Clay Palm Press: A Technique of Hand Building in Ceramics for Developing Conceptual Forms
There are several techniques of production in the field of ceramics. These different techniques overtime have been categorised under three methods of production which includes; casting, throwing and hand building. Hand building method of production is further broken down into other techniques and they include coiling, slabbing and pinching. Ceramic artists find the different hand building techniques to be very interesting, practicable and rewarding. This has encouraged ceramic artist in their various studios at different levels to experiment for further hand building techniques that could be unique and unusual. The art of “Clay Palm Press” is a development from studio experiment in a quest for uniqueness in conceptual ceramic practise. Clay palm press is a technique that requires no formal tutelage but at the same time, it is not easily comprehensible when viewed. It is a practice of putting semi-solid clay in the palm and inserting a closed fist pressure so as to take the imprint of the human palm. This clay production from the palm when dried, fired and explored into an art, work reveals an absolute awesomeness of what the palm imprint could result in.
Factors Affecting Green Supply Chain Management of Lampang Ceramics Industry
This research aims to study the factors that affect the performance of green supply chain management in the Lampang ceramics industry. The data investigation of this research was questionnaires which were gathered from 20 factories in the Lampang ceramics industry. The research factors are divided into five major groups which are green design, green purchasing, green manufacturing, green logistics and reverse logistics. The questionnaire has consisted of four parts that related to factors green supply chain management and general information of the Lampang ceramics industry. Then, the data were analyzed using descriptive statistic and priority of each factor by using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The understanding of factors affecting the green supply chain management of Lampang ceramics industry was indicated in the summary result along with each factor weight. The result of this research could be contributed to the development of indicators or performance evaluation in the future.
Classification Method for Turnover While Sleeping Using Multi-Point Unconstrained Sensing Devices
Elderly population in the world is increasing, and consequently, their nursing burden is also increasing. In such situations, monitoring and evaluating their daily action facilitates efficient nursing care. Especially, we focus on an unconscious activity during sleep, i.e. turnover. Monitoring turnover during sleep is essential to evaluate various conditions related to sleep. Bedsores are considered as one of the monitoring conditions. Changing patient’s posture every two hours is required for caregivers to prevent bedsore. Herein, we attempt to develop an unconstrained nocturnal monitoring system using a sensing device based on piezoelectric ceramics that can detect the vibrations owing to human body movement on the bed. In the proposed method, in order to construct a multi-points sensing, we placed two sensing devices under the right and left legs at the head-side of an ordinary bed. Using this equipment, when a subject lies on the bed, feature is calculated from the output voltages of the sensing devices. In order to evaluate our proposed method, we conducted an experiment with six healthy male subjects. Consequently, the period during which turnover occurs can be correctly classified as the turnover period with 100% accuracy.
Effect of Manganese Doping on Ferrroelectric Properties of (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3 Lead-Free Piezoceramic
Alkaline niobate (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 ceramic system has attracted major attention in view of its potential for replacing the highly toxic but superior lead zirconate titanate (PZT) system for piezoelectric applications. Recently, a more detailed study of this system reveals that the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties are optimized in the Li- and V-modified system having the composition (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3. In the present work, we further study the pyroelectric behaviour of this composition along with another doped with Mn4+. So, (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3 + x MnO2 (x = 0, and 0.01 wt. %) ceramic compositions were synthesized by conventional ceramic processing route. X-ray diffraction study reveals that both the undoped and Mn4+-doped ceramic samples prepared crystallize into a perovskite structure having orthorhombic symmetry. Dielectric study indicates that Mn4+ doping has little effect on both the Curie temperature (Tc) and tetragonal-orthorhombic phase transition temperature (Tot). The bulk density, room-temperature dielectric constant (εRT), and room-c The room-temperature coercive field (Ec) is observed to be lower in Mn4+ doped sample. The detailed analysis of the P-E hysteresis loops over the range of temperature from about room temperature to Tot points out that enhanced ferroelectric properties exist in this temperature range with better thermal stability for the Mn4+ doped ceramic. The study reveals that small traces of Mn4+ can modify (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3 system so as to improve its ferroelectric properties with good thermal stability over a wide range of temperature.
