Critical Buckling Load of Carbon Nanotube with Non-Local Timoshenko Beam Using the Differential Transform Method
In this paper, the Differential Transform Method (DTM) is employed to predict and to analysis the non-local critical buckling loads of carbon nanotubes with various end conditions and the non-local Timoshenko beam described by single differential equation. The equation differential of buckling of the nanobeams is derived via a non-local theory and the solution for non-local critical buckling loads is finding by the DTM. The DTM is introduced briefly. It can easily be applied to linear or nonlinear problems and it reduces the size of computational work. Inﬂuence of boundary conditions, the chirality of carbon nanotube and aspect ratio on non-local critical buckling loads are studied and discussed. Effects of nonlocal parameter, ratios L/d, the chirality of single-walled carbon nanotube, as well as the boundary conditions on buckling of CNT are investigated.
Lateral Torsional Buckling Resistance of Trapezoidally Corrugated Web Girders
Due to the numerous advantages of steel corrugated
web girders, its application field is growing for bridges as well as for
buildings. The global stability behavior of such girders is
significantly larger than those of conventional I-girders with flat web,
thus the application of the structural steel material can be
significantly reduced. Design codes and specifications do not provide
clear and complete rules or recommendations for the determination of
the lateral torsional buckling (LTB) resistance of corrugated web
girders. Therefore, the authors made a thorough investigation
regarding the LTB resistance of the corrugated web girders. Finite
element (FE) simulations have been performed to develop new
design formulas for the determination of the LTB resistance of
trapezoidally corrugated web girders. FE model is developed
considering geometrical and material nonlinear analysis using
equivalent geometric imperfections (GMNI analysis). The equivalent
geometric imperfections involve the initial geometric imperfections
and residual stresses coming from rolling, welding and flame cutting.
Imperfection sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the
necessary magnitudes regarding only the first eigenmodes shape
imperfections. By the help of the validated FE model, an extended
parametric study is carried out to investigate the LTB resistance for
different trapezoidal corrugation profiles. First, the critical moment of
a specific girder was calculated by FE model. The critical moments
from the FE calculations are compared to the previous analytical
calculation proposals. Then, nonlinear analysis was carried out to
determine the ultimate resistance. Due to the numerical
investigations, new proposals are developed for the determination of
the LTB resistance of trapezoidally corrugated web girders through a
modification factor on the design method related to the conventional
flat web girders.
Collapse Load Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Pile Group in Liquefying Soils under Lateral Loading
The ultimate load analysis of RC pile groups has assumed a lot of significance under liquefying soil conditions, especially due to post-earthquake studies of 1964 Niigata, 1995 Kobe and 2001 Bhuj earthquakes. The present study reports the results of numerical simulations on pile groups subjected to monotonically increasing lateral loads under design amounts of pile axial loading. The soil liquefaction has been considered through the non-linear p-y relationship of the soil springs, which can vary along the depth/length of the pile. This variation again is related to the liquefaction potential of the site and the magnitude of the seismic shaking. As the piles in the group can reach their extreme deflections and rotations during increased amounts of lateral loading, a precise modeling of the inelastic behavior of the pile cross-section is done, considering the complete stress-strain behavior of concrete, with and without confinement, and reinforcing steel, including the strain-hardening portion. The possibility of the inelastic buckling of the individual piles is considered in the overall collapse modes. The model is analysed using Riks analysis in finite element software to check the post buckling behavior and plastic collapse of piles. The results confirm the kinds of failure modes predicted by centrifuge test results reported by researchers on pile group, although the pile material used is significantly different from that of the simulation model. The extension of the present work promises an important contribution to the design codes for pile groups in liquefying soils.
