Study on Two Way Reinforced Concrete Slab Using ANSYS with Different Boundary Conditions and Loading
This paper presents the Finite Element Method (FEM) for analyzing the failure pattern of rectangular slab with various edge conditions. Non-Linear static analysis is carried out using ANSYS 15 Software. Using SOLID65 solid elements, the compressive crushing of concrete is facilitated using plasticity algorithm, while the concrete cracking in tension zone is accommodated by the nonlinear material model. Smeared reinforcement is used and introduced as a percentage of steel embedded in concrete slab. The behavior of the analyzed concrete slab has been observed in terms of the crack pattern and displacement for various loading and boundary conditions. The finite element results are also compared with the experimental data. One of the other objectives of the present study is to show how similar the crack path found by ANSYS program to those observed for the yield line analysis. The smeared reinforcement method is found to be more practical especially for the layered elements like concrete slabs. The value of this method is that it does not require explicit modeling of the rebar, and thus a much coarser mesh can be defined.
Mechanistic Study of Composite Pavement Behavior in Heavy Duty Area
In heavy duty areas, asphalt pavement constructed as entrance roadway may expose distresses such as cracking and rutting during service life. To mitigate these problems, composite pavement with a roller-compacted concrete base may be a good alternative; however, it should be initially investigated. Structural performances such as fatigue cracking and rut depth may be changed due to variation of some design factors. Therefore, this study focuses on the variation effect of material modulus, layer thickness and loading on composite pavement performances. Stress and strain at the critical location are determined and used as the input of transfer function for corresponding distresses to evaluate the pavement performance. Also, composite pavement satisfying the design criteria may be selected as a design section for heavy duty areas. Consequently, this investigation indicates that composite pavement has the ability to eliminate fatigue cracking in asphalt surfaces and significantly reduce rut depth. In addition, a thick or strong rigid base can significantly reduce rut depth and prolong fatigue life of this layer.
Torsional Rigidities of Reinforced Concrete Beams Subjected to Elastic Lateral Torsional Buckling
Reinforced concrete (RC) beams rarely undergo lateral-torsional buckling (LTB), since these beams possess large lateral bending and torsional rigidities owing to their stocky cross-sections, unlike steel beams. However, the problem of LTB is becoming more and more pronounced in the last decades as the span lengths of concrete beams increase and the cross-sections become more slender with the use of pre-stressed concrete. The buckling moment of a beam mainly depends on its lateral bending rigidity and torsional rigidity. The nonhomogeneous and elastic-inelastic nature of RC complicates estimation of the buckling moments of concrete beams. Furthermore, the lateral bending and torsional rigidities of RC beams and the buckling moments are affected from different forms of concrete cracking, including flexural, torsional and restrained shrinkage cracking. The present study pertains to the effects of concrete cracking on the torsional rigidities of RC beams prone to elastic LTB. A series of tests on rather slender RC beams indicated that torsional cracking does not initiate until buckling in elastic LTB, while flexural cracking associated with lateral bending takes place even at the initial stages of loading. Hence, the present study clearly indicated that the un-cracked torsional rigidity needs to be used for estimating the buckling moments of RC beams liable to elastic LTB.
Structural Engineering Forensic Evaluation of Misdiagnosed Concrete Masonry Wall Cracking
Given that concrete masonry walls are expected to experience shrinkage combined with thermal expansion and contraction, and in some cases even carbonation, throughout their service life, cracking is to be expected. However, after concrete masonry walls have been placed into service, originally anticipated and accounted for cracking is often misdiagnosed as a structural defect. Such misdiagnoses often result in or are used to support litigation. This paper begins by discussing the causes and types of anticipated cracking within concrete masonry walls followed by a discussion on the processes and analyses that exists for properly evaluating them and their significance. From here, the paper then presents a case of misdiagnosed concrete masonry cracking and the flawed logic employed to support litigation.
Structure and Activity Research of Hydrocarbons Refining Catalysts Based on Wastes of Ferroalloy Production
An effective way of utilization of ferroalloy production wastes is preparing hydrocarbon refining catalysts from them. It is possible due to accordable transition metals containing in the wastes. In the work, we are presenting the results on elemental analysis of sludge samples from Aksu ferroalloy plant (Aksu, Kazakhstan), method of catalysts preparing, results of physical-chemical analysis of obtained catalysts (X-ray analysis, electron microscopy, the BET method etc.), results of using the catalysts in some hydrocarbons refining processes such as hydrocracking of rubber waste, cracking of gasoil, oxidation of cyclohexane. The main results of catalytic activity research are: a) In hydrocracking of rubber waste 64.9% of liquid products were fuel fractions; b) In cracking of gasoil conversion was 51% and selectivity by liquid products was 99%; c) In oxidation of cyclohexane the maximal product yield 87.9% and selectivity by cyclohexanol 93.0% were achieved.