Microstructural and Electrochemical Investigation of Carbon Coated Nanograined LiFePO4 as Cathode Material for Li-Batteries
Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) is a potential cathode material for lithium-ion batteries due to its promising characteristics. In this study, pure LiFePO4 (LFP) and carbon-coated nanograined LiFePO4 (LFP-C) is synthesized and characterized for its microstructural properties. X-ray diffraction patterns of the synthesized samples can be indexed to an orthorhombic LFP structure with about 63 nm crystallite size as calculated by using Scherrer’s equation. Agglomerated particles that range from 200 nm to 300 nm are observed from scanning electron microscopy images. Transmission electron microscopy images confirm the crystalline structure of LFP and coating of amorphous carbon layer. Elemental mapping using energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis revealed the homogeneous dispersion of the compositional elements. In addition, galvanostatic charge and discharge measurements were investigated for the cathode performance of the synthesized LFP and LFP-C samples. The results showed that the carbon-coated sample demonstrated the highest capacity of about 140 mAhg-1 as compared to non-coated and micrograined sized commercial LFP.
Preparation and Conductivity Measurements of LSM/YSZ Composite Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell Anode Materials
One of the most promising anode materials for solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) application is the Sr-doped LaMnO3 (LSM) which is known to have a high electronic conductivity but low ionic conductivity. To increase the ionic conductivity or diffusion of ions through the anode, Yttria-stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), which has good ionic conductivity, is proposed to be combined with LSM to create a composite electrode and to obtain a high mixed ionic and electronic conducting anode. In this study, composite of lanthanum strontium manganite and YSZ oxide, La0.8Sr0.2MnO3/Zr0.92Y0.08O2 (LSM/YSZ), with different wt.% compositions of LSM and YSZ were synthesized using solid-state reaction. The obtained prepared composite samples of 60, 50, and 40 wt.% LSM with remaining wt.% of 40, 50, and 60, respectively for YSZ were fully characterized for its microstructure by using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and Scanning electron microscope/Energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analyses. Surface morphology of the samples via SEM analysis revealed a well-sintered and densified pure LSM, while a more porous composite sample of LSM/YSZ was obtained. Electrochemical impedance measurements at intermediate temperature range (500-700 °C) of the synthesized samples were also performed which revealed that the 50 wt.% LSM with 50 wt.% YSZ (L50Y50) sample showed the highest total conductivity of 8.27x10-1 S/cm at 600 oC with 0.22 eV activation energy.
Predicting Depth of Penetration in Abrasive Waterjet Cutting of Polycrystalline Ceramics
This paper presents a model to predict the depth of penetration in polycrystalline ceramic material cut by abrasive waterjet. The proposed model considered the interaction of cylindrical jet with target material in upper region and neglected the role of threshold velocity in lower region. The results predicted with the proposed model are validated with the experimental results obtained with Silicon Carbide (SiC) blocks.
Innovation and Analysis of Vibrating Fork Level Switch
A vibrating-fork sensor can measure the level height of solids and liquids and operates according to the principle that vibrations created by piezoelectric ceramics are transmitted to the vibrating fork, which produces resonance. When the vibrating fork touches an object, its resonance frequency changes and produces a signal that returns to a controller for immediate adjustment, so as to effectively monitor raw material loading. The design of the vibrating fork in a vibrating-fork material sensor is crucial. In this paper, ANSYS finite element analysis software is used to perform modal analysis on the vibrations of the vibrating fork. In addition, to design and produce a superior vibrating fork, the dimensions and welding shape of the vibrating fork are compared in a simulation performed using the Taguchi method.