Lateral Torsional Buckling Investigation on Welded Q460GJ Structural Steel Unrestrained Beams under a Point Load
This study aims to investigate the lateral torsional buckling of I-shaped cross-section beams fabricated from Q460GJ structural steel plates. Both experimental and numerical simulation results are presented in this paper. A total of eight specimens were tested under a three-point bending, and the corresponding numerical models were established to conduct parametric studies. The effects of some key parameters such as the non-dimensional member slenderness and the height-to-width ratio, were investigated based on the verified numerical models. Also, the results obtained from the parametric studies were compared with the predictions calculated by different design codes including the Chinese design code (GB50017-2003, 2003), the new draft version of Chinese design code (GB50017-201X, 2012), Eurocode 3 (EC3, 2005) and the North America design code (ANSI/AISC360-10, 2010). These comparisons indicated that the sectional height-to-width ratio does not play an important role to influence the overall stability load-carrying capacity of Q460GJ structural steel beams with welded I-shaped cross-sections. It was also found that the design methods in GB50017-2003 and ANSI/AISC360-10 overestimate the overall stability and load-carrying capacity of Q460GJ welded I-shaped cross-section beams.
Numerical Study for Compressive Strength of Basalt Composite Sandwich Infill Panel
In this study, we investigated the buckling performance of basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) sandwich infill panels. Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) is a major evolution for energy dissipation when used as infill material of frame structure, a basic Polymer Matrix Composite (PMC) infill wall system consists of two FRP laminates surrounding an infill of foam core. Furthermore, this type of component is for retrofitting and strengthening frame structure to withstand the seismic disaster. In-plane compression was considered in the numerical analysis with ABAQUS platform to determine the buckling failure load of BFRP infill panel system. The present result shows that the sandwich BFRP infill panel system has higher resistance to buckling failure than those of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) infill panel system, i.e. 16% increase in buckling resistance capacity.
Buckling Resistance of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer Infill Panel Subjected to Elevated Temperatures
Performance of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) sandwich infill panel system under diagonal compression was studied by means of numerical analysis. Furthermore, the variation of temperature was considered to affect the mechanical properties of BFRP, since their composition was based on polymeric material. Moreover, commercial finite element analysis platform ABAQUS was used to model and analyze this infill panel system. Consequently, results of the analyses show that the overall performance of BFRP panel had a 15% increase compared to that of GFRP infill panel system. However, the variation of buckling load in terms of temperature for the BFRP system showed a more sensitive nature compared to those of GFRP system.
Best Combination of Design Parameters for Buildings with Buckling-Restrained Braces
Buildings vulnerability due to seismic activity has been highly studied since the middle of last century. As a solution to the structural and non-structural damage caused by intense ground motions, several seismic energy dissipating devices, such as buckling-restrained braces (BRB), have been proposed. BRB have shown to be effective in concentrating a large portion of the energy transmitted to the structure by the seismic ground motion. A design approach for buildings with BRB elements, which is based on a seismic Displacement-Based formulation, has recently been proposed by the coauthors in this paper. It is a practical and easy design method which simplifies the work of structural engineers. The method is used here for the design of the structure-BRB damper system. The objective of the present study is to extend and apply a methodology to find the best combination of design parameters on multiple-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) structural frame – BRB systems, taking into account simultaneously: 1) initial costs and 2) an adequate engineering demand parameter. The design parameters considered here are: the stiffness ratio (α = Kframe/Ktotal), and the strength ratio (γ = Vdamper/Vtotal); where K represents structural stiffness and V structural strength; and the subscripts "frame", "damper" and "total" represent: the structure without dampers, the BRB dampers and the total frame-damper system, respectively. The selection of the best combination of design parameters α and γ is based on an initial costs analysis and on the structural dynamic response of the structural frame-damper system. The methodology is applied to a 12-story 5-bay steel building with BRB, which is located on the intermediate soil of Mexico City. It is found the best combination of design parameters α and γ for the building with BRB under study.
Application Procedure for Optimized Placement of Buckling Restrained Braces in Reinforced Concrete Building Structures
The optimal design procedure of buckling restrained braces (BRBs) in reinforced concrete (RC) building structures can provide the distribution of horizontal stiffness of BRBs at each story, which minimizes story drift response of the structure under the constraint of specified total stiffness of BRBs. In this paper, a simple rule is proposed to convert continuous horizontal stiffness of BRBs into sectional sizes of BRB which are available from standardized section list assuming realistic structural design stage.
