The Dependence of the Liquid Application on the Coverage of the Sprayed Objects in Terms of the Characteristics of the Sprayed Object during Spraying
When assessing the quality of the spraying procedure, three indicators are used: uneven distribution of precipitation of liquid sprayed, degree of coverage of sprayed surfaces, and deposition of liquid spraying However, there is a lack of information on the relationship between the quality parameters of the procedure. Therefore, the research was carried out at the Institute of Agricultural Engineering of Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the degree of coverage of sprayed surfaces and the deposition of liquid in the aspect of the parametric characteristics of the protected plant using selected single and double stream nozzles. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions. The carrier of nozzles acted as an independent self-propelled sprayer used for spraying, whereas the parametric characteristics of plants were determined using artificial plants as the ratio of the vertical projection surface and the horizontal projection surface. The results and their analysis showed a strong and very strong correlation between the analyzed parameters in terms of the characteristics of the sprayed object.
Ultra-High Frequency Passive Radar Coverage for Cars Detection in Semi-Urban Scenarios
A study of achievable coverages using passive radar systems in terrestrial traffic monitoring applications is presented. The study includes the estimation of the bistatic radar cross section of different commercial vehicle models that provide challenging low values which make detection really difficult. A semi-urban scenario is selected to evaluate the impact of excess propagation losses generated by an irregular relief. A bistatic passive radar exploiting UHF frequencies radiated by digital video broadcasting transmitters is assumed. A general method of coverage estimation using electromagnetic simulators in combination with estimated car average bistatic radar cross section is applied. In order to reduce the computational cost, hybrid solution is implemented, assuming free space for the target-receiver path but estimating the excess propagation losses for the transmitter-target one.
Authorization of Commercial Communication Satellite Grounds for Promoting Turkish Data Relay System
Uninterrupted and continuous satellite communication through the whole orbit time is becoming more indispensable every day. Data relay systems are developed and built for various high/low data rate information exchanges like TDRSS of USA and EDRSS of Europe. In these missions, a couple of task-dedicated communication satellites exist. In this regard, for Turkey a data relay system is attempted to be defined exchanging low data rate information (i.e. TTC) for Earth-observing LEO satellites appointing commercial GEO communication satellites all over the world. First, justification of this attempt is given, demonstrating duration enhancements in the link. Discussion of preference of RF communication is, also, given instead of laser communication. Then, preferred communication GEOs – including TURKSAT4A already belonging to Turkey- are given, together with the coverage enhancements through STK simulations and the corresponding link budget. Also, a block diagram of the communication system is given on the LEO satellite.
Performance Assessment of GSO Satellite before and after Enhancing Pointing Effect
This paper presents the effect of the orbit inclination
on the pointing error of the satellite antenna and consequently on its
footprint on earth for a typical Ku- band payload system. The performance assessment is examined using both analytical
simulations and practical measurements, taking into account all the
additional sources of the pointing errors, such as East-West station
keeping, orbit eccentricity, and actual attitude control performance. An implementation and computation of the sinusoidal biases in
satellite roll and pitch used to compensate the pointing error of the
satellite antenna coverage is studied and evaluated before and after
the pointing corrections performed. A method for evaluation of the performance of the implemented
biases has been introduced through measuring satellite received level
from a mono-pulse tracking 11.1m transmitting antenna before and
after the implementation of the pointing corrections.
Heuristic Search Algorithm (HSA) for Enhancing the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks
The lifetime of a wireless sensor network can be
effectively increased by using scheduling operations. Once the
sensors are randomly deployed, the task at hand is to find the largest
number of disjoint sets of sensors such that every sensor set provides
complete coverage of the target area. At any instant, only one of these
disjoint sets is switched on, while all other are switched off. This
paper proposes a heuristic search method to find the maximum
number of disjoint sets that completely cover the region. A
population of randomly initialized members is made to explore the
solution space. A set of heuristics has been applied to guide the
members to a possible solution in their neighborhood. The heuristics
escalate the convergence of the algorithm. The best solution explored
by the population is recorded and is continuously updated. The
proposed algorithm has been tested for applications which require
sensing of multiple target points, referred to as point coverage
applications. Results show that the proposed algorithm outclasses the
existing algorithms. It always finds the optimum solution, and that
too by making fewer number of fitness function evaluations than the
CFD Simulations to Study the Cooling Effects of Different Greening Modifications
The objective of this study is to conduct computational
fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations for evaluating the cooling efficacy
from vegetation implanted in a public park in the Taipei, Taiwan. To
probe the impacts of park renewal by means of adding three pavilions
and supplementary green areas on urban microclimates, the simulated
results have revealed that the park having a higher percentage of green
coverage ratio (GCR) tended to experience a better cooling effect.