Predicting Depth of Penetration in Abrasive Waterjet Cutting of Polycrystalline Ceramics
This paper presents a model to predict the depth of penetration in polycrystalline ceramic material cut by abrasive waterjet. The proposed model considered the interaction of cylindrical jet with target material in upper region and neglected the role of threshold velocity in lower region. The results predicted with the proposed model are validated with the experimental results obtained with Silicon Carbide (SiC) blocks.
Password Cracking on Graphics Processing Unit Based Systems
Password authentication is one of the widely used
methods to achieve authentication for legal users of computers and
defense against attackers. There are many different ways to
authenticate users of a system and there are many password cracking
methods also developed. This paper proposes how best password
cracking can be performed on a CPU-GPGPU based system. The
main objective of this work is to project how quickly a password can
be cracked with some knowledge about the computer security and
password cracking if sufficient security is not incorporated to the
Thermal Cracking Approach Investigation to Improve Biodiesel Properties
Biodiesel as an alternative diesel fuel is steadily gaining more attention and significance. However, there are some drawbacks while using biodiesel regarding its properties that requires it to be blended with petrol based diesel and/or additives to improve the fuel characteristics. This study analyses thermal cracking as an alternative technology to improve biodiesel characteristics in which, FAME based biodiesel produced by transesterification of castor oil is fed into a continuous thermal cracking reactor at temperatures range of 450-500°C and flowrate range of 20-40 g/hr. Experiments designed by response surface methodology and subsequent statistical studies show that temperature and feed flowrate significantly affect the products yield. Response surfaces were used to study the impact of temperature and flowrate on the product properties. After each experiment, the produced crude bio-oil was distilled and diesel cut was separated. As shorter chain molecules are produced through thermal cracking, the distillation curve of the diesel cut fitted more with petrol based diesel curve in comparison to the biodiesel. Moreover, the produced diesel cut properties adequately pose within property ranges defined by the related standard of petrol based diesel. Cold flow properties, high heating value as the main drawbacks of the biodiesel are improved by this technology. Thermal cracking decreases kinematic viscosity, Flash point and cetane number.
Risk of Plastic Shrinkage Cracking in Recycled Aggregate Concrete
The intensive use of natural aggregates, near cities and towns, associated to the increase of the global population, leads to its depletion and increases the transport distances. The uncontrolled deposition of construction and demolition waste in landfills and city outskirts, causes pollution and takes up space. The use of recycled aggregates in concrete preparation would contribute to mitigate the problem. However, it arises the problem that the high water absorption of recycled aggregate decreases the bleeding rate of concrete, and when this gets lower than the evaporation rate, plastic shrinkage cracking occurs. This phenomenon can be particularly problematic in hot and windy curing environments. Cracking facilitates the flow of liquid and gas into concrete which attacks the reinforcement and degrades the concrete. These factors reduce the durability of concrete structures and consequently the lifetime of buildings. A ring test was used, cured in a wind tunnel, to evaluate the plastic shrinkage cracking sensitivity of recycled aggregate concrete, in order to implement preventive means to control this phenomenon. The role of several aggregate properties on the concrete segregation and cracking mechanisms were also discussed.
Butene Catalytic Cracking to Propylene over Iron and Phosphorus Modified HZSM-5
HZSM-5 zeolites modified by iron and phosphorus
were applied in catalytic cracking of butene. N2 adsorption and
NH3-TPD were employed to measure the structure and acidity of
catalysts. The results indicate that increasing phosphorus loading
decreased surface area, pore volume and strong acidity of catalysts.
The addition of phosphorus significantly decreased butene conversion
and promoted propylene selectivity. The catalytic performance of
catalyst was strongly dependent on the reaction conditions.
Appropriate reaction conditions could suppress side reactions and
enhance propylene selectivity.
Catalytic Cracking of Butene to Propylene over Modified HZSM-5 Zeolites
Catalytic cracking of butene to propylene was carried out in a continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor over HZSM-5 catalysts modified by nickel and phosphorus. The structure and acidity of catalysts were measured by N2 adsorption, NH3-TPD and XPS. The results revealed that surface area and strong acid sites both decreased with increasing phosphorus loadings. The increment of phosphorus loadings reduced the butene conversion but enhanced the propylene selectivity and catalyst stability.
