Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 15

15
10006670
Experimental Study of Geotextile Effect on Improving Soil Bearing Capacity in Aggregate Surfaced Roads
Abstract:
Geosynthetics utilization plays an important role in the construction of highways with no additive layers, such as asphalt concrete or cement concrete, or in a subgrade layer which affects the bearing capacity of unbounded layers. This laboratory experimental study was carried out to evaluate changes in the load bearing capacity of reinforced soil with these materials in highway roadbed with regard to geotextile properties. California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test samples were prepared with two types of soil: Clayey and sandy containing non-reinforced and reinforced soil. The samples comprised three types of geotextiles with different characteristics (150, 200, 300 g/m2) and depths (H= 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, 100 mm), and were grouped into two forms, one-layered and two-layered, based on the sample materials in order to perform defined tests. The results showed that the soil bearing characteristics increased when one layer of geotextile was used in clayey and sandy samples reinforced by geotextile. However, the bearing capacity of the soil, in the presence of a geotextile layer material with depth of more than 30 mm, had no remarkable effect. Furthermore, when the two-layered geotextile was applied in material samples, although it increased the soil resistance, it also showed that through the addition of a number or weights of geotextile into samples, the natural composition of the soil changed and the results are unreliable.
14
10003539
Strength and Permeability of the Granular Pavement Materials Treated with Polyacrylamide Based Additive
Abstract:
Among other traditional and non-traditional additives, polymers have shown an efficient performance in the field and improved sustainability. Polyacrylamide (PAM) is one such additive that has demonstrated many advantages including a reduction in permeability, an increase in durability and the provision of strength characteristics. However, information about its effect on the improved geotechnical characteristics is very limited to the field performance monitoring. Therefore, a laboratory investigation was carried out to examine the basic and engineering behaviors of three types of soils treated with a PAM additive. The results showed an increase in dry density and unconfined compressive strength for all the soils. The results further demonstrated an increase in unsoaked CBR and a reduction in permeability for all stabilized samples.
13
10001882
Effect of Cow bone and Groundnut Shell Reinforced in Epoxy Resin on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of the Composites
Abstract:
It is an established fact that polymers have several physical limitations such as low stiffness and low resistance to impact on loading. Hence, polymers do not usually have requisite mechanical strength for application in various fields. The reinforcement by high strength fibers provides the polymer substantially enhanced mechanical properties and makes them more suitable for a large number of diverse applications. This research evaluates the effects of particulate Cow bone and Groundnut shell additions on the mechanical properties and microstructure of cow bone and groundnut shell reinforced epoxy composite in order to assess the possibility of using it as a material for engineering applications. Cow bone and groundnut shell particles reinforced with epoxy (CBRPC and GSRPC) was prepared by varying the cow bone and groundnut shell particles from 0-25 wt% with 5 wt% intervals. A Hybrid of the Cow bone and Groundnut shell (HGSCB) reinforce with epoxy was also prepared. The mechanical properties of the developed composites were investigated. Optical microscopy was used to examine the microstructure of the composites. The results revealed that mechanical properties did not increase uniformly with additions in filler but exhibited maximum properties at specific percentages of filler additions. From the Microscopic evaluation, it was discovered that homogeneity decreases with increase in % filler, this could be due to poor interfacial bonding.
12
4731
Determination of Required Ion Exchange Solution for Stabilizing Clayey Soils with Various PI
Abstract:
Soil stabilization has been widely used to improve soil strength and durability or to prevent erosion and dust generation. Generally to reduce problems of clayey soils in engineering work and to stabilize these soils additional materials are used. The most common materials are lime, fly ash and cement. Using this materials, although improve soil property , but in some cases due to financial problems and the need to use special equipment are limited .One of the best methods for stabilization clayey soils is neutralization the clay particles. For this purpose we can use ion exchange materials. Ion exchange solution like CBR plus can be used for soil stabilization. One of the most important things in using CBR plus is determination the amount of this solution for various soils with different properties. In this study a laboratory experiment is conduct to evaluate the ion exchange capacity of three soils with various plasticity index (PI) to determine amount or required CBR plus solution for soil stabilization.
11
7088
Routing Load Analysis over 802.11 DCF of Reactive Routing Protocols DSR and DYMO
Abstract:

The Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of self-configuring and rapidly deployed mobile nodes (routers) without any central infrastructure. Routing is one of the potential issues. Many routing protocols are reported but it is difficult to decide which one is best in all scenarios. In this paper on demand routing protocols DSR and DYMO based on IEEE 802.11 DCF MAC protocol are examined and characteristic summary of these routing protocols is presented. Their performance is analyzed and compared on performance measuring metrics throughput, dropped packets due to non availability of routes, duplicate RREQ generated for route discovery and normalized routing load by varying CBR data traffic load using QualNet 5.0.2 network simulator.

