Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 12

12
10004372
Magnitude and Determinants of Overweight and Obesity among High School Adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Abstract:
Background: The 2004 World Health Assembly called for specific actions to halt the overweight and obesity epidemic that is currently penetrating urban populations in the developing world. Adolescents require particular attention due to their vulnerability to develop obesity and the fact that adolescent weight tracks strongly into adulthood. However, there is scarcity of information on the modifiable risk factors to be targeted for primary intervention among urban adolescents in Ethiopia. This study was aimed at determining the magnitude and risk factors of overweight and obesity among high school adolescents in Addis Ababa. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted in February and March 2014 on 456 randomly selected adolescents from 20 high schools in Addis Ababa city.  Demographic data and other risk factors of overweight and obesity were collected using self-administered structured questionnaire, whereas anthropometric measurements of weight and height were taken using calibrated equipment and standardized techniques. The WHO STEPS instrument for chronic disease risk was applied to assess dietary habit and physical activity. Overweight and obesity status was determined based on BMI-for-age percentiles of WHO 2007 reference population. Results: The prevalence rates of overweight, obesity, and overall overweight/ obesity among high school adolescents in Addis Ababa were 9.7% (95%CI = 6.9-12.4%), 4.2% (95%CI = 2.3-6.0%), and 13.9% (95%CI = 10.6-17.1%), respectively. Overweight/obesity prevalence was highest among female adolescents, in private schools, and in the higher wealth category. In multivariable regression model, being female [AOR(95%CI) = 5.4(2.5,12.1)], being from private school [AOR(95%CI) = 3.0(1.4,6.2)], having >3 regular meals [AOR(95%CI) = 4.0(1.3,13.0)], consumption of sweet foods [AOR(95%CI) = 5.0(2.4,10.3)] and spending >3 hours/day sitting [AOR(95%CI) = 3.5(1.7,7.2)] were found to increase overweight/ obesity risk, whereas high Total Physical Activity level [AOR(95%CI) = 0.21(0.08,0.57)] and better nutrition knowledge [AOR(95%CI) = 0.160.07,0.37)] were found protective. Conclusions: More than one in ten of the high school adolescents were affected by overweight/obesity with dietary habit and physical activity are important modifiable risk factors. Well-tailored nutrition education program targeting lifestyle change should be initiated with more emphasis to female adolescents and students in private schools.
11
10002844
Service Blueprint for Improving Clinical Guideline Adherence via Mobile Health Technology
Abstract:
Background: To improve the delivery of paediatric healthcare in low resource settings, Community Health Workers (CHW) have been provided with a paper-based set of protocols known as Community Case Management (CCM). Yet research has shown that CHW adherence to CCM guidelines is poor, ultimately impacting health service delivery. Digitising the CCM guidelines via mobile technology is argued in extant literature to improve CHW adherence. However, little research exist which outlines how (a) this process can be digitised and (b) adherence could be improved as a result. Aim: To explore how an electronic mobile version of CCM (eCCM) can overcome issues associated with the paper-based CCM protocol (inadequate adherence to guidelines) vis-à-vis service blueprinting. This service blueprint will outline how (a) the CCM process can be digitised using mobile Clinical Decision Support Systems software to support clinical decision-making and (b) adherence can be improved as a result. Method: Development of a single service blueprint for a standalone application which visually depicts the service processes (eCCM) when supporting the CHWs, using an application known as Supporting LIFE (SL eCCM app) as an exemplar. Results: A service blueprint is developed which illustrates how the SL eCCM app can be utilised by CHWs to assist with the delivery of healthcare services to children. Leveraging smartphone technologies can (a) provide CHWs with just-in-time data to assist with their decision making at the point-of-care and (b) improve CHW adherence to CCM guidelines. Conclusions: The development of the eCCM opens up opportunities for the CHWs to leverage the inherent benefit of mobile devices to assist them with health service delivery in rural settings. To ensure that benefits are achieved, it is imperative to comprehend the functionality and form of the eCCM service process. By creating such a service blueprint for an eCCM approach, CHWs are provided with a clear picture regarding the role of the eCCM solution, often resulting in buy-in from the end-users.
10
10000048
Dissociation of CDS from CVA Valuation under Notation Changes
Abstract:

In this paper the CVA computation of interest rate swap is presented based on its rating. Rating and probability default given by Moody’s Investors Service are used to calculate our CVA for a specific swap with different maturities. With this computation the influence of rating variation can be shown on CVA. Application is made to the analysis of Greek CDS variation during the period of Greek crisis between 2008 and 2011. The main point is the determination of correlation between the fluctuation of Greek CDS cumulative value and the variation of swap CVA due to change of rating.

9
9999291
Cash Flow Optimization on Synthetic CDOs
Abstract:

Collateralized Debt Obligations are not as widely used nowadays as they were before 2007 Subprime crisis. Nonetheless there remains an enthralling challenge to optimize cash flows associated with synthetic CDOs. A Gaussian-based model is used here in which default correlation and unconditional probabilities of default are highlighted. Then numerous simulations are performed based on this model for different scenarios in order to evaluate the associated cash flows given a specific number of defaults at different periods of time. Cash flows are not solely calculated on a single bought or sold tranche but rather on a combination of bought and sold tranches. With some assumptions, the simplex algorithm gives a way to find the maximum cash flow according to correlation of defaults and maturities. The used Gaussian model is not realistic in crisis situations. Besides present system does not handle buying or selling a portion of a tranche but only the whole tranche. However the work provides the investor with relevant elements on how to know what and when to buy and sell.

