Three-Stage Mining Metals Supply Chain Coordination and Product Quality Improvement with Revenue Sharing Contract
One of the main concerns of miners is to increase the quality level of their products because the mining metals price depends on their quality level; however, increasing the quality level of these products has different costs at different levels of the supply chain. These costs usually increase after extractor level. This paper studies the coordination issue of a decentralized three-level supply chain with one supplier (extractor), one mineral processor and one manufacturer in which the increasing product quality level cost at the processor level is higher than the supplier and at the level of the manufacturer is more than the processor. We identify the optimal product quality level for each supply chain member by designing a revenue sharing contract. Finally, numerical examples show that the designed contract not only increases the final product quality level but also provides a win-win condition for all supply chain members and increases the whole supply chain profit.
Comparison of Inter Cell Interference Coordination Approaches
This work aims to compare various techniques used in order to mitigate Inter-Cell Interference (ICI) in Long Term Evolution (LTE) and LTE-Advanced systems. For that, we will evaluate the performance of each one. In mobile communication networks, systems are limited by ICI particularly caused by deployment of small cells in conventional cell’s implementation. Therefore, various mitigation techniques, named Inter-Cell Interference Coordination techniques (ICIC), enhanced Inter-Cell Interference Coordination (eICIC) techniques and Coordinated Multi-Point transmission and reception (CoMP) are proposed. This paper presents a comparative study of these strategies. It can be concluded that CoMP techniques can ameliorate SINR and capacity system compared to ICIC and eICIC. In fact, SINR value reaches 15 dB for a distance of 0.5 km between user equipment and servant base station if we use CoMP technology whereas it cannot exceed 12 dB and 9 dB for eICIC and ICIC approaches respectively as reflected in simulations.
Developing Models for Predicting Physiologically Impaired Arm Reaching Paths
This paper describes the development of a model of an impaired human arm performing a reaching motion, which will be used to predict hand path trajectories for people with reduced arm joint mobility. Assuming that the arm was in contact with a surface during the entire movement, the contact conditions at the initial and final task locations were determined and used to generate the entire trajectory. The model was validated by comparing it to experimental data, which simulated an arm joint impairment by physically constraining the joint motion with a brace. Future research will include using the model in the development of physical training protocols that avoid early recruitment of “healthy” Degrees-Of-Freedom (DOF) for reaching motions, thus facilitating an Active Range-Of-Motion Recovery (AROM) for a particular impaired joint.
Rail Corridors between Minimal Use of Train and Unsystematic Tightening of Population: A Methodological Essay
In the current situation, the automobile has become the main means of locomotion. It allows traveling long distances, encouraging urban sprawl. To counteract this trend, the train is often proposed as an alternative to the car. Simultaneously, the favoring of urban development around public transport nodes such as railway stations is one of the main issues of the coordination between urban planning and transportation and the keystone of the sustainable urban development implementation. In this context, this paper focuses on the study of the spatial structuring dynamics around the railway. Specifically, it is a question of studying the demographic dynamics in rail corridors of Nantes, Angers and Le Mans (Western France) basing on the radiation of railway stations. Consequently, the methodology is concentrated on the knowledge of demographic weight and gains of these corridors, the index of urban intensity and the mobility behaviors (workers’ travels, scholars' travels, modal practices of travels). The perimeter considered to define the rail corridors includes the communes of urban area which have a railway station and communes with an access time to the railway station is less than fifteen minutes by car (time specified by the Regional Transport Scheme of Travelers). The main tools used are the statistical data from the census of population, the basis of detailed tables and databases on mobility flows. The study reveals that the population is not tightened along rail corridors and train use is minimal despite the presence of a nearby railway station. These results lead to propose guidelines to make the train, a real vector of mobility across the rail corridors.
Multi-Agent Coverage Control with Bounded Gain Forgetting Composite Adaptive Controller
In this paper, we present an adaptive controller for decentralized coordination problem of multiple non-holonomic agents. The performance of the presented Multi-Agent Bounded Gain Forgetting (BGF) Composite Adaptive controller is compared against the tracking error criterion with a Feedback Linearization controller. By using the method, the sensor nodes move and reconfigure themselves in a coordinated way in response to a sensed environment. The multi-agent coordination is achieved through Centroidal Voronoi Tessellations and Coverage Control. Also, a consensus protocol is used for synchronization of the parameter vectors. The two controllers are given with their Lyapunov stability analysis and their stability is verified with simulation results. The simulations are carried out in MATLAB and ROS environments. Better performance is obtained with BGF Adaptive Controller.