These findings can be used to explore the effects of different greening
modifications on urban environments for achieving an effective
thermal comfort in urban public spaces.
Harmony Search-based K-Coverage Enhancement in Wireless Sensor Networks
Many wireless sensor network applications require
K-coverage of the monitored area. In this paper, we propose a
scalable harmony search based algorithm in terms of execution
time, K-Coverage Enhancement Algorithm (KCEA), it attempts to
enhance initial coverage, and achieve the required K-coverage degree
for a specific application efficiently. Simulation results show that
the proposed algorithm achieves coverage improvement of 5.34%
compared to K-Coverage Rate Deployment (K-CRD), which achieves
1.31% when deploying one additional sensor. Moreover, the proposed
algorithm is more time efficient.
Performance Analysis of Cluster Based Dual Tired Network Model with INTK Security Scheme in a Wireless Sensor Network
A dual tiered network model is designed to overcome the problem of energy alert and fault tolerance. This model minimizes the delay time and overcome failure of links. Performance analysis of the dual tiered network model is studied in this paper where the CA and LS schemes are compared with DEO optimal. We then evaluate the Integrated Network Topological Control and Key Management (INTK) Schemes, which was proposed to add security features of the wireless sensor networks. Clustering efficiency, level of protections, the time complexity is some of the parameters of INTK scheme that were analyzed. We then evaluate the Cluster based Energy Competent n-coverage scheme (CEC n-coverage scheme) to ensure area coverage for wireless sensor networks.
Coverage and Capacity Performance Degradation on a Co-Located Network Involving CDMA2000 and WCDMA @1.9GH
Coverage and capacity performance in a cellular network determines the system potentials. If the coverage radius is limited, end users suffer poor service quality, if the system capacity reduces, fewer subscribers will be accommodated. This paper investigated the performance effects of the noise rise caused by the spurious emission from a co-located jammer involving downlink frequency of CDMA2000 and uplink frequency of WCDMA operating at 1.9GHz. Measurements were carried out to evaluate the impact on the coverage radius and the system capacity.
Cluster Based Energy Efficient and Fault Tolerant n-Coverage in Wireless Sensor Network
Coverage conservation and extend the network lifetime are the primary issues in wireless sensor networks. Due to the large variety of applications, coverage is focus to a wide range of interpretations. The applications necessitate that each point in the area is observed by only one sensor while other applications may require that each point is enclosed by at least sensors (n>1) to achieve fault tolerance. Sensor scheduling activities in existing Transparent and non- Transparent relay modes (T-NT) Mobile Multi-Hop relay networks fails to guarantee area coverage with minimal energy consumption and fault tolerance. To overcome these issues, Cluster based Energy Competent n- coverage scheme called (CEC n-coverage scheme) to ensure the full coverage of a monitored area while saving energy. CEC n-coverage scheme uses a novel sensor scheduling scheme based on the n-density and the remaining energy of each sensor to determine the state of all the deployed sensors to be either active or sleep as well as the state durations. Hence, it is attractive to trigger a minimum number of sensors that are able to ensure coverage area and turn off some redundant sensors to save energy and therefore extend network lifetime. In addition, decisive a smallest amount of active sensors based on the degree coverage required and its level. A variety of numerical parameters are computed using ns2 simulator on existing (T-NT) Mobile Multi-Hop relay networks and CEC n-coverage scheme. Simulation results showed that CEC n-coverage scheme in wireless sensor network provides better performance in terms of the energy efficiency, 6.61% reduced fault tolerant in terms of seconds and the percentage of active sensors to guarantee the area coverage compared to exiting algorithm.
On Simple Confidence Intervals for the Normal Mean with Known Coefficient of Variation
In this paper we proposed the new confidence interval for the normal population mean with known coefficient of variation. In practice, this situation occurs normally in environment and agriculture sciences where we know the standard deviation is proportional to the mean. As a result, the coefficient of variation of is known. We propose the new confidence interval based on the recent work of Khan  and this new confidence interval will compare with our previous work, see, e.g. Niwitpong . We derive analytic expressions for the coverage probability and the expected length of each confidence interval. A numerical method will be used to assess the performance of these intervals based on their expected lengths.
