Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 24

A Case Study on Experiences of Clinical Preceptors in the Undergraduate Nursing Program

Clinical education is one of the most important components of a nursing curriculum as it develops the students’ cognitive, psychomotor and affective skills. Clinical teaching ensures the integration of knowledge into practice. As the numbers of students increase in the field of nursing coupled with the faculty shortage, clinical preceptors are the best choice to ensure student learning in the clinical settings. The clinical preceptor role has been introduced in the undergraduate nursing programme. In Pakistan, this role emerged due to a faculty shortage. Initially, two clinical preceptors were hired. This study will explore clinical preceptors views and experiences of precepting Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BScN) students in an undergraduate program. A case study design was used. As case studies explore a single unit of study such as a person or very small number of subjects; the two clinical preceptors were fundamental to the study and served as a single case. Qualitative data were obtained through an iterative process using in depth interviews and written accounts from reflective journals that were kept by the clinical preceptors. The findings revealed that the clinical preceptors were dedicated to their roles and responsibilities. Another, key finding was that clinical preceptors’ prior knowledge and clinical experience were valuable assets to perform their role effectively. The clinical preceptors found their new role innovative and challenging; it was stressful at the same time. Findings also revealed that in the clinical agencies there were unclear expectations and role ambiguity. Furthermore, clinical preceptors had difficulty integrating theory into practice in the clinical area and they had difficulty in giving feedback to the students. Although this study is localized to one university, generalizations can be drawn from the results. The key findings indicate that the role of a clinical preceptor is demanding and stressful. Clinical preceptors need preparation prior to precepting students on clinicals. Also, institutional support is fundamental for their acceptance. This paper focuses on the views and experiences of clinical preceptors undertaking a newly established role and resonates with the literature. The following recommendations are drawn to strengthen the role of the clinical preceptors: A structured program for clinical preceptors is needed along with mentorship. Clinical preceptors should be provided with formal training in teaching and learning with emphasis on clinical teaching and giving feedback to students. Additionally, for improving integration of theory into practice, clinical modules should be provided ahead of the clinical. In spite of all the challenges, ten more clinical preceptors have been hired as the faculty shortage continues to persist.

Extracellular Laccase Production by Co-culture between Galactomyces reesii IFO 10823 and Filamentous Fungal Strains Isolated from Fungus Comb Using Natural Inducer

Extracellular laccases are copper-containing microbial enzymes with many industrial biotechnological applications. This study evaluated the ability of nutrients in coconut coir to enhance the yield of extracellular laccase of Galactomyces reesii IFO 10823 and develop a co-culture between this yeast and other filamentous fungi isolated from the fungus comb of Macrotermes sp. The co-culture between G. reesii IFO 10823 and M. indicus FJ-M-5 (G3) gave the highest activity at 580.20 U/mL. When grown in fermentation media prepared from coconut coir and distilled water at 70% of initial moisture without supplement addition, G3 produced extracellular laccase of 113.99 U/mL.

An Analytical Method for Solving General Riccati Equation

In this paper, the general Riccati equation is analytically solved by a new transformation. By the method developed, looking at the transformed equation, whether or not an explicit solution can be obtained is readily determined. Since the present method does not require a proper solution for the general solution, it is especially suitable for equations whose proper solutions cannot be seen at first glance. Since the transformed second order linear equation obtained by the present transformation has the simplest form that it can have, it is immediately seen whether or not the original equation can be solved analytically. The present method is exemplified by several examples.

Exploring the Role of Private Commercial Banks in Increasing Small and Medium Size Enterprises’ Financial Accessibility in Developing Countries: A Study in Bangladesh

