
Algorithm (RGA) prepares a RBP and enables the users to catch their
items avoiding energy waste of their devices. Moreover, the
Grouping Dimensioning Algorithm (GDA) based on integrated
relations can guarantee the discrimination of services with a
minimum number of channels. This last property among the selfmonitoring,
self-organizing, can be offered by servers today
providing also channel availability and less energy consumption by
using smaller number of channels. Simulation results are provided.
Efficient Real-time Remote Data Propagation Mechanism for a Component-Based Approach to Distributed Manufacturing
Manufacturing Industries face a crucial change as products and processes are required to, easily and efficiently, be reconfigurable and reusable. In order to stay competitive and flexible, situations also demand distribution of enterprises globally, which requires implementation of efficient communication strategies. A prototype system called the “Broadcaster" has been developed with an assumption that the control environment description has been engineered using the Component-based system paradigm. This prototype distributes information to a number of globally distributed partners via an adoption of the circular-based data processing mechanism. The work highlighted in this paper includes the implementation of this mechanism in the domain of the manufacturing industry. The proposed solution enables real-time remote propagation of machine information to a number of distributed supply chain client resources such as a HMI, VRML-based 3D views and remote client instances regardless of their distribution nature and/ or their mechanisms. This approach is presented together with a set of evaluation results. Authors- main concentration surrounds the reliability and the performance metric of the adopted approach. Performance evaluation is carried out in terms of the response times taken to process the data in this domain and compared with an alternative data processing implementation such as the linear queue mechanism. Based on the evaluation results obtained, authors justify the benefits achieved from this proposed implementation and highlight any further research work that is to be carried out.
Broadcasting to Handheld Devices: The Challenges
Digital Video Terrestrial Broadcasting (DVB-T)
allows combining broadcasting, telephone and data services in one
network. It has facilitated mobile TV broadcasting. Mobile TV
broadcasting is dominated by fragmentation of standards in use in
different continents. In Asia T-DMB and ISDB-T are used while
Europe uses mainly DVB-H and in USA it is MediaFLO. Issues of
royalty for developers of these different incompatible technologies,
investments made and differing local conditions shall make it
difficult to agree on a unified standard in a very near future. Despite
this shortcoming, mobile TV has shown very good market potential.
There are a number of challenges that still exist for regulators,
investors and technology developers but the future looks bright.
There is need for mobile telephone operators to cooperate with
content providers and those operating terrestrial digital broadcasting
infrastructure for mutual benefit.
Strategies for Securing Safety Messages with Fixed Key Infrastructure in Vehicular Network
Vehicular communications play a substantial role in providing safety in transportation by means of safety message exchange. Researchers have proposed several solutions for securing safety messages. Protocols based on a fixed key infrastructure are more efficient in implementation and maintain stronger security in comparison with dynamic structures. These protocols utilize zone partitioning to establish distinct key infrastructure under Certificate Authority (CA) supervision in different regions. Secure anonymous broadcasting (SAB) is one of these protocols that preserves most of security aspects but it has some deficiencies in practice. A very important issue is region change of a vehicle for its mobility. Changing regions leads to change of CA and necessity of having new key set to resume communication. In this paper, we propose solutions for informing vehicles about region change to obtain new key set before entering next region. This hinders attackers- intrusion, packet loss and lessons time delay. We also make key request messages secure by confirming old CA-s public key to the message, hence stronger security for safety message broadcasting is attained.
Estimation of Broadcast Probability in Wireless Adhoc Networks
Most routing protocols (DSR, AODV etc.) that have
been designed for wireless adhoc networks incorporate the broadcasting
operation in their route discovery scheme. Probabilistic broadcasting
techniques have been developed to optimize the broadcast operation
which is otherwise very expensive in terms of the redundancy
and the traffic it generates. In this paper we have explored percolation
theory to gain a different perspective on probabilistic broadcasting
schemes which have been actively researched in the recent years.
This theory has helped us estimate the value of broadcast probability
in a wireless adhoc network as a function of the size of the network.
We also show that, operating at those optimal values of broadcast
probability there is at least 25-30% reduction in packet regeneration
during successful broadcasting.
Design of MBMS Client Functions in the Mobile
MBMS is a unidirectional point-to-multipoint bearer
service in which data are transmitted from a single source entity to
multiple recipients. For a mobile to support the MBMS, MBMS client
functions as well as MBMS radio protocols should be designed and
implemented. In this paper, we analyze the MBMS client functions
and describe the implementation of them in our mobile test-bed. User
operations and signaling flows between protocol entities to control the
MBMS functions are designed in detail. Service announcement
utilizing the file download MBMS service and four MBMS user
services are demonstrated in the test-bed to verify the MBMS client
A Broadcasting Strategy for Interactive Video-on-Demand Services
In this paper, we employ the approach of linear
programming to propose a new interactive broadcast method. In our
method, a film S is divided into n equal parts and broadcast via k
channels. The user simultaneously downloads these segments from k
channels into the user-s set-top-box (STB) and plays them in order.
Our method assumes that the initial p segments will not have
fast-forwarding capabilities. Every time the user wants to initiate d
times fast-forwarding, according to our broadcasting strategy, the
necessary segments already saved in the user-s STB or are just
download on time for playing. The proposed broadcasting strategy not
only allows the user to pause and rewind, but also to fast-forward.