A Strategy for Scaling-Up Vitamin A Supplementation in a Remote Rural Setting
Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in
Zimbabwe. Addressing vitamin A deficiency has the potential of
enhancing resistance to disease and reducing mortality especially in
children less than 5 years. We implemented and adapted vitamin A
outreach supplementation strategy within the National Immunization
Days and Extended Programme of Immunization in a rural district in
Zimbabwe. Despite usual operational challenges faced this approach
enabled the district to increase delivery of supplementation coverage.
This paper describes the outreach strategy that was implemented in
the remote rural district. The strategy covered 63 outreach sites with
2 sites being covered per day and visited once per month for the
whole year. Coverage reached 71% in an area of previous coverage
rates of around less than 50%. We recommend further exploration of
this strategy by others working in similar circumstances. This
strategy can be a potential way for use by Scaling-Up-Nutrition
Quantifying and Adjusting the Effects of Publication Bias in Continuous Meta-Analysis
This study uses simulated meta-analysis to assess the effects of publication bias on meta-analysis estimates and to evaluate the efficacy of the trim and fill method in adjusting for these biases. The estimated effect sizes and the standard error were evaluated in terms of the statistical bias and the coverage probability. The results demonstrate that if publication bias is not adjusted it could lead to up to 40% bias in the treatment effect estimates. Utilization of the trim and fill method could reduce the bias in the overall estimate by more than half. The method is optimum in presence of moderate underlying bias but has minimal effects in presence of low and severe publication bias. Additionally, the trim and fill method improves the coverage probability by more than half when subjected to the same level of publication bias as those of the unadjusted data. The method however tends to produce false positive results and will incorrectly adjust the data for publication bias up to 45 % of the time. Nonetheless, the bias introduced into the estimates due to this adjustment is minimal
Nonconforming Control Charts for Zero-Inflated Poisson Distribution
This paper developed the c-Chart based on a Zero- Inflated Poisson (ZIP) processes that approximated by a geometric distribution with parameter p. The p estimated that fit for ZIP distribution used in calculated the mean, median, and variance of geometric distribution for constructed the c-Chart by three difference methods. For cg-Chart, developed c-Chart by used the mean and variance of the geometric distribution constructed control limits. For cmg-Chart, the mean used for constructed the control limits. The cme- Chart, developed control limits of c-Chart from median and variance values of geometric distribution. The performance of charts considered from the Average Run Length and Average Coverage Probability. We found that for an in-control process, the cg-Chart is superior for low level of mean at all level of proportion zero. For an out-of-control process, the cmg-Chart and cme-Chart are the best for mean = 2, 3 and 4 at all level of parameter.
Confidence Intervals for the Normal Mean with Known Coefficient of Variation
In this paper we proposed two new confidence intervals for the normal population mean with known coefficient of variation. This situation occurs normally in environment and agriculture experiments where the scientist knows the coefficient of variation of their experiments. We propose two new confidence intervals for this problem based on the recent work of Searls  and the new method proposed in this paper for the first time. We derive analytic expressions for the coverage probability and the expected length of each confidence interval. Monte Carlo simulation will be used to assess the performance of these intervals based on their expected lengths.
Coverage Probability of Confidence Intervals for the Normal Mean and Variance with Restricted Parameter Space
Recent articles have addressed the problem to construct the confidence intervals for the mean of a normal distribution where the parameter space is restricted, see for example Wang [Confidence intervals for the mean of a normal distribution with restricted parameter space. Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation, Vol. 78, No. 9, 2008, 829–841.], we derived, in this paper, analytic expressions of the coverage probability and the expected length of confidence interval for the normal mean when the whole parameter space is bounded. We also construct the confidence interval for the normal variance with restricted parameter for the first time and its coverage probability and expected length are also mathematically derived. As a result, one can use these criteria to assess the confidence interval for the normal mean and variance when the parameter space is restricted without the back up from simulation experiments.
Coverage Availability for the IEEE 802.16 System over the SUI Channels with Rayleigh Fading
The coverage probability and range of IEEE 802.16
systems depend on different wireless scenarios. Evaluating the
performance of IEEE 802.16 systems over Stanford University
Interim (SUI) channels is suggested by IEEE 802.16 specifications.