8
10003939
CdS Quantum Dots as Fluorescent Probes for Detection of Naphthalene
Abstract:
A novel sensing system has been designed for naphthalene detection based on the quenched fluorescence signal of CdS quantum dots. The fluorescence intensity of the system reduced significantly after adding CdS quantum dots to the water pollution model because of the fluorescent static quenching f mechanism. Herein, we have demonstrated the facile methodology can offer a convenient and low analysis cost with the recovery rate as 97.43%-103.2%, which has potential application prospect.
7
9997254
RBS Characteristic of Cd1−xZnxS Thin Film Fabricated by Vacuum Deposition Method
Abstract:

Cd1−xZnxS thins films have been fabricated from ZnS/CdS/ZnS multilayer thin film systems, by using the vacuum deposition method; the Rutherford backscattering (RBS) technique have been applied in order to determine the: structure, composition, depth profile, and stoichiometric of these films. The influence of the chemical and heat treatments on the produced films also have been investigated; the RBS spectra of the films showed that homogenous Cd1−xZnxS can be synthesized with x=0.45.

6
16331
Characterization of the Energy Band Diagram of Fabricated SnO2/CdS/CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells
Abstract:

A SnO2/CdS/CdTe heterojunction was fabricated by thermal evaporation technique. The fabricated cells were annealed at 573K for periods of 60, 120 and 180 minutes. The structural properties of the solar cells have been studied by using X-ray diffraction. Capacitance- voltage measurements were studied for the as-prepared and annealed cells at a frequency of 102 Hz. The capacitance- voltage measurements indicated that these cells are abrupt. The capacitance decreases with increasing annealing time. The zero bias depletion region width and the carrier concentration increased with increasing annealing time. The carrier transport mechanism for the CdS/CdTe heterojunction in dark is tunneling recombination. The ideality factor is 1.56 and the reverse bias saturation current is 9.6×10-10A. The energy band lineup for the n- CdS/p-CdTe heterojunction was investigated using current - voltage and capacitance - voltage characteristics.

5
3695
Characteristics of Intronic and Intergenic Human miRNAs and Features of their Interaction with mRNA
Abstract:

Regulatory relationships of 686 intronic miRNA and 784 intergenic miRNAs with mRNAs of 51 intronic miRNA coding genes were established. Interaction features of studied miRNAs with 5'UTR, CDS and 3'UTR of mRNA of each gene were revealed. Functional regions of mRNA were shown to be significantly heterogenous according to the number of binding sites of miRNA and to the location density of these sites.

4
2782
The Effect of Chemical Treatment on TL Glow Curves of CdS/ZnS Thin Films Deposited by Vacuum Deposition Method
Abstract:
The effect of chemical treatment in CdCl2 and thermal annealing in 400°C, on the defect structures of potentially useful ZnS\CdS solar cell thin films deposited onto quartz substrate and prepared by vacuum deposition method was studied using the Thermoluminesence (TL) techniques. A series of electron and hole traps are found in the various deposited samples studied. After annealing, however, it was observed that the intensity and activation energy of TL signal increases with loss of the low temperature electron traps.
3
7516
Synthesis, Characterization and PL Properties of Cds Nanoparticles Confined within a Functionalized SBA-15 Mesoprous
Abstract:

A simple and dexterous in situ method was introduced to load CdS nanocrystals into organofunctionalized mesoporous, which used an ion-exchange method. The products were extensively characterized by combined spectroscopic methods. X- ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) demonstrated both the maintenance of pore symmetry (space group p6mm) of SBA-15 and the presence of CdS nanocrystals with uniform sizes of about 6 - 8 nm inside the functionalized SBA-15 channels. These mesoporous silica-supported CdS composites showed room temperature photoluminescence properties with a blue shift, indicating the quantum size effect of nanocrystalline CdS.

2
3429
Fabrication and Characterization of CdS Nanoparticles Annealed by using Different Radiations
Abstract:
The systematic manipulations of shapes and sizes of inorganic compounds greatly benefit the various application fields including optics, magnetic, electronics, catalysis and medicine. However shape control has been much more difficult to achieve. Hence exploration of novel method for the preparation of differently shaped nanoparticles is challenging research area. II-VI group of semiconductor cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanostructure with different morphologies (such as, acicular like, mesoporous, spherical shapes) and of crystallite sizes vary from 11 to 16 nm were successfully synthesized by chemical aqueous precipitation of Cd2+ ions with homogeneously released S2- ions from decomposition of cadmium sulphate (CdSO4) and thioacetamide (CH3CSNH2) by annealing at different radiations (microwave, ultrasonic and sunlight) with matter and systematic research has been done for various factors affecting the controlled growth rate of CdS nanoparticles. The obtained nanomaterials have been characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravometric (DSC-TGA) analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The result indicates that on increasing the reaction time particle size increases but on increasing the molar ratios grain size decreases.
1
4561
Ontology and CDSS Based Intelligent Health Data Management in Health Care Server
Abstract:

In ubiqutious healthcare environment, user's health data are transfered to the remote healthcare server by the user's wearable system or mobile phone. These collected user's health data should be managed and analyzed in the healthcare server, so that care giver or user can monitor user's physiological state. In this paper, we designed and developed the intelligent Healthcare Server to manage the user's health data using CDSS and ontology. Our system can analyze user's health data semantically using CDSS and ontology, and report the result of user's physiological raw data to the user and care giver.

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