10
3885
Traffic Load based Performance Analysis of DSR and STAR Routing Protocol
Abstract:
The wireless adhoc network is comprised of wireless node which can move freely and are connected among themselves without central infrastructure. Due to the limited transmission range of wireless interfaces, in most cases communication has to be relayed over intermediate nodes. Thus, in such multihop network each node (also called router) is independent, self-reliant and capable to route the messages over the dynamic network topology. Various protocols are reported in this field and it is very difficult to decide the best one. A key issue in deciding which type of routing protocol is best for adhoc networks is the communication overhead incurred by the protocol. In this paper STAR a table driven and DSR on demand protocols based on IEEE 802.11 are analyzed for their performance on different performance measuring metrics versus varying traffic CBR load using QualNet 5.0.2 network simulator.
9
12321
Integrated Reasoning Approach for Car Faulty Diagnosis
Abstract:
This paper presents an integrated case based and rule based reasoning method for car faulty diagnosis. The reasoning method is done through extracting the past cases from the Proton Service Center while comparing with the preset rules to deduce a diagnosis/solution to a car service case. New cases will be stored to the knowledge base. The test cases examples illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed integrated reasoning. It has proven accuracy of similar reasoning if carried out by a service advisor from the service center.
8
9859
Exploration of Autistic Children using Case Based Reasoning System with Cognitive Map
Abstract:
Exploring an autistic child in Elementary school is a difficult task that must be fully thought out and the teachers should be aware of the many challenges they face raising their child especially the behavioral problems of autistic children. Hence there arises a need for developing Artificial intelligence (AI) Contemporary Techniques to help diagnosis to discover autistic people. In this research, we suggest designing architecture of expert system that combine Cognitive Maps (CM) with Case Based Reasoning technique (CBR) in order to reduce time and costs of traditional diagnosis process for the early detection to discover autistic children. The teacher is supposed to enter child's information for analyzing by CM module. Then, the reasoning processor would translate the output into a case to be solved a current problem by CBR module. We will implement a prototype for the model as a proof of concept using java and MYSQL. This will be provided a new hybrid approach that will achieve new synergies and improve problem solving capabilities in AI. And we will predict that will reduce time, costs, the number of human errors and make expertise available to more people who want who want to serve autistic children and their families.
7
9235
Performance Comparison for AODV, DSR and DSDV W.R.T. CBR and TCP in Large Networks
Abstract:

Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a wireless ad hoc self-configuring network of mobile routers (and associated hosts) connected by wireless links, the union of which forms an arbitrary topology, cause of the random mobility of the nodes. In this paper, an attempt has been made to compare these three protocols DSDV, AODV and DSR on the performance basis under different traffic protocols namely CBR and TCP in a large network. The simulation tool is NS2, the scenarios are made to see the effect of pause times. The results presented in this paper clearly indicate that the different protocols behave differently under different pause times. Also, the results show the main characteristics of different traffic protocols operating on MANETs and thus select the best protocol on each scenario.