Recycled Plastic Fibers for Minimizing Plastic Shrinkage Cracking of Cement Based Mortar
The development of new construction materials using
recycled plastic is important to both the construction and the plastic
recycling industries. Manufacturing of fibers from industrial or
postconsumer plastic waste is an attractive approach with such
benefits as concrete performance enhancement, and reduced needs
for land filling. The main objective of this study is to investigate the
effect of Plastic fibers obtained locally from recycled waste on plastic
shrinkage cracking of ordinary cement based mortar. Parameters
investigated include: fiber length ranging from 20 to 50mm, and fiber
volume fraction ranging from 0% to 1.5% by volume. The test results
showed significant improvement in crack arresting mechanism and
substantial reduction in the surface area of cracks for the mortar
reinforced with recycled plastic fibers compared to plain mortar.
Furthermore, test results indicated that there was a slight decrease in
compressive strength of mortar reinforced with different lengths and
contents of recycled fibers compared to plain mortar. This study
suggests that adding more than 1% of RP fibers to mortar, can be
used effectively for controlling plastic shrinkage cracking of cement
based mortar, and thus results in waste reduction and resources
Finite Element Analysis and Feasibility of Simple Stochastic Modeling in the Analysis of Fissuring in Grains during Soaking
A finite element analysis was conducted to determine
the effect of moisture diffusion and hygroscopic swelling in rice. A
parallel simple stochastic modeling was performed to predict the
number of grains cracked as a result of moisture absorption and
hygroscopic swelling. Rice grains were soaked in thermally (25 oC)
controlled water and then tested for compressive stress. The
destructive compressive stress tests revealed through compressive
stress calculation that the peak force required to cause cracking in
grains soaked in water reduced with time as soaking duration was
extended. Results of the experiment showed that several grains had
their value of the predicted compressive stress below the von Mises
stress and were interpreted as grains which become cracked and/or
broke during soaking. The technique developed in this experiment
will facilitate the approximation of the number of grains which will
crack during soaking.
Effects of Corrosion on Reinforced Concrete Beams with Silica Fume and Polypropylene Fibre
Reinforced concrete has good durability and excellent structural performance. But there are cases of early deterioration due to a number of factors, one prominent factor being corrosion of steel reinforcement. The process of corrosion sets in due to ingress of moisture, oxygen and other ingredients into the body of concrete, which is unsound, permeable and absorbent. Cracks due to structural and other causes such as creep, shrinkage, etc also allow ingress of moisture and other harmful ingredients and thus accelerate the rate of corrosion. There are several interactive factors both external and internal, which lead to corrosion of reinforcement and ultimately failure of structures. Suitable addition of mineral admixture like silica fume (SF) in concrete improves the strength and durability of concrete due to considerable improvement in the microstructure of concrete composites, especially at the transition zone. Secondary reinforcement in the form of fibre is added to concrete, which provides three dimensional random reinforcement in the entire mass of concrete. Reinforced concrete beams of size 0.1 m X 0.15 m and length 1m have been cast using M 35 grade of concrete. The beams after curing process were subjected to corrosion process by impressing an external Direct Current (Galvanostatic Method) for a period of 15 days under stressed and unstressed conditions. The corroded beams were tested by applying two point loads to determine the ultimate load carrying capacity and cracking pattern and the results of specimens were compared with that of the companion specimens. Gravimetric method is used to quantify corrosion that has occurred.
Kinetics of Palm Oil Cracking in Batch Reactor
The kinetics of palm oil catalytic cracking over
aluminum containing mesoporous silica Al-MCM-41 (5% Al) was
investigated in a batch autoclave reactor at the temperatures range of
573 – 673 K. The catalyst was prepared by using sol-gel technique
and has been characterized by nitrogen adsorption and x-ray
diffraction methods. Surface area of 1276 m2/g with average pore
diameter of 2.54 nm and pore volume of 0.811 cm3/g was obtained.
The experimental catalytic cracking runs were conducted using 50 g
of oil and 1 g of catalyst. The reaction pressure was recorded at
different time intervals and the data were analyzed using Levenberg-
Marquardt (LM) algorithm using polymath software. The results
show that the reaction order was found to be -1.5 and activation
energy of 3200 J/gmol.