It is widely recognized that the formal financing of Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs) by Private Commercial Banks (PCBs) is restricted. Due to changing financial market competition, SMEs are now important customers to PCBs in the member countries of the Asian Development Bank (ADB). Various initiatives in enhancing the efficiency of risk assessment of PCBs have failed in increasing financing accessibility in the traditional financing system where information asymmetry is a key constraint. In this circumstance, PCBs need to undertake a holistic approach. Holistic approach refers to methods that attempt to fundamentally change established traditions. To undertake holistic approach, this study intends to find the entire established financing culture between PCBs and SMEs in a new lens beyond the tradition on the basis of two basic questions: “What is the traditional lending culture between PCBs and SMEs” and “What could be potential role of PCBs to develop that culture where focusing on SME financing to PCBs". This study considered formal SME financing in Bangladesh by focusing on SMEs applying for their first loan. Bangladesh is a member country of ADB. The data collection method is semi-structured and we utilized face-to-face interviews with in-depth branch managers, higher officials and owner-managers of SME customers of PCBs and higher officials of SME Foundation and the Bangladesh central bank. Discourse analysis method was used for data analysis on the frame of thematic discussion fully based on participants’ views. The research found that branch managers and loan officers have a high level of power in assessing and financing decision-making. There is a changing attitude in PCB sector in requiring flexible collateral assets. Branch managers (Loan Officers) consider value of business prospect of owner-mangers as complementary of collateral assets. However, the study found the assessment process of business prospect is entirely unstructured and linked with socio-cultural settings that does not support PCBs’ changing manner in terms of collateral requirement. The study redefined and classified collateral assets to include all financing constructs in a structure. The degree of value of the collateral assets determines the degree of business prospects. This study suggested applying an outside classroom-learning paradigm such as “knowledge tour” to enhance the value of the kinds of collateral assets. This is the scope of PCBs in increasing SMEs’ financing eligibility in win-win basis. The findings and proposition could be effective in other ADB member countries and audiences in the field.

Effects of Introducing Similarity Measures into Artificial Bee Colony Approach for Optimization of Vehicle Routing Problem

Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is a complex combinatorial optimization problem and it is quite difficult to find an optimal solution consisting of a set of routes for vehicles whose total cost is minimum. Evolutionary and swarm intelligent (SI) algorithms play a vital role in solving optimization problems. While the SI algorithms perform search, the diversity between the solutions they exploit is very important. This is because of the need to avoid early convergence and to get an appropriate balance between the exploration and exploitation. Therefore, it is important to check how far the solutions are diverse. In this paper, we measure the similarity between solutions, which ABC exploits while optimizing VRP. The similar solutions found are discarded at the end of the iteration and only unique solutions are passed on to the next iteration. The bees of discarded solutions become scouts and they start searching for new solutions. This process is continued and results show that the solution is optimized at lesser number of iterations but with the overhead of computing similarity in all the iterations. The problem instance from Solomon benchmarked dataset has been used for evaluating the presented methodology.

A Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the Performance of a Combined Solar Unit for Air Conditioning and Water Desalination
In this paper, a desiccant solar unit for air conditioning and desalination is presented first. Secondly, a dynamic modelling study of the desiccant wheel is developed. After that, a simulation study and an experimental investigation of the behaviour of desiccant wheel are developed. The experimental investigation is done in the chamber of commerce in Freiburg-Germany. Indeed, the variations of calculated and measured temperatures and specific humidity of dehumidified and rejected air are presented where a good agreement is found when comparing the model predictions with experimental data under the considered range of operating conditions. Finally, the study of the compartments of desalination and water condensation shows that the unit can produce an acceptable quantity of water at the same time of the air conditioning operation.
Isolation and Screening of Laccase Producing Basidiomycetes via Submerged Fermentations
Approximately 10,000 different types of dyes and pigments are being used in various industrial applications yearly, which include the textile and printing industries. However, these dyes are difficult to degrade naturally once they enter the aquatic system. Their high persistency in natural environment poses a potential health hazard to all form of life. Hence, there is a need for alternative dye removal strategy in the environment via bioremediation. In this study, fungi laccase is investigated via commercial agar dyes plates and submerged fermentation to explore the application of fungi laccase in textile dye wastewater treatment. Two locally isolated basidiomycetes were screened for laccase activity using media added with commercial dyes such as 2, 2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), guaiacol and Remazol Brillant Blue R (RBBR). Isolate TBB3 (1.70±0.06) and EL2 (1.78±0.08) gave the highest results for ABTS plates with the appearance of greenish halo on around the isolates. Submerged fermentation performed on Isolate TBB3 with the productivity 3.9067 U/ml/day, whereas the laccase activity for Isolate EL2 was much lower (0.2097 U/ml/day). As isolate TBB3 showed higher laccase production, it was subjected to molecular characterization by DNA isolation, PCR amplification and sequencing of ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. After being compared with other sequences in National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI database), isolate TBB3 is probably from species Trametes hirsutei. Further research work can be performed on this isolate by upscale the production of laccase in order to meet the demands of the requirement for higher enzyme titer for the bioremediation of textile dyes.
Idealization of Licca-chan and Barbie: Comparison of Two Dolls across the Pacific