In order to derive an effective method for forecasting the coverage
probability and range, this study uses the SUI channel model to
analyze the coverage probability with Rayleigh fading for an IEEE
802.16 system. The BER of the IEEE 802.16 system is shown in the
simulation results. Then, the maximum allowed path loss can be
calculated and substituted into the coverage analysis. Therefore,
simulation results show the coverage range with and without
Coverage and Connectivity Problem in Sensor Networks
In over deployed sensor networks, one approach
to Conserve energy is to keep only a small subset of sensors
active at Any instant. For the coverage problems, the monitoring
area in a set of points that require sensing, called demand points, and
consider that the node coverage area is a circle of range R, where R
is the sensing range, If the Distance between a demand point and
a sensor node is less than R, the node is able to cover this point. We
consider a wireless sensor network consisting of a set of sensors
deployed randomly. A point in the monitored area is covered if it is
within the sensing range of a sensor. In some applications, when the
network is sufficiently dense, area coverage can be approximated by
guaranteeing point coverage. In this case, all the points of wireless
devices could be used to represent the whole area, and the working
sensors are supposed to cover all the sensors. We also introduce
Hybrid Algorithm and challenges related to coverage in sensor
High Perfomance Communication Protocol for Wireless Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks
In order to monitor for traffic traversal, sensors can be
deployed to perform collaborative target detection. Such a sensor
network achieves a certain level of detection performance with the
associated costs of deployment and routing protocol. This paper
addresses these two points of sensor deployment and routing algorithm
in the situation where the absolute quantity of sensors or total energy
becomes insufficient. This discussion on the best deployment system
concluded that two kinds of deployments; Normal and Power law
distributions, show 6 and 3 times longer than Random distribution in
the duration of coverage, respectively. The other discussion on routing
algorithm to achieve good performance in each deployment system
was also addressed. This discussion concluded that, in place of the
traditional algorithm, a new algorithm can extend the time of coverage
duration by 4 times in a Normal distribution, and in the circumstance
where every deployed sensor operates as a binary model.
A Novel QoS Optimization Architecture for 4G Networks
4G Communication Networks provide heterogeneous
wireless technologies to mobile subscribers through IP based
networks and users can avail high speed access while roaming across
multiple wireless channels; possible by an organized way to manage
the Quality of Service (QoS) functionalities in these networks. This
paper proposes the idea of developing a novel QoS optimization
architecture that will judge the user requirements and knowing peak
times of services utilization can save the bandwidth/cost factors. The
proposed architecture can be customized according to the network
usage priorities so as to considerably improve a network-s QoS
Methods for Case Maintenance in Case-Based Reasoning
Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is one of machine
learning algorithms for problem solving and learning that caught a lot
of attention over the last few years. In general, CBR is composed of
four main phases: retrieve the most similar case or cases, reuse the
case to solve the problem, revise or adapt the proposed solution, and
retain the learned cases before returning them to the case base for
learning purpose. Unfortunately, in many cases, this retain process
causes the uncontrolled case base growth. The problem affects
competence and performance of CBR systems. This paper proposes
competence-based maintenance method based on deletion policy
strategy for CBR. There are three main steps in this method. Step 1,
formulate problems. Step 2, determine coverage and reachability set
based on coverage value. Step 3, reduce case base size. The results
obtained show that this proposed method performs better than the
existing methods currently discussed in literature.
Remarks on Some Properties of Decision Rules
This paper shows that some properties of the decision
rules in the literature do not hold by presenting a counterexample. We
give sufficient and necessary conditions under which these properties
are valid. These results will be helpful when one tries to choose the
right decision rules in the research of rough set theory.
Further Investigations on Higher Mathematics Scores for Chinese University Students
Recently, X. Ge and J. Qian investigated some relations between higher mathematics scores and calculus scores (resp. linear algebra scores, probability statistics scores) for Chinese university students. Based on rough-set theory, they established an information system S = (U,CuD,V, f). In this information system, higher mathematics score was taken as a decision attribute and calculus score, linear algebra score, probability statistics score were taken as condition attributes. They investigated importance of each condition attribute with respective to decision attribute and strength of each condition attribute supporting decision attribute. In this paper, we give further investigations for this issue. Based on the above information system S = (U, CU D, V, f), we analyze the decision rules between condition and decision granules. For each x E U, we obtain support (resp. strength, certainty factor, coverage factor) of the decision rule C —>x D, where C —>x D is the decision rule induced by x in S = (U, CU D, V, f). Results of this paper gives new analysis of on higher mathematics scores for Chinese university students, which can further lead Chinese university students to raise higher mathematics scores in Chinese graduate student entrance examination.