Fabrication of Powdery Composites Based Alumina and Its Consolidation by Hot Pressing Method in OXY-GON Furnace
In this work, obtaining methods of ultrafine alumina
powdery composites and high temperature pressing technology of
matrix ceramic composites with different compositions have been
discussed. Alumina was obtained by solution combustion synthesis
and sol-gel methods. Metal carbides containing powdery composites
were obtained by homogenization of finishing powders in nanomills,
as well as by their single-step high temperature synthesis .Different
types of matrix ceramics composites (α-Al2O3-ZrO2-Y2O3, α-Al2O3-
Y2O3-MgO, α-Al2O3-SiC-Y2O3, α-Al2O3-WC-Co-Y2O3, α-Al2O3-
B4C-Y2O3, α-Al2O3- B4C-TiB2 etc.) were obtained by using OXYGON
furnace. Consolidation of powders were carried out at 1550-
1750°C (hold time - 1 h, pressure - 50 MPa). Corundum ceramics
samples have been obtained and characterized by high hardness and
fracture toughness, absence of open porosity, high corrosion
resistance. Their density reaches 99.5-99.6% TD. During the work,
the following devices have been used: High temperature vacuum
furnace OXY-GON Industries Inc (USA), Electronic Scanning
Microscopes Nikon Eclipse LV 150, Optical Microscope NMM-
800TRF, Planetary mill Pulverisette 7 premium line, Shimadzu
Dynamic Ultra Micro Hardness Tester DUH-211S, Analysette 12
Dielectric and Impedance Spectroscopy of Samarium and Lanthanum Doped Barium Titanate at Room Temperature
Dielectric ceramic samples in the BaO-Re2O3-TiO2
ternary system were synthesized with structural formula Ba2-
xRe4+2x/3Ti8O24 where Re= rare earth metal and Re= Sm and La where
x varies from 0.0 to 0.6 with step size 0.1. Polycrystalline samples
were prepared by the conventional solid state reaction technique. The
dielectric, electrical and impedance analysis of all the samples in the
frequency range 1KHz- 1MHz at room temperature (25°C) have been
done to get the understanding of electrical conduction and dielectric
relaxation and their correlation. Dielectric response of the samples at
lower frequencies shows dielectric dispersion while at higher
frequencies it shows dielectric relaxation. The ac conductivity is well
fitted by the Jonscher law. The spectroscopic data in the impedance
plane confirms the existence of grain contribution to the relaxation.
All the properties are found out to be function of frequency as well as
the amount of substitution.
Dependence of Dielectric Properties on Sintering Conditions of Lead Free KNN Ceramics Modified with Li-Sb
In order to produce lead free piezoceramics with
optimum piezoelectric and dielectric properties, KNN modified with
Li+ (as an A site dopant) and Sb5+ (as a B site dopant)
(K0.49Na0.49Li0.02) (Nb0.96Sb0.04) O3 (referred as KNLNS in this paper)
have been synthesized using solid state reaction method and
conventional sintering technique. The ceramics were sintered in the
narrow range of 1050°C-1090°C for 2-3 h to get precise information
about sintering parameters. Detailed study of dependence of
microstructural, dielectric and piezoelectric properties on sintering
conditions was then carried out. The study suggests that the volatility
of the highly hygroscopic KNN ceramics is not only sensitive to
sintering temperatures but also to sintering durations. By merely
reducing the sintering duration for a given sintering temperature we
saw an increase in the density of the samples which was supported by
the increase in dielectric constants of the ceramics. And since density
directly or indirectly affects almost all the associated properties, other
dielectric and piezoelectric properties were also enhanced as we
approached towards the most suitable sintering temperature and
duration combination. The detailed results are reported in this paper.