Biaxial Buckling of Single Layer Graphene Sheet Based on Nonlocal Plate Model and Molecular Dynamics Simulation
The biaxial buckling behavior of single-layered graphene sheets (SLGSs) is studied in the present work. To consider the size-effects in the analysis, Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity equations are incorporated into classical plate theory (CLPT). A Generalized Differential Quadrature Method (GDQM) approach is utilized and numerical solutions for the critical buckling loads are obtained. Then, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed for a series of zigzag SLGSs with different side-lengths and with various boundary conditions, the results of which are matched with those obtained by the nonlocal plate model to numerical the appropriate values of nonlocal parameter relevant to each type of boundary conditions.
Study on Buckling and Yielding Behaviors of Low Yield Point Steel Plates
Stability and performance of steel plates are characterized by geometrical buckling and material yielding. In this paper, the geometrical buckling and material yielding behaviors of low yield point (LYP) steel plates are studied from the point of view of their application in steel plate shear wall (SPSW) systems. Use of LYP steel facilitates the design and application of web plates with improved buckling and energy absorption capacities in SPSW systems. LYP steel infill plates may yield first and then undergo inelastic buckling. Hence, accurate determination of the limiting plate thickness corresponding to simultaneous buckling and yielding can be effective in seismic design of such lateral force-resisting and energy dissipating systems. The limiting thicknesses of plates with different loading and support conditions are determined theoretically and verified through detailed numerical simulations. Effects of use of LYP steel and plate aspect ratio parameter on the limiting plate thickness are investigated as well. In addition, detailed studies are performed on determination of the limiting web-plate thickness in code-designed SPSWs. Some practical recommendations are accordingly provided for efficient seismic design of SPSW systems with LYP steel infill plates.
Effect of Stiffeners on the Behavior of Slender Built up Steel I-Beams
This paper presents the effect of stiffeners on the behavior of slender steel I-beams. Nonlinear three dimensional finite element models are developed to represent the stiffened steel I-beams. The well established finite element (ANSYS 13.0) program is used to simulate the geometric and material nonlinear nature of the problem. Verification is achieved by comparing the obtained numerical results with the results of previous published experimental work. The parameters considered in the analysis are the horizontal stiffener's position and the horizontal stiffener's dimensions as well as the number of vertical stiffeners. The studied dimensions of the horizontal stiffeners include the stiffener width, the stiffener thickness and the stiffener length. The results of the achieved numerical parametric study for slender steel I-beams show the significant effect of stiffeners on the beam behavior and its failure load.
Performance of Stiffened Slender Built up Steel I-Columns
The present work illustrates a parametric study for the effect of stiffeners on the performance of slender built up steel I-columns. To achieve the desired analysis, finite element technique is used to develop nonlinear three-dimensional models representing the investigated columns. The finite element program (ANSYS 13.0) is used as a calculation tool for the necessary nonlinear analysis. A validation of the obtained numerical results is achieved. The considered parameters in the study are the column slenderness ratio and the horizontal stiffener's dimensions as well as the number of stiffeners. The dimensions of the stiffeners considered in the analysis are the stiffener width and the stiffener thickness. Numerical results signify a considerable effect of stiffeners on the performance and failure load of slender built up steel I-columns.
On the Evaluation of Critical Lateral-Torsional Buckling Loads of Monosymmetric Beam-Columns
Beam-column elements are defined as structural members subjected to a combination of axial and bending forces. Lateral torsional buckling is one of the major failure modes in which beam-columns that are bent about its strong axis may buckle out of the plane by deflecting laterally and twisting. This study presents a compact closed-form equation that it can be used for calculating critical lateral torsional-buckling load of beam-columns with monosymmetric sections in the presence of a known axial load. Lateral-torsional buckling behavior of beam-columns subjected to constant axial force and various transverse load cases are investigated by using Ritz method in order to establish proposed equation. Lateral-torsional buckling loads calculated by presented formula are compared to finite element model results. ABAQUS software is utilized to generate finite element models of beam-columns. It is found out that lateral-torsional buckling load of beam-columns with monosymmetric sections can be determined by proposed equation and can be safely used in design.