Distributed Coordination of Connected and Automated Vehicles at Multiple Interconnected Intersections
In connected vehicle systems where wireless communication is available among the involved vehicles and intersection controllers, it is possible to design an intersection coordination strategy that leads the connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) travel through the road intersections without the conventional traffic light control. In this paper, we present a distributed coordination strategy for the CAVs at multiple interconnected intersections that aims at improving system fuel efficiency and system mobility. We present a distributed control solution where in the higher level, the intersection controllers calculate the road desired average velocity and optimally assign reference velocities of each vehicle. In the lower level, every vehicle is considered to use model predictive control (MPC) to track their reference velocity obtained from the higher level controller. The proposed method has been implemented on a simulation-based case with two-interconnected intersection network. Additionally, the effects of mixed vehicle types on the coordination strategy has been explored. Simulation results indicate the improvement on vehicle fuel efficiency and traffic mobility of the proposed method.
Contention Window Adjustment in IEEE 802.11-Based Industrial Wireless Networks
The use of wireless technology in industrial networks
has gained vast attraction in recent years. In this paper, we have
thoroughly analyzed the effect of contention window (CW) size on
the performance of IEEE 802.11-based industrial wireless networks
(IWN), from delay and reliability perspective. Results show that the
default values of CWmin, CWmax, and retry limit (RL) are far from
the optimum performance due to the industrial application
characteristics, including short packet and noisy environment. In this
paper, an adaptive CW algorithm (payload-dependent) has been
proposed to minimize the average delay. Finally a simple, but
effective CW and RL setting has been proposed for industrial
applications which outperforms the minimum-average-delay solution
from maximum delay and jitter perspective, at the cost of a little
higher average delay. Simulation results show an improvement of up
to 20%, 25%, and 30% in average delay, maximum delay and jitter
Changes in Postural Stability after Coordination Exercise
The aim of this study was to find out if the special type of exercise with elastic cord can improve the level of postural stability. The exercise programme was conducted twice a week for 3 months. The participants were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group. The electronic balance board was used for testing of postural stability. All participants trained for 18 hours at the time of experiment without any special form of coordination programme. The experimental group performed 90 minutes plus of coordination exercise. The result showed that differences between pre-test and post-test occurred in the experimental group. It was used the nonparametric Wilcoxon t-test for paired samples (p=0.012; the significance level 95%). We calculated effect size by Cohen´s d. In the experimental group d is 1.96 which indicates a large effect. In the control group d is 0.04 which confirms no significant improvement.
Solving Directional Overcurrent Relay Coordination Problem Using Artificial Bees Colony
This paper presents the implementation of Artificial Bees Colony (ABC) algorithm in solving Directional OverCurrent Relays (DOCRs) coordination problem for near-end faults occurring in fixed network topology. The coordination optimization of DOCRs is formulated as linear programming (LP) problem. The objective function is introduced to minimize the operating time of the associated relay which depends on the time multiplier setting. The proposed technique is to taken as a technique for comparison purpose in order to highlight its superiority. The proposed algorithms have been tested successfully on 8 bus test system. The simulation results demonstrated that the ABC algorithm which has been proved to have good search ability is capable in dealing with constraint optimization problems.
A Strategy Based View of Supply Chain Competitiveness
In this era of competitiveness, there is a growing need for supply chains also to become competitive enough to handle pressures like varying customer’s expectations, low cost high quality products to be delivered at the minimum time and the most important is throat cutting competition at world wide scale. In the recent years, supply chain competitiveness has been, therefore, accepted as one of the most important philosophies in the supply chain literature. Various researchers and practitioners have tried to identify and implement strategies in supply chains which can bring competitiveness in the supply chains i.e. supply chain competitiveness. The purpose of this paper is to suggest select strategies for supply chain competitiveness in the Indian manufacturing sector using an integrated approach of literature review and exploratory interviews with eminent professionals from the supply chain area in various industries, academia and research. The aim of the paper is to highlight the important area of competitiveness in the supply chain and to suggest recommendations to the industry and managers of manufacturing sector.