Advanced Energy Absorbers Used in Blast Resistant Systems
The main aim of the presented experiments is to
improve behaviour of sandwich structures under dynamic loading,
such as crash or explosion. This paper describes experimental
investigation on the response of new advanced materials to low and
high velocity load. Blast wave energy absorbers were designed using
two types of porous lightweight raw particle materials based on
expanded glass and ceramics with dimensions of 0.5-1 mm,
combined with polymeric binder. The effect of binder amount on the
static and dynamic properties of designed materials was observed.
Prism shaped specimens were prepared and loaded to obtain physicomechanical
parameters – bulk density, compressive and flexural
strength under quasistatic load, the dynamic response was determined
using Split Hopkinson Pressure bar apparatus. Numerical
investigation of the material behaviour in sandwich structure was
performed using implicit/explicit solver LS-Dyna. As the last step,
the developed material was used as the interlayer of blast resistant
litter bin, and it´s functionality was verified by real field blast tests.
The Effect of Parameters on Productions of NiO/Al2O3/B2O3/SiO2 Composite Nanofibers by Using Sol-Gel Processing and Electrospinning Technique
Nanofibers of PVA /nickel nitrate/silica/alumina
izopropoxide/boric acid composite were prepared by using sol-gel
processing and electrospinning technique. By high temperature
calcinations of the above precursor fibers, nanofibers of
NiO/Al2O3/B2O3/SiO2 composite with diameters about 500 nm
could be successfully obtained. The fibers were characterized by
XRD and SEM analyses.
Effect of High-Energy Ball Milling on the Electrical and Piezoelectric Properties of (K0.5Na0.5)(Nb0.9Ta0.1)O3 Lead-Free Piezoceramics
Nanocrystalline powders of the lead-free piezoelectric
material, tantalum-substituted potassium sodium niobate
(K0.5Na0.5)(Nb0.9Ta0.1)O3 (KNNT), were produced using a Retsch
PM100 planetary ball mill by setting the milling time to 15h, 20h,
25h, 30h, 35h and 40h, at a fixed speed of 250rpm. The average
particle size of the milled powders was found to decrease from 12nm
to 3nm as the milling time increases from 15h to 25h, which is in
agreement with the existing theoretical model. An anomalous
increase to 98nm and then a drop to 3nm in the particle size were
observed as the milling time further increases to 30h and 40h
respectively. Various sizes of these starting KNNT powders were
used to investigate the effect of milling time on the microstructure,
dielectric properties, phase transitions and piezoelectric properties of
the resulting KNNT ceramics. The particle size of starting KNNT
was somewhat proportional to the grain size. As the milling time
increases from 15h to 25h, the resulting ceramics exhibit
enhancement in the values of relative density from 94.8% to 95.8%,
room temperature dielectric constant (εRT) from 878 to 1213, and
piezoelectric charge coefficient (d33) from 108pC/N to 128pC/N. For
this range of ceramic samples, grain size refinement suppresses the
maximum dielectric constant (εmax), shifts the Curie temperature (Tc)
to a lower temperature and the orthorhombic-tetragonal phase
transition (Tot) to a higher temperature. Further increase of milling
time from 25h to 40h produces a gradual degradation in the values of
relative density, εRT, and d33 of the resulting ceramics.
Ultra-Low Loss Dielectric Properties of (Mg1-xNix)2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4 Microwave Ceramics
Microwave dielectric ceramic materials of
(Mg1-xNix)2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4 for x = 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.09 were
prepared and sintered at 1250–1400 ºC. The microstructure and
microwave dielectric properties of the ceramic materials were
examined and measured. The observations shows that the content of
Ni2+ ions has little effect on the crystal structure, dielectric constant,
temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf) and sintering
temperatures of the ceramics. However, the quality values (Q×f) are
greatly improved due to the addition of Ni2+ ions. The present study
showed that the ceramic material prepared for x = 0.05 and sintered at
1325ºC had the best Q×f value of 392,000 GHz, about 23%
improvement compared with that of Mg2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4.