Stability of Concrete Moment Resisting Frames in View of Current Codes Requirements
In this study, the different approaches currently followed by design codes to assess the stability of buildings utilizing concrete moment resisting frames structural system are evaluated. For such purpose, a parametric study was performed. It involved analyzing group of concrete moment resisting frames having different slenderness ratios (height/width ratios), designed for different lateral loads to vertical loads ratios and constructed using ordinary reinforced concrete and high strength concrete for stability check and overall buckling using code approaches and computer buckling analysis. The objectives were to examine the influence of such parameters that directly linked to frames’ lateral stiffness on the buildings’ stability and evaluates the code approach in view of buckling analysis results. Based on this study, it was concluded that, the most susceptible buildings to instability and magnification of second order effects are buildings having high aspect ratios (height/width ratio), having low lateral to vertical loads ratio and utilizing construction materials of high strength. In addition, the study showed that the instability limits imposed by codes are mainly mathematical to ensure reliable analysis not a physical ones and that they are in general conservative. Also, it has been shown that the upper limit set by one of the codes that second order moment for structural elements should be limited to 1.4 the first order moment is not justified, instead, the overall story check is more reliable.
Influence of Stacking Sequence and Temperature on Buckling Resistance of GFRP Infill Panel
Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) is a major evolution for energy dissipation when used as infill material for seismic retrofitting of steel frame, a basic PMC infill wall system consists of two GFRP laminates surrounding an infill of foam core. This paper presents numerical analysis in terms of buckling resistance of GFRP sandwich infill panels system under the influence of environment temperature and stacking sequence of laminate skin. Mode of failure under in-plane compression is studied by means of numerical analysis with ABAQUS platform. Parameters considered in this study are contact length between infill and frame, laminate stacking sequence of GFRP skin and variation of mechanical properties due to increment of temperature. The analysis is done with four cases of simple stacking sequence over a range of temperature. The result showed that both the effect of temperature and stacking sequence alter the performance of entire panel system. The rises of temperature resulted in the decrements of the panel’s strength. This is due to the polymeric nature of this material. Additionally, the contact length also displays the effect on the performance of infill panel. Furthermore, the laminate stiffness can be modified by orientation of laminate, which can increase the infill panel strength. Hence, optimal performance of the entire panel system can be obtained by comparing different cases of stacking sequence.
Buckling Resistance of GFRP Sandwich Infill Panels with Different Cores under Increased Temperatures
This paper presents numerical analysis in terms of
buckling resistance of GFRP sandwich infill panels system under the
influence of increased temperature on the foam core. Failure mode
under in-plane compression is studied by means of numerical analysis
with ABAQUS platform. Parameters considered in this study are
contact length and both the type of foam for core and the variation of
its module elastic under the thermal influence. Increment of
temperature is considered in static cases and only applied to core.
Indeed, it is proven that the effect of temperature alters the mechanical
properties of the entire panel system. Moreover, the rises of
temperature result in a decrease in strength of the panel. This is due to
the polymeric nature of this material. Additionally, the contact length
also displays the effect on performance of infill panel. Their
significance factors are based on type of polymer for core. Therefore,
by comparing difference type of core material, the variation can be
An Approximate Lateral-Torsional Buckling Mode Function for Cantilever I-Beams
Lateral torsional buckling is a global buckling mode
which should be considered in design of slender structural members
under flexure about their strong axis. It is possible to compute the
load which causes lateral torsional buckling of a beam by finite
element analysis, however, closed form equations are needed in
engineering practice for calculation ease which can be obtained by
using energy method. In lateral torsional buckling applications of
energy method, a proper function for the critical lateral torsional
buckling mode should be chosen which can be thought as the
variation of twisting angle along the buckled beam. Accuracy of the
results depends on how close is the chosen function to the exact
mode. Since critical lateral torsional buckling mode of the cantilever
I-beams varies due to material properties, section properties and
loading case, the hardest step is to determine a proper mode function
in application of energy method. This paper presents an approximate function for critical lateral
torsional buckling mode of doubly symmetric cantilever I-beams.
Coefficient matrices are calculated for concentrated load at free end,
uniformly distributed load and constant moment along the beam
cases. Critical lateral torsional buckling modes obtained by presented
function and exact solutions are compared. It is found that the modes
obtained by presented function coincide with differential equation
solutions for considered loading cases.