A Power Reduction Technique for Built-In-Self Testing Using Modified Linear Feedback Shift Register
A linear feedback shift register (LFSR) is proposed which targets to reduce the power consumption from within. It reduces the power consumption during testing of a Circuit Under Test (CUT) at two stages. At first stage,
Control Logic (CL) makes the clocks of the switching units
of the register inactive for a time period when output from
them is going to be same as previous one and thus reducing
unnecessary switching of the flip-flops. And at second stage,
the LFSR reorders the test vectors by interchanging the bit
with its next and closest neighbor bit. It keeps fault coverage
capacity of the vectors unchanged but reduces the Total Hamming Distance (THD) so that there is reduction in power
while shifting operation.
A Fast Sensor Relocation Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensor relocation is to repair coverage holes caused by node failures. One way to repair coverage holes is to find redundant nodes to replace faulty nodes. Most researches took a long time to find redundant nodes since they randomly scattered redundant nodes around the sensing field. To record the precise position of sensor nodes, most researches assumed that GPS was installed in sensor nodes. However, high costs and power-consumptions of GPS are heavy burdens for sensor nodes. Thus, we propose a fast sensor relocation algorithm to arrange redundant nodes to form redundant walls without GPS. Redundant walls are constructed in the position where the average distance to each sensor node is the shortest. Redundant walls can guide sensor nodes to find redundant nodes in the minimum time. Simulation results show that our algorithm can find the proper redundant node in the minimum time and reduce the relocation time with low message complexity.
An Energy Efficient Protocol for Target Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks
Target tracking and localization are important applications
in wireless sensor networks. In these applications, sensor nodes
collectively monitor and track the movement of a target. They have
limited energy supplied by batteries, so energy efficiency is essential
for sensor networks. Most existing target tracking protocols need to
wake up sensors periodically to perform tracking. Some unnecessary
energy waste is thus introduced. In this paper, an energy efficient
protocol for target localization is proposed. In order to preserve
energy, the protocol fixes the number of sensors for target tracking,
but it retains the quality of target localization in an acceptable
level. By selecting a set of sensors for target localization, the other
sensors can sleep rather than periodically wake up to track the target.
Simulation results show that the proposed protocol saves a significant
amount of energy and also prolongs the network lifetime.
Performance of a Connected Random Covered Energy Efficient Wireless Sensor Network
For the sensor network to operate successfully, the active nodes should maintain both sensing coverage and network connectivity. Furthermore, scheduling sleep intervals plays critical role for energy efficiency of wireless sensor networks. Traditional methods for sensor scheduling use either sensing coverage or network connectivity, but rarely both. In this paper, we use random scheduling for sensing coverage and then turn on extra sensor nodes, if necessary, for network connectivity. Simulation results have demonstrated that the number of extra nodes that is on with upper bound of around 9%, is small compared to the total number of deployed sensor nodes. Thus energy consumption for switching on extra sensor node is small.
Coverage Strategies for Wireless Sensor Networks
Coverage is one of the main research interests in wireless sensor networks (WSN), it is used to determine the quality of service (QoS) of the networks. Therefore this paper aims to review the common strategies use in solving coverage problem in WSN. The strategies studied are used during deployment phase where the coverage is calculated based on the placement of the sensors on the region of interest (ROI). The strategies reviewed are categorized into three groups based on the approaches used, namely; force based, grid based or computational geometry based approach.
COTT – A Testability Framework for Object-Oriented Software Testing
Testable software has two inherent properties – observability and controllability. Observability facilitates observation of internal behavior of software to required degree of detail. Controllability allows creation of difficult-to-achieve states prior to execution of various tests. In this paper, we describe COTT, a Controllability and Observability Testing Tool, to create testable object-oriented software. COTT provides a framework that helps the user to instrument object-oriented software to build the required controllability and observability. During testing, the tool facilitates creation of difficult-to-achieve states required for testing of difficultto- test conditions and observation of internal details of execution at unit, integration and system levels. The execution observations are logged in a test log file, which are used for post analysis and to generate test coverage reports.
A Review of Coverage and Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks
The special constraints of sensor networks impose a
number of technical challenges for employing them. In this review,
we study the issues and existing protocols in three areas: coverage
and routing. We present two types of coverage problems: to
determine the minimum number of sensor nodes that need to perform
active sensing in order to monitor a certain area; and to decide the
quality of service that can be provided by a given sensor network.
While most routing protocols in sensor networks are data-centric,
there are other types of routing protocols as well, such as
hierarchical, location-based, and QoS-aware. We describe and
compare several protocols in each group. We present several multipath
routing protocols and single-path with local repair routing
protocols, which are proposed for recovering from sensor node
crashes. We also discuss some transport layer schemes for reliable
data transmission in lossy wireless channels.