The Determinants of Senior Students' Behavioral Intention on the Blended E-Learning for the Ceramics Teaching Course at the Active Aging University
In this paper, the authors try to investigate the
determinants of behavioral intention of the blended E-learning course
for senior students at the Active Ageing University in Taiwan. Due to
lower proficiency in the use of computers and less experience on
learning styles of the blended E-learning course for senior students
will be expected quite different from those for most young students.
After more than five weeks course for two years the questionnaire
survey is executed to collect data for statistical analysis in order to
understand the determinants of the behavioral intention for senior
students. The object of this study is at one of the Active Ageing
University in Taiwan total of 84 senior students in the blended
E-learning for the ceramics teaching course. The research results show
that only the perceived usefulness of the blended E-learning course has
significant positive relationship with the behavioral intention.
Using the Transient Plane Source Method for Measuring Thermal Parameters of Electroceramics
Transient plane source method has been used to
measure the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of a compact
isostatic electroceramics at room temperature. The samples were fired
at temperatures from 100 up to 1320 degrees Celsius in steps of
50. Bulk density and specific heat capacity were also measured with
their corresponding standard uncertainties. The results were compared
with further thermal analysis (dilatometry and thermogravimetry).
Structural processes during firing were discussed.
Development of Scratching Monitoring System Based On Mathematical Model of Unconstrained Bed Sensing Method
We propose an unconstrained measurement system for scratching motion based on mathematical model of unconstrained bed sensing method which could measure the bed vibrations due to the motion of the person on the bed. In this paper, we construct mathematical model of the unconstrained bed monitoring system; and we apply the unconstrained bed sensing method to the system for detecting scratching motion. The proposed sensors are placed under the three bed feet. When the person is lying on the bed, the output signals from the sensors are proportional to the magnitude of the vibration due to the scratching motion. Hence, we could detect the subject’s scratching motion from the output signals from ceramic sensors. We evaluated two scratching motions using the proposed system in the validity experiment as follows: 1st experiment is the subject’s scratching the right side cheek with his right hand, and; 2nd experiment is the subject’s scratching the shin with another foot. As the results of the experiment, we recognized the scratching signals that enable the determination when the scratching occurred. Furthermore, the difference among the amplitudes of the output signals enabled us to estimate where the subject scratched.
Efficacy and Stability of Ceramic Powder to Inactivate Avian Influenza Virus
This experiment aims to demonstrate the efficacy of ceramic powder derived from various sources to inactivate avian influenza virus and its possibility to use in the environment. The ceramics used in the present experiment were derived from chicken feces (CF), scallop shell (SS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and soybean (SB). All ceramics were mixed with low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV) H7N1, and then kept at room temperature. The recovered virus was titrated onto Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. All ceramics were assessed the inactivation stability in the environment by keeping under sunlight and under wet-dry condition until reached 7 week or 7 resuspension times respectively. The results indicate that all ceramics have excellent efficacy to inactivate LPAIV. This efficacy can be maintained under the simulated condition. The ceramics are expected to be the good materials for application in the biosecurity system at farms.
Investigation of Silane Modified Ceramic Surface of Porous Mullite Ceramics
The present research focus on the processing of mullite-based ceramics from oil refinery industrial wastes and byproducts of agricultural industry and on the investigating of silane modified surface of ceramics. Two waste products were used as initial material – waste aluminum oxide and waste rice husk. The burning - out additives used were waste rise husk. It is known that the oxide ceramics surface is hydrophilic due to the presence of – OH groups in it. The nature of ceramic surface regarding permeation of water and hydrocarbons can be changed by further treatment with silanes. The samples were studied mainly by X-ray analysis, FT-IR absorbance measurements and microscopic analysis. The X-ray analyses showed the phase composition depends on the firing temperature and on the purity of the starting alumina. Two kind of silanes were used for the transformation of surface from hydrophilic to hydrophobic – trimethoxymethylsilane (TMMS) and trimethylclorsilane (TMCS).