Supply Chain Competitiveness: A Review of Select Enablers
In present days market environment, supply chains has to be competitive enough to handle pressures like varying customer’s expectations, low cost high quality products to be delivered at the minimum time and the most important is throat cutting competition at world wide scale. Recently, supply chain competitiveness has been, therefore, accepted as one of the most important philosophies in the supply chain literature. Various researchers and practitioners have tried to identify and implement enablers in supply chains which can bring competitiveness in the supply chains i.e. supply chain competitiveness. The purpose of this paper is to suggest select enablers for supply chain competitiveness in the Indian manufacturing sector using an integrated approach of literature review and exploratory interviews with eminent professionals from the supply chain area in various industries, academia and research. The aim of the paper is to highlight the important enablers in the area of supply chain competitiveness and suggest recommendations to the industry and managers of manufacturing supply chains with a view to encourage more efforts in this wider domain area.
Coordination on Agrifood Supply Chain
Coordinated supply chain represents major challenges
for the different actors involved in it, because each agent responds to
individual interests. The paper presents a framework with the
reviewed literature regarding the system's decision structure and
nature of demand. Later, it characterizes an agri food supply chain in
the Central Region of Colombia, it responds to a decentralized
distribution system and a stochastic demand. Finally, the paper
recommends coordinating the chain based on shared information, and
mechanisms for each agent, as VMI (vendor-managed inventory)
strategy for farmer-buyer relationship, information system for
farmers and contracts for transportation service providers.
Urban-Rural Balance, Regional Coordination and Land Transfer in China
It-s difficult for China-s current land transfer
institutions limited to county-wide to solve the contradiction between
urban-rural development and construction land shortage. On the basis of analyzing China-s construction land transfer system, and evaluation
toward Transfer of development rights (TDR) practices in Anhui and
Chongqing, the passage proposes: (1) we should establish a multi-level
land indicators trade market under the guidance of regional spatial
objectives, and allow land transfer paid across cities and counties
within a specific area following the regulation of both government and
market; (2) it would be better to combine organically the policy ntentions of land plan, regional plan, urban plan and economic plan, and link them with land indicators transfer to promote a wider range of
urban-rural balance and regional coordination.
Comprehensive Evaluation on China-s Industrial Structure Optimization from the Perspective of Coordination
From the perspective of industrial structure
coordination and based on an explicit definition for the connotation of
industrial structure coordination, the synergetic coefficients are used
to measure the coordination degree between three industries' input
structure and output structure, and then the efficacy function method is
employed to comprehensively evaluate the level of China-s industrial
structure optimization. It is showed that Chinese industrial structure
presented a "v-shaped" variation tendency between 1996 and 2008,
and its industrial structure adjustment got obvious achievements after
2003, with the industrial structure optimization level increasing
continuously. However in 2009, the level of China-s industrial
structure optimization declined sharply due to the decreasing
contribution degree of value added structure and energy structure
coordination and the lower coordination degree of value added
structure and capital structure.
Environmental Inspection using WSANs Based on Multi-agent Coordination Method
In this paper, we focus on the problem of driving and
herding a collection of autonomous actors to a given area. Then, a
new method based on multi-agent coordination is proposed for
solving the problem.
In our proposed method, we assume that the environment is
covered by sensors. When an event is occurred, sensors forward
information to a sink node. Based on received information, the sink
node will estimate the direction and the speed of movement of actors
and announce the obtained value to the actors. The actors coordinate
to reach the target location.
Interdisciplinary Principles of Field-Like Coordination in the Case of Self-Organized Social Systems1
This interdisciplinary research aims to distinguish universal scale-free and field-like fundamental principles of selforganization observable across many disciplines like computer science, neuroscience, microbiology, social science, etc. Based on these universal principles we provide basic premises and postulates for designing holistic social simulation models. We also introduce pervasive information field (PIF) concept, which serves as a simulation media for contextual information storage, dynamic distribution and organization in social complex networks. PIF concept specifically is targeted for field-like uncoupled and indirect interactions among social agents capable of affecting and perceiving broadcasted contextual information. Proposed approach is expressive enough to represent contextual broadcasted information in a form locally accessible and immediately usable by network agents. This paper gives some prospective vision how system-s resources (tangible and intangible) could be simulated as oscillating processes immersed in the all pervasive information field.
Damping Power System Oscillations Improvement by FACTS Devices: A Comparison between SSSC and STATCOM
The main objective of this paper is a comparative
investigate in enhancement of damping power system oscillation via
coordinated design of the power system stabilizer (PSS) and static
synchronous series compensator (SSSC) and static synchronous
compensator (STATCOM). The design problem of FACTS-based
stabilizers is formulated as a GA based optimization problem. In this
paper eigenvalue analysis method is used on small signal stability of
single machine infinite bus (SMIB) system installed with SSSC and
STATCOM. The generator is equipped with a PSS. The proposed
stabilizers are tested on a weakly connected power system with
different disturbances and loading conditions. This aim is to enhance
both rotor angle and power system stability. The eigenvalue analysis
and non-linear simulation results are presented to show the effects of
these FACTS-based stabilizers and reveal that SSSC exhibits the best
effectiveness on damping power system oscillation.