Molecular Dynamics Simulation for Buckling Analysis at Nanocomposite Beams
In the present study we have investigated axial
buckling characteristics of nanocomposite beams reinforced by
single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Various types of beam
theories including Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, Timoshenko beam
theory and Reddy beam theory were used to analyze the buckling
behavior of carbon nanotube-reinforced composite beams.
Generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method was utilized to
discretize the governing differential equations along with four
commonly used boundary conditions. The material properties of the
nanocomposite beams were obtained using molecular dynamic (MD)
simulation corresponding to both short-(10,10) SWCNT and long-
(10,10) SWCNT composites which were embedded by amorphous
polyethylene matrix. Then the results obtained directly from MD
simulations were matched with those calculated by the mixture rule
to extract appropriate values of carbon nanotube efficiency
parameters accounting for the scale-dependent material properties.
The selected numerical results were presented to indicate the
influences of nanotube volume fractions and end supports on the
critical axial buckling loads of nanocomposite beams relevant to
long- and short-nanotube composites.
Estimation of Hysteretic Damping in Steel Dual Systems with Buckling Restrained Brace and Moment Resisting Frame
Nowadays, energy dissipation devices are commonly
used in structures. High rate of energy absorption during earthquakes
is the benefit of using such devices, which results in damage
reduction of structural elements, specifically columns. The hysteretic
damping capacity of energy dissipation devices is the key point that it
may adversely make analysis and design process complicated. This
effect may be generally represented by Equivalent Viscous Damping
(EVD). The equivalent viscous damping might be obtained from the
expected hysteretic behavior regarding to the design or maximum
considered displacement of a structure. In this paper, the hysteretic
damping coefficient of a steel Moment Resisting Frame (MRF),
which its performance is enhanced by a Buckling Restrained Brace
(BRB) system has been evaluated. Having foresight of damping
fraction between BRB and MRF is inevitable for seismic design
procedures like Direct Displacement-Based Design (DDBD) method.
This paper presents an approach to calculate the damping fraction for
such systems by carrying out the dynamic nonlinear time history
analysis (NTHA) under harmonic loading, which is tuned to the
natural system frequency. Two MRF structures, one equipped with
BRB and the other without BRB are simultaneously studied.
Extensive analysis shows that proportion of each system damping
fraction may be calculated by its shear story portion. In this way,
contribution of each BRB in the floors and their general contribution
in the structural performance may be clearly recognized, in advance.
Lateral Torsional Buckling of an Eccentrically Loaded Channel Section Beam
Channel sections are widely used in practice as beams.
However, design rules for eccentrically loaded (not through shear
center) beams with channel cross- sections are not available in
Eurocode 3. This paper compares the ultimate loads based on the
adjusted design rules for lateral torsional buckling of eccentrically
loaded channel beams in bending to the ultimate loads obtained with
Finite Element (FE) simulations on the basis of a parameter study.
Based on the proposed design rule, this study has led to a new design
rule which conforms to Eurocode 3.
Lateral Torsional Buckling of Steel Thin-Walled Beams with Lateral Restraints
Metal thin-walled members have been widely used in
building industry. Usually they are utilized as purlins, girts or ceiling
beams. Due to slenderness of thin-walled cross-sections these
structural members are prone to stability problems (e.g. flexural
buckling, lateral torsional buckling). If buckling is not
constructionally prevented their resistance is limited by buckling
strength. In practice planar members of roof or wall cladding can be
attached to thin-walled members. These elements reduce
displacement of thin-walled members and therefore increase their
buckling strength. If this effect is taken into static assessment more
economical sections of thin-walled members might be utilized and
certain savings of material might be achieved. This paper focuses on
problem of determination of critical load of steel thin-walled beams
with lateral continuous restraint which is crucial for lateral torsional
Buckling Performance of Irregular Section Cold-Formed Steel Columns under Axially Concentric Loading
This paper presents experimental investigation and
finite element analysis on buckling behavior of irregular section coldformed
steel columns under axially concentric loading. For the
experimental study, four different sections of columns were tested to
investigate effect of stiffening and width-to-thickness ratio on
buckling behavior. For each of the section, three lengths of 230, 950
and 1900 mm. were studied representing short, intermediate long and
long columns, respectively. Then, nonlinear finite element analyses
of the tested columns were performed. The comparisons in terms of
load-deformation response and buckling mode show good agreement
and hence the FEM models were validated. Parametric study of
stiffening element and thickness of 1.0, 1.15, 1.2, 1.5, 1.6 and 2.0
mm. was analyzed. The test results showed that stiffening effect pays
a large contribution to prevent distortional mode. The increase in wall
thickness enhanced buckling stress beyond the yielding strength in
short and intermediate columns, but not for the long columns.