Since the initial creation of the Barbie doll in 1959, it became a symbol of US society. Likewise, the Licca-chan, a Japanese doll created in 1967, also became a Japanese symbolic doll of Japanese society. Prior to the introduction of Licca-chan, Barbie was already marketed in Japan but their sales were dismal. Licca-chan (an actual name: Kayama Licca) is a plastic doll with a variety of sizes ranging from 21.0 cm to 29.0 cm which many Japanese girls dream of having. For over 35 years, the manufacturer, Takara Co., Ltd. has sold over 48 million dolls and has produced doll houses, accessories, clothes, and Licca-chan video games for the Nintendo DS. Many First-generation Licca-chan consumers still are enamored with Licca-chan, and go to Licca-chan House, in an amusement park with their daughters. These people are called Licca-chan maniacs, as they enjoy touring the Licca-chan’s factory in Tohoku or purchase various Licca-chan accessories. After the successful launch of Licca-chan into the Japanese market, a mixed-like doll from the US and Japan, a doll, JeNny, was later sold in the same Japanese market by Takara Co., Ltd. in 1982. Comparison of these cultural iconic dolls, Barbie and Licca-chan, are analyzed in this paper. In fact, these dolls have concepts of girls’ dreams. By using concepts of mythology of Jean Baudrillard, these dolls can be represented idealized images of figures in the products for consumers, but at the same time, consumers can see products with different perspectives, which can cause controversy.

Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.)

At present, it is widely-known that free radicals are the causes of illness such as cancers, coronary heart disease, Alzheimer’s disease and aging. One method of protection from free radical is the consumption of antioxidant-containing foods or herbs. Several analytical methods have been used for qualitative and quantitative determination of antioxidants. This project aimed to evaluate antioxidant activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts from cabbage (Brassicca oleracea L. var. capitata L.) measured by DPPH and Hydroxyl radical scavenging method. The results show that averaged antioxidant activity measured in ethanolic extract (µmol Ascorbic acid equivalent/g fresh mass) were 7.316 ± 0.715 and 4.66 ± 1.029 as determined by DPPH and Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity assays respectively. Averaged antioxidant activity measured in aqueous extract (µmol Ascorbic acid equivalent/g fresh mass) were 15.141 ± 2.092 and 4.955 ± 1.975 as determined by DPPH and Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity assays respectively.

Algebraic Riccati Matrix Equation for Eigen- Decomposition of Special Structured Matrices; Applications in Structural Mechanics

In this paper Algebraic Riccati matrix equation is used for Eigen-decomposition of special structured matrices. This is achieved by similarity transformation and then using algebraic riccati matrix equation to triangulation of matrices. The process is decomposition of matrices into small and specially structured submatrices with low dimensions for fast and easy finding of Eigenpairs. Numerical and structural examples included showing the efficiency of present method.