Introducing Fast Robot Roller Hemming Process in Automotive Industry
As product life cycle becomes less and less every day,
having flexible manufacturing processes for any companies seems more demanding. In the assembling of closures, i.e. opening parts in
car body, hemming process is the one which needs more attention. This paper focused on the robot roller hemming process and how to
reduce its cycle time by introducing a fast roller hemming process. A
robot roller hemming process of a tailgate of Saab 93 SportCombi
model is investigated as a case study in this paper. By applying task
separation, robot coordination, and robot cell configuration principles in the roller hemming process, three alternatives are
proposed, developed, and remarkable reduction in cycle times achieved .
Efficient Dimensionality Reduction of Directional Overcurrent Relays Optimal Coordination Problem
Directional over current relays (DOCR) are commonly used in power system protection as a primary protection in distribution and sub-transmission electrical systems and as a secondary protection in transmission systems. Coordination of protective relays is necessary to obtain selective tripping. In this paper, an approach for efficiency reduction of DOCRs nonlinear optimum coordination (OC) is proposed. This was achieved by modifying the objective function and relaxing several constraints depending on the four constraints classification, non-valid, redundant, pre-obtained and valid constraints. According to this classification, the far end fault effect on the objective function and constraints, and in consequently on relay operating time, was studied. The study was carried out, firstly by taking into account the near-end and far-end faults in DOCRs coordination problem formulation; and then faults very close to the primary relays (nearend faults). The optimal coordination (OC) was achieved by simultaneously optimizing all variables (TDS and Ip) in nonlinear environment by using of Genetic algorithm nonlinear programming techniques. The results application of the above two approaches on 6-bus and 26-bus system verify that the far-end faults consideration on OC problem formulation don-t lose the optimality.
Investigation of Transmission Line Overvoltages and their Deduction Approach
The two significant overvoltages in power system,
switching overvoltage and lightning overvoltage, are investigated in
this paper. Firstly, the effect of various power system parameters on
Line Energization overvoltages is evaluated by simulation in ATP.
The dominant parameters include line parameters; short-circuit
impedance and circuit breaker parameters. Solutions to reduce
switching overvoltages are reviewed and controlled closing using
switchsync controllers is proposed as proper method.
This paper also investigates lightning overvoltages in the
overhead-cable transition. Simulations are performed in
PSCAD/EMTDC. Surge arresters are applied in both ends of cable to
fulfill the insulation coordination. The maximum amplitude of
overvoltages inside the cable is surveyed which should be of great
concerns in insulation coordination studies.
Optimum Time Coordination of Overcurrent Relays using Two Phase Simplex Method
Overcurrent (OC) relays are the major protection
devices in a distribution system. The operating time of the OC relays
are to be coordinated properly to avoid the mal-operation of the
backup relays. The OC relay time coordination in ring fed
distribution networks is a highly constrained optimization problem
which can be stated as a linear programming problem (LPP). The
purpose is to find an optimum relay setting to minimize the time of
operation of relays and at the same time, to keep the relays properly
coordinated to avoid the mal-operation of relays.
This paper presents two phase simplex method for optimum time
coordination of OC relays. The method is based on the simplex
algorithm which is used to find optimum solution of LPP. The
method introduces artificial variables to get an initial basic feasible
solution (IBFS). Artificial variables are removed using iterative
process of first phase which minimizes the auxiliary objective
function. The second phase minimizes the original objective function
and gives the optimum time coordination of OC relays.
Damping of Power System Oscillations by using coordinated tuning of POD and PSS with STATCOM
Static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) is a shunt connected voltage source converter (VSC), which can affect rapid control of reactive flow in the transmission line by controlling the generated a.c. voltage. The main aim of the paper is to design a power system installed with a Static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) and demonstrates the application of the linearised Phillips-heffron model in analyzing the damping effect of the STATCOM to improve power system oscillation stability. The proposed PI controller is designed to coordinate two control inputs: Voltage of the injection bus and capacitor voltage of the STATCOM, to improve the Dynamic stability of a SMIB system .The power oscillations damping (POD) control and power system stabilizer (PSS) and their coordinated action with proposed controllers are tested. The simulation result shows that the proposed damping controllers provide satisfactory performance in terms of improvements of dynamic stability of the system.