Shear Buckling of a Large Pultruded Composite I-Section under Asymmetric Loading
An experimental and analytical research on shear
buckling of a comparably large polymer composite I-section is
presented. It is known that shear buckling load of a large span
composite beam is difficult to determine experimentally. In order to
sensitively detect shear buckling of the tested I-section, twenty strain
rosettes and eight displacement sensors were applied and attached on
the web and flange surfaces. The tested specimen was a pultruded
composite beam made of vinylester resin, E-glass, carbon fibers and
micro-fillers. Various coupon tests were performed before the shear
buckling test to obtain fundamental material properties of the Isection.
An asymmetric four-point bending loading scheme was
utilized for the shear test. The loading scheme resulted in a high shear
and almost zero moment condition at the center of the web panel. The
shear buckling load was successfully determined after analyzing the
obtained test data from strain rosettes and displacement sensors. An
analytical approach was also performed to verify the experimental
results and to support the discussed experimental program.
Seismic Behavior of Steel Structure with Buckling- Restrained Braces
One of the main purposes of designing bucklingrestrained
braces is the fact that the entire lateral load is wasted by
the braces, the entire gravitational load is moved to the foundation
through the beams, and the columns can be moved to the foundation.
In other words, braces are designed for bearing lateral load. In the
implementation of the structure, it should be noted that the
implementation of various parts of the structure must be conducted in
such a way that the buckling-restrained braces would not bear the
gravitational load. Moreover, this type of brace has been investigated
under impact loading, and the design goals of designing method
(direct motion) are controlled under impact loading. The results of
dynamic analysis are shown as the relocation charts of the floors and
switch between the floors. Finally, the results are compared with each
Effects of Pipe Curvature and Internal Pressure on Stiffness and Buckling Phenomenon of Circular Thin-Walled Pipes
A parametric study on circular thin-walled pipes
subjected to pure bending is performed. Both straight and curved
pipes are considered. Ratio D/t, initial pipe curvature and internal
pressure are the parameters varying in the analyses. The study is
It is found that negative curvatures (opposite to bending moment)
considerably increase stiffness and buckling limit of the pipe when no
internal pressure is acting and, similarly, positive curvatures decrease
the stiffness and buckling limit. For internal pressurised pipes the
effects of initial pipe curvature are less relevant. Results show that
this phenomenon is in relationship with the cross-section deformation
due to bending moment, which undergoes relevant ovalisation for no
pressurised pipes and little ovalisation for pressurised pipes.
Numerical Buckling of Composite Cylindrical Shells under Axial Compression Using Asymmetric Meshing Technique (AMT)
This paper presents the details of a numerical study of
buckling and post buckling behaviour of laminated carbon fiber
reinforced plastic (CFRP) thin-walled cylindrical shell under axial
compression using asymmetric meshing technique (AMT) by
ABAQUS. AMT is considered to be a new perturbation method to
introduce disturbance without changing geometry, boundary
conditions or loading conditions. Asymmetric meshing affects both
predicted buckling load and buckling mode shapes. Cylindrical shell
having lay-up orientation [0^o/+45^o/-45^o/0^o] with radius to thickness
ratio (R/t) equal to 265 and length to radius ratio (L/R) equal to 1.5 is
analysed numerically. A series of numerical simulations
(experiments) are carried out with symmetric and asymmetric
meshing to study the effect of asymmetric meshing on predicted
buckling behaviour. Asymmetric meshing technique is employed in
both axial direction and circumferential direction separately using
two different methods, first by changing the shell element size and
varying the total number elements, and second by varying the shell
element size and keeping total number of elements constant. The
results of linear analysis (Eigenvalue analysis) and non-linear
analysis (Riks analysis) using symmetric meshing agree well with
analytical results. The results of numerical analysis are presented in
form of non-dimensional load factor, which is the ratio of buckling
load using asymmetric meshing technique to buckling load using
symmetric meshing technique. Using AMT, load factor has about 2%
variation for linear eigenvalue analysis and about 2% variation for
non-linear Riks analysis. The behaviour of load end-shortening curve
for pre-buckling is same for both symmetric and asymmetric meshing
but for asymmetric meshing curve behaviour in post-buckling
becomes extraordinarily complex. The major conclusions are:
different methods of AMT have small influence on predicted
buckling load and significant influence on load displacement curve
behaviour in post buckling; AMT in axial direction and AMT in
circumferential direction have different influence on buckling load
and load displacement curve in post-buckling.