6
14869
Comparison of Different Types of Sources of Traffic Using SFQ Scheduling Discipline
Abstract:
In this paper, SFQ (Start Time Fair Queuing) algorithm is analyzed when this is applied in computer networks to know what kind of behavior the traffic in the net has when different data sources are managed by the scheduler. Using the NS2 software the computer networks were simulated to be able to get the graphs showing the performance of the scheduler. Different traffic sources were introduced in the scripts, trying to establish the real scenario. Finally the results were that depending on the data source, the traffic can be affected in different levels, when Constant Bite Rate is applied, the scheduler ensures a constant level of data sent and received, but the truth is that in the real life it is impossible to ensure a level that resists the changes in work load.
Keywords:
5
4125
Bandwidth Allocation in Mobile ATM Cellular Networks
Abstract:
Bandwidth allocation in wired network is less complex and to allocate bandwidth in wireless networks is complex and challenging, due to the mobility of source end system.This paper proposes a new approach to bandwidth allocation to higher and lower priority mobile nodes.In our proposal bandwidth allocation to new mobile node is based on bandwidth utilization of existing mobile nodes.The first section of the paper focuses on introduction to bandwidth allocation in wireless networks and presents the existing solutions available for allocation of bandwidth. The second section proposes the new solution for the bandwidth allocation to higher and lower priority nodes. Finally this paper ends with the analytical evaluation of the proposed solution.
4
7319
Bandwidth Allocation for ABR Service in Cellular Networks
Abstract:
Available Bit Rate Service (ABR) is the lower priority service and the better service for the transmission of data. On wireline ATM networks ABR source is always getting the feedback from switches about increase or decrease of bandwidth according to the changing network conditions and minimum bandwidth is guaranteed. In wireless networks guaranteeing the minimum bandwidth is really a challenging task as the source is always in mobile and traveling from one cell to another cell. Re establishment of virtual circuits from start to end every time causes the delay in transmission. In our proposed solution we proposed the mechanism to provide more available bandwidth to the ABR source by re-usage of part of old Virtual Channels and establishing the new ones. We want the ABR source to transmit the data continuously (non-stop) inorderto avoid the delay. In worst case scenario at least minimum bandwidth is to be allocated. In order to keep the data flow continuously, priority is given to the handoff ABR call against new ABR call.
3
13706
The SAFRS System : A Case-Based Reasoning Training Tool for Capturing and Re-Using Knowledge
Authors:
Abstract:

The paper aims to specify and build a system, a learning support in radiology-senology (breast radiology) dedicated to help assist junior radiologists-senologists in their radiologysenology- related activity based on experience of expert radiologistssenologists. This system is named SAFRS (i.e. system supporting the training of radiologists-senologists). It is based on the exploitation of radiologic-senologic images (primarily mammograms but also echographic images or MRI) and their related clinical files. The aim of such a system is to help breast cancer screening in education. In order to acquire this expert radiologist-senologist knowledge, we have used the CBR (case-based reasoning) approach. The SAFRS system will promote the evolution of teaching in radiology-senology by offering the “junior radiologist" trainees an advanced pedagogical product. It will permit a strengthening of knowledge together with a very elaborate presentation of results. At last, the know-how will derive from all these factors.

2
8876
Bridging the Gap Between CBR and VBR for H264 Standard
Abstract:
This paper provides a flexible way of controlling Variable-Bit-Rate (VBR) of compressed digital video, applicable to the new H264 video compression standard. The entire video sequence is assessed in advance and the quantisation level is then set such that bit rate (and thus the frame rate) remains within predetermined limits compatible with the bandwidth of the transmission system and the capabilities of the remote end, while at the same time providing constant quality similar to VBR encoding. A process for avoiding buffer starvation by selectively eliminating frames from the encoded output at times when the frame rate is slow (large number of bits per frame) will be also described. Finally, the problem of buffer overflow will be solved by selectively eliminating frames from the received input to the decoder. The decoder detects the omission of the frames and resynchronizes the transmission by monitoring time stamps and repeating frames if necessary.
1
6259
Distributed Case Based Reasoning for Intelligent Tutoring System: An Agent Based Student Modeling Paradigm
Abstract:

Online learning with Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) is becoming very popular where the system models the student-s learning behavior and presents to the student the learning material (content, questions-answers, assignments) accordingly. In today-s distributed computing environment, the tutoring system can take advantage of networking to utilize the model for a student for students from other similar groups. In the present paper we present a methodology where using Case Based Reasoning (CBR), ITS provides student modeling for online learning in a distributed environment with the help of agents. The paper describes the approach, the architecture, and the agent characteristics for such system. This concept can be deployed to develop ITS where the tutor can author and the students can learn locally whereas the ITS can model the students- learning globally in a distributed environment. The advantage of such an approach is that both the learning material (domain knowledge) and student model can be globally distributed thus enhancing the efficiency of ITS with reducing the bandwidth requirement and complexity of the system.

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