Deflocculation and Gelation of Porcelain Ceramics
Deflocculation and gel characterization were
investigated for three different composition of porcelain slips at
specific gravity 1.8. The suspensions were dispersed with sodium
silicate (Na2SiO3) in under-deflocculated slips and fully deflocculated
slips. The rheology characterization of slips was conducted by the
deflocculation curves and the gel curves. The results showed that
decreasing the amount of the ball clay composition in the slips
consumed less dosages of the dispersants. The under-deflocculated
slips tended to have a gelation rate faster than the fully deflocculated
Influence of Raw Materials Ratio and Sintering Temperature on the Properties of the Refractory Mullite-Corundum Ceramics
The alumosilicate ceramics with mullite crystalline phase are used in various branches of science and technique. The mullite refractory ceramics with high porosity serve as a heat insulator and as a constructional materials , . The purpose of the work was to sinter high porosity ceramic and to increase the quantity of mullite phase in this mullite, mullite-corundum ceramics. Two types of compositions were prepared at during the experiment. The first type is compositions with commercial alumina and silica oxides. The second type is from mixing these oxides with 10, 20 and 30 wt.%. of kaolin. In all samples the Al2O3 and SiO2 were in 2.57:1 ratio, because that was conformed to mullite stechiometric compositions (3Al2O3.2SiO2). The types of alumina oxides were α-Al2O3 (d50=4µm) and γ-Al2O3 (d50=80µm). Ratios of α-: γ-Al2O3 were (1:1) or (1:3). The porous materials were prepared by slip casting of suspension of raw materials. The aluminium paste (0.18 wt.%) was used as a pore former. Water content in the suspensions was 26-47 wt.%. Pore formation occurred as a result of hydrogen formation in chemical reaction between aluminium paste and water . The samples were sintered at the temperature of 1650°C and 1750°C for one hour. The increasing amount of kaolin, α-: γ-Al2O3 at the ratio (1:3) and sintering at the highest temperature raised the quantity of mullite phase. The mullite phase began to dominate over the corundum phase.
Effect of Fine-Ground Ceramic Admixture on Early Age Properties of Cement Paste
Properties of cement pastes with fine-ground ceramics
used as an alternative binder replacing Portland cement up to 20% of
its mass are investigated. At first, the particle size distribution of
cement and fine-ground ceramics is measured using laser analyser.
Then, the material properties are studied in the early hardening
period up to 28 days. The hydration process of studied materials is
monitored by electrical conductivity measurement using TDR
sensors. The changes of materials- structures within the hardening are
observed using pore size distribution measurement. The compressive
strength measurements are done as well. Experimental results show
that the replacement of Portland cement by fine-ground ceramics in
the amount of up to 20% by mass is acceptable solution from the
mechanical point of view. One can also assume similar physical
properties of designed materials to the reference material with only
Portland cement as binder.
Promising Immobilization of Cadmium and Lead inside Ca-rich Glass-ceramics
Considering toxicity of heavy metals and their
accumulation in domestic wastes, immobilization of lead and
cadmium is envisaged inside glass-ceramics. We particularly
focused this work on calcium-rich phases embedded in a
Glass-ceramics were synthesized from glasses doped with
12 wt% and 16 wt% of PbO or CdO. They were observed and
analyzed by Electron MicroProbe Analysis (EMPA) and
Analytical Scanning Electron Microscopy (ASEM). Structural
characterization of the samples was performed by powder XRay
Diopside crystals of CaMgSi2O6 composition are shown to
incorporate significant amounts of cadmium (up to 9 wt% of
CdO). Two new crystalline phases are observed with very
high Cd or Pb contents: about 40 wt% CdO for the cadmiumrich
phase and near 60 wt% PbO for the lead-rich phase. We
present complete chemical and structural characterization of
these phases. They represent a promising way for the
immobilization of toxic elements like Cd or Pb since glass
ceramics are known to propose a “double barrier" protection
(metal-rich crystals embedded in a glass matrix) against metal
release in the environment.