A Survey on Hyperbolic Cooling Towers
This study offers a comprehensive review of the
research papers published in the field of cooling towers and gives an
insight into the latest developments of the natural draught cooling
towers. Different modeling, analysis and design techniques are
summarized and the challenges are discussed. The 118 references
included in this paper are mostly concentrated on the review of the
published papers after 2005. The present paper represents a complete
collection of the studies done for cooling towers and would give an
updated material for the researchers and design engineers in the field
of hyperbolic cooling towers.
A Parametric Study on Lateral Torsional Buckling of European IPN and IPE Cantilevers
IPN and IPE sections, which are commonly used European I shapes, are widely used in steel structures as cantilever beams to support overhangs. A considerable number of studies exist on calculating lateral torsional buckling load of I sections. However, most of them provide series solutions or complex closed-form equations. In this paper, a simple equation is presented to calculate lateral torsional buckling load of IPN and IPE section cantilever beams. First, differential equation of lateral torsional buckling is solved numerically for various loading cases. Then a parametric study is conducted on results to present an equation for lateral torsional buckling load of European IPN and IPE beams. Finally, results obtained by presented equation are compared to differential equation solutions and finite element model results. ABAQUS software is utilized to generate finite element models of beams. It is seen that the results obtained from presented equation coincide with differential equation solutions and ABAQUS software results. It can be suggested that presented formula can be safely used to calculate critical lateral torsional buckling load of European IPN and IPE section cantilevers.
Local Buckling of Web-Core and Foam-Core Sandwich Panels
Sandwich construction is widely accepted as a method of construction especially in the aircraft industry. It is a type of stressed skin construction formed by bonding two thin faces to a thick core, the faces resist all of the applied edge loads and provide all or nearly all of the required rigidities, the core spaces the faces to increase cross section moment of inertia about common neutral axis and transmit shear between them provides a perfect bond between core and faces is made.
Material for face sheets can be of metal or reinforced plastics laminates, core material can be metallic cores of thin sheets forming corrugation or honeycomb, or non metallic core of Balsa wood, plastic foams, or honeycomb made of reinforced plastics.
For in plane axial loading web core and web-foam core Sandwich panels can fail by local buckling of plates forming the cross section with buckling wave length of the order of length of spacing between webs.
In this study local buckling of web core and web-foam core Sandwich panels is carried out for given materials of facing and core, and given panel overall dimension for different combinations of cross section geometries.
The Finite Strip Method is used for the analysis, and Fortran based computer program is developed and used.
Experimental Investigation on Cold-formed Steel Wall Plate System
A series of tests on cold-formed steel (CFS) wall plate system subjected to uplift force at the mid span of the wall plate is presented. The aim of the study was to study the behaviour and identify the modes of failure of CFS wall plate system. Two parameters were considered in these studies: 1) different dimension of U-bracket at the supports and 2) different sizes of lipped C-channel. The lipped C-channels used were C07508, C07512 and C10012. The dimensions of the leg of U-bracket were 50x35 mm and 50x60 mm respectively, where 25 mm clearance was provided to the connections for specimens with clearance. Results show that specimens with and without clearance experienced the same mode of failure. Failure began with the yielding of the connectors followed by distortional buckling of the wall plate. However, when C075 sections were used as wall plate, the system behaved differently. There was a large deformation in the wall plate and failure began in the distortional buckling of the wall plate followed by bearing of the connecting plates at the supports (U-bracket). The ultimate strength of the system also decreased dramatically when C075 sections were used.