State Dependent Riccati Equation Based Roll Autopilot for 122mm Artillery Rocket
State-dependent Riccati equation based controllers are becoming increasingly popular because of having attractive properties like optimality, stability and robustness. This paper focuses on the design of a roll autopilot for a fin stabilized and canard controlled 122mm artillery rocket using state-dependent Riccati equation technique. Initial spin is imparted to rocket during launch and it quickly decays due to straight tail fins. After the spin phase, the roll orientation of rocket is brought to zero with the canard deflection commands generated by the roll autopilot. Roll autopilot has been developed by considering uncoupled roll, pitch and yaw channels. The canard actuator is modeled as a second-order nonlinear system. Elements of the state weighing matrix for Riccati equation have been chosen to be state dependent to exploit the design flexibility offered by the Riccati equation technique. Simulation results under varying conditions of flight demonstrate the wide operating range of the proposed autopilot.
Optimal Space Vector Control for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor based on Nonrecursive Riccati Equation
In this paper the optimal control strategy for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) based drive system is presented. The designed full optimal control is available for speed operating range up to base speed. The optimal voltage space-vector assures input energy reduction and stator loss minimization, maintaining the output energy in the same limits with the conventional PMSM electrical drive. The optimal control with three components is based on the energetically criteria and it is applicable in numerical version, being a nonrecursive solution. The simulation results confirm the increased efficiency of the optimal PMSM drive. The properties of the optimal voltage space vector are shown.
Numerical Solution of Riccati Differential Equations by Using Hybrid Functions and Tau Method

A numerical method for Riccati equation is presented in this work. The method is based on the replacement of unknown functions through a truncated series of hybrid of block-pulse functions and Chebyshev polynomials. The operational matrices of derivative and product of hybrid functions are presented. These matrices together with the tau method are then utilized to transform the differential equation into a system of algebraic equations. Corresponding numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method.

Soil-Vegetation Relationships in Arid Rangelands (Case Study: Nodushan Rangelands of Yazd, Iran)
The objective of this research was to identify the vegetation-soil relationships in Nodushan arid rangelands of Yazd. 5 sites were selected for measuring the cover of plant species and soil attributes. Soil samples were taken in 0-10 and 10-80 cm layers. The species studied were Salsola tomentosa, Salsola arbuscula, Peganum harmala, Zygophylum eurypterum and Eurotia ceratoides. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to analyze the data. Based on the CCA results, 74.9 % of vegetation-soil variation was explained by axis 1-3. Axis 1, 2 and 3 accounted for 27.2%, 24.9 % and 22.8% of variance respectively. Correlation between axis 1, 2, 3 and speciesedaphic variables were 0.995, 0.989, 0.981 respectively. Soil texture, lime, salinity and organic matter significantly influenced the distribution of these plant species. Determination of soil-vegetation relationships will be useful for managing and improving rangelands in arid and semi arid environments.
Novel Glycopolymers Containing Carbohydrate Moiety: Copolymerization and Thermal Properties

Polymers are one of the most widely used materials in our every day life. The subject of renewable resources has attracted great attention in the last period of time. New polymeric materials derived from renewable resources, like carbohydrates draw attention to public eye especially because of their biocompatibility and biodegradability. The aim of our paper was to obtain environmentally compatible polymers from monosaccharides. Novel glycopolymers based on D-glucose have been obtained from copolymerization of a new monomer carrying carbohydrate moiety with methyl methacrylate (MMA) via free radical bulk polymerization. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was performed in order to study the copolymerization process of the monomer into the chosen co-monomer; the activation energy of this process was evaluated using Ozawa method. The copolymers obtained were characterized using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the obtained products was studied by thermogravimetry (TG).

A Novel Logarithmic Current-Controlled Current Amplifier (LCCA)
A new OTA-based logarithmic-control variable gain current amplifier (LCCA) is presented. It consists of two Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) and two PMOS transistors biased in weak inversion region. The circuit operates from 0.6V DC power supply and consumes 0.6 μW. The linear-dB controllable output range is 43 dB with maximum error less than 0.5dB. The functionality of the proposed design was confirmed using HSPICE in 0.35μm CMOS process technology.
Extraction in Two-Phase Systems and Some Properties of Laccase from Lentinus polychrous
Extraction of laccase produced by L. polychrous in an aqueous two-phase system, composed of polyethylene glycol and phosphate salt at pH 7.0 and 250C was investigated. The effect of PEG molecular weight, PEG concentration and phosphate concentration was determined. Laccase preferentially partitioned to the top phase. Good extraction of laccase to the top phase was observed with PEG 4000. The optimum system was found in the system containing 12% w/w PEG 4000 and 16% w/w phosphate salt with KE of 88.3, purification factor of 3.0-fold and 99.1% yield. Some properties of the enzyme such as thermal stability, effect of heavy metal ions and kinetic constants were also presented in this work. The thermal stability decreased sharply with high temperature above 60 0C. The enzyme was inhibited by Cd2+, Pb2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+. The Vmax and Km values of the enzyme were 74.70 μmol/min/ml and 9.066 mM respectively.
Traveling Wave Solutions for the (3+1)-Dimensional Breaking Soliton Equation by (G'/G)- Expansion Method and Modified F-Expansion Method