Emission Constrained Economic Dispatch for Hydrothermal Coordination
This paper presents an efficient emission constrained
economic dispatch algorithm that deals with nonlinear cost function
and constraints. It is then incorporated into the dynamic
programming based hydrothermal coordination program. The
program has been tested on a practical utility system having 32
thermal and 12 hydro generating units. Test results show that a slight
increase in production cost causes a substantial reduction in
A Fuzzy Logic Based Navigation of a Mobile Robot
One of the long standing challenging aspect in mobile robotics is the ability to navigate autonomously, avoiding modeled and unmodeled obstacles especially in crowded and unpredictably changing environment. A successful way of structuring the navigation task in order to deal with the problem is within behavior based navigation approaches. In this study, Issues of individual behavior design and action coordination of the behaviors will be addressed using fuzzy logic. A layered approach is employed in this work in which a supervision layer based on the context makes a decision as to which behavior(s) to process (activate) rather than processing all behavior(s) and then blending the appropriate ones, as a result time and computational resources are saved.
Capturing an Unknown Moving Target in Unknown Territory using Vision and Coordination
In this paper we present an extension to Vision Based
LRTA* (VLRTA*) known as Vision Based Moving Target Search
(VMTS) for capturing unknown moving target in unknown territory
with randomly generated obstacles. Target position is unknown to the
agents and they cannot predict its position using any probability
method. Agents have omni directional vision but can see in one
direction at some point in time. Agent-s vision will be blocked by the
obstacles in the search space so agent can not see through the
obstacles. Proposed algorithm is evaluated on large number of
scenarios. Scenarios include grids of sizes from 10x10 to 100x100.
Grids had obstacles randomly placed, occupying 0% to 50%, in
increments of 10%, of the search space. Experiments used 2 to 9
agents for each randomly generated maze with same obstacle ratio.
Observed results suggests that VMTS is effective in locate target
time, solution quality and virtual target. In addition, VMTS becomes
more efficient if the number of agents is increased with proportion to
Emission Constrained Hydrothermal Scheduling Algorithm
This paper presents an efficient emission constrained
hydrothermal scheduling algorithm that deals with nonlinear
functions such as the water discharge characteristics, thermal cost,
and transmission loss. It is then incorporated into the hydrothermal
coordination program. The program has been tested on a practical
utility system having 32 thermal and 12 hydro generating units. Test
results show that a slight increase in production cost causes a
substantial reduction in emission.
XML based Safe and Scalable Multi-Agent Development Framework
In this paper we describe our efforts to design and
implement an agent development framework that has the potential to
scale to the size of any underlying network suitable for various ECommerce
activities. The main novelty in our framework is it-s
capability to allow the development of sophisticated, secured agents
which are simple enough to be practical.
We have adopted FIPA agent platform reference Model as
backbone for implementation along with XML for agent
Communication and Java Cryptographic Extension and architecture
to realize the security of communication information between agents.
The advantage of our architecture is its support of agents
development in different languages and Communicating with each
other using a more open standard i.e. XML
Structural Characteristics of Three-Dimensional Random Packing of Aggregates with Wide Size Distribution
The mechanical properties of granular solids are
dependent on the flow of stresses from one particle to another
through inter-particle contact. Although some experimental methods
have been used to study the inter-particle contacts in the past,
preliminary work with these techniques indicated that they do not
have the necessary resolution to distinguish between those contacts
that transmit the load and those that do not, especially for systems
with a wide distribution of particle sizes. In this research, computer
simulations are used to study the nature and distribution of contacts
in a compact with wide particle size distribution, representative of
aggregate size distribution used in asphalt pavement construction.
The packing fraction, the mean number of contacts and the
distribution of contacts were studied for different scenarios. A
methodology to distinguish and compute the fraction of load-bearing
particles and the fraction of space-filling particles (particles that do
not transmit any force) is needed for further investigation.
A Laboratory Assistance Module
We propose that Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) should be designed by taking into account the characteristics, the special needs and the specific operating rules of the academic institutions in which they are employed. In this context, we describe a VLE module that extends the support of the organization and delivery of course material by including administration activities related to the various stages of teaching. These include the co-ordination, collaboration and monitoring of the course material development process and institution-specific course material delivery modes. Our specialized module, which enhances VLE capabilities by Helping Educators and Learners through a Laboratory Assistance System, is willing to assist the Greek tertiary technological sector, which includes Technological Educational Institutes (T.E.I.).