In this paper, using (G/G )-expansion method and modified F-expansion method, we give some explicit formulas of exact traveling wave solutions for the (3+1)-dimensional breaking soliton equation. A modified F-expansion method is proposed by taking full advantages of F-expansion method and Riccati equation in seeking exact solutions of the equation.

Delay-independent Stabilization of Linear Systems with Multiple Time-delays
The multidelays linear control systems described by difference differential equations are often studied in modern control theory. In this paper, the delay-independent stabilization algebraic criteria and the theorem of delay-independent stabilization for linear systems with multiple time-delays are established by using the Lyapunov functional and the Riccati algebra matrix equation in the matrix theory. An illustrative example and the simulation result, show that the approach to linear systems with multiple time-delays is effective.
Oscillation Theorems for Second-order Nonlinear Neutral Dynamic Equations with Variable Delays and Damping

In this paper, we study the oscillation of a class of second-order nonlinear neutral damped variable delay dynamic equations on time scales. By using a generalized Riccati transformation technique, we obtain some sufficient conditions for the oscillation of the equations. The results of this paper improve and extend some known results. We also illustrate our main results with some examples.

Simulation of the Performance of Novel Nonlinear Optimal Control Technique on Two Cart-inverted Pendulum System
The two cart inverted pendulum system is a good bench mark for testing the performance of system dynamics and control engineering principles. Devasia introduced this system to study the asymptotic tracking problem for nonlinear systems. In this paper the problem of asymptotic tracking of the two-cart with an inverted-pendulum system to a sinusoidal reference inputs via introducing a novel method for solving finite-horizon nonlinear optimal control problems is presented. In this method, an iterative method applied to state dependent Riccati equation (SDRE) to obtain a reliable algorithm. The superiority of this technique has been shown by simulation and comparison with the nonlinear approach.
Evolutionary Computation Technique for Solving Riccati Differential Equation of Arbitrary Order
In this article an evolutionary technique has been used for the solution of nonlinear Riccati differential equations of fractional order. In this method, genetic algorithm is used as a tool for the competent global search method hybridized with active-set algorithm for efficient local search. The proposed method has been successfully applied to solve the different forms of Riccati differential equations. The strength of proposed method has in its equal applicability for the integer order case, as well as, fractional order case. Comparison of the method has been made with standard numerical techniques as well as the analytic solutions. It is found that the designed method can provide the solution to the equation with better accuracy than its counterpart deterministic approaches. Another advantage of the given approach is to provide results on entire finite continuous domain unlike other numerical methods which provide solutions only on discrete grid of points.
Control of Pendulum on a Cart with State Dependent Riccati Equations
State Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE) approach is a modification of the well studied LQR method. It has the capability of being applied to control nonlinear systems. In this paper the technique has been applied to control the single inverted pendulum (SIP) which represents a rich class of nonlinear underactuated systems. SIP modeling is based on Euler-Lagrange equations. A procedure is developed for judicious selection of weighting parameters and constraint handling. The controller designed by SDRE technique here gives better results than existing controllers designed by energy based techniques.
A New Approaches for Seismic Signals Discrimination

The automatic discrimination of seismic signals is an important practical goal for the earth-science observatories due to the large amount of information that they receive continuously. An essential discrimination task is to allocate the incoming signal to a group associated with the kind of physical phenomena producing it. In this paper, we present new techniques for seismic signals classification: local, regional and global discrimination. These techniques were tested on seismic signals from the data base of the National Geophysical Institute of the Centre National pour la Recherche Scientifique et Technique (Morocco) by using the Moroccan software for seismic signals analysis.

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