Thermal Cracking Respone of Reinforced Concrete Beam to Gradient Temperature
In this paper are illustrated the principal aspects
connected with the numerical evaluation of thermal stress induced by high gradient temperature in the concrete beam. The reinforced concrete beam has many advantages over steel
beam, such as high resistance to high temperature, high resistance to thermal shock, Better resistance to fatigue and buckling, strong
resistance against, fire, explosion, etc.
The main drawback of the reinforced concrete beam is its poor resistance to tensile stresses. In order to investigate the thermal
induced tensile stresses, a numerical model of a transient thermal
analysis is presented for the evaluation of thermo-mechanical
response of concrete beam to the high temperature, taking into account the temperature dependence of the thermo physical properties of the concrete like thermal conductivity and specific heat.
Process Simulation of Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether (ETBE) Production from Naphtha Cracking Wastes
The production of ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) was
simulated through Aspen Plus. The objective of this work was to use
the simulation results to be an alternative platform for ETBE
production from naphtha cracking wastes for the industry to develop.
ETBE is produced from isobutylene which is one of the wastes in
naphtha cracking process. The content of isobutylene in the waste is
less than 30% weight. The main part of this work was to propose a
process to save the environment and to increase the product value by
converting a great majority of the wastes into ETBE. Various
processes were considered to determine the optimal production of
ETBE. The proposed process increased ETBE production yield by
100% from conventional process with the purity of 96% weight. The
results showed a great promise for developing this proposed process
in an industrial scale.
Viscosity Reduction and Upgrading of Athabasca Oilsands Bitumen by Natural Zeolite Cracking
Oilsands bitumen is an extremely important source of
energy for North America. However, due to the presence of large
molecules such as asphaltenes, the density and viscosity of the
bitumen recovered from these sands are much higher than those of
conventional crude oil. As a result the extracted bitumen has to be
diluted with expensive solvents, or thermochemically upgraded in
large, capital-intensive conventional upgrading facilities prior to
pipeline transport. This study demonstrates that globally abundant
natural zeolites such as clinoptilolite from Saint Clouds, New Mexico
and Ca-chabazite from Bowie, Arizona can be used as very effective
reagents for cracking and visbreaking of oilsands bitumen. Natural
zeolite cracked oilsands bitumen products are highly recoverable (up
to ~ 83%) using light hydrocarbons such as pentane, which indicates
substantial conversion of heavier fractions to lighter components.
The resultant liquid products are much less viscous, and have lighter
product distribution compared to those produced from pure thermal
treatment. These natural minerals impart similar effect on industrially
extracted Athabasca bitumen.
Effect of Oxygen and Micro-Cracking on the Flotation of Low Grade Nickel Sulphide Ore
This study investigated the effect of oxygen and
micro-cracking on the flotation of low grade nickel sulphide ore. The
ore treated contained serpentine minerals which have a history of
being difficult to process efficiently. The use of oxygen as a bubbling
gas has been noted to be effective because it increases the pulp
potential. The desired effect of micro cracking the ore is that the
nickel sulphide minerals will become activated and this activation
will render these minerals more susceptible to react with potassium
amyl xanthate collectors, resulting in a higher recovery of nickel and
hinder the recovery of other undesired minerals contained in the ore.
Higher nickel recoveries were obtained when pure oxygen was used
as a bubbling gas rather than the conventional air. Microwave
cracking favored the recovery of nickel.
Feedstock Effects on Selecting the Appropriate Coil Configuration for Cracking Furnaces
In the present research, steam cracking of two types of
feedstocks i.e., naphtha and ethane is simulated for Pyrocrack1-1 and
2/2 coil configurations considering two key parameters of coil outlet
temperature (COT) and coil capacity using a radical based kinetic
model. The computer model is confirmed using the industrial data
obtained from Amirkabir Petrochemical Complex. The results are in
good agreement with performance data for naphtha cracking in a
wide range of severity (0.4-0.7), and for ethane cracking on various
conversions (50-70). It was found that Pyrocrack2-2 coil type is an
appropriate choice for steam cracking of ethane at reasonable
ethylene yield while resulting in much lower tube wall temperature
while Pyrocrack1-1 coil type is a proper selection for liquid
feedstocks i.e. naphtha. It can be used for cracking of liquid
feedstocks at optimal ethylene yield whereas not exceeding the
allowable maximum tube temperature.
Effect of Tube Materials and Special Coating on Coke Deposition in the Steam Cracking of Hydrocarbons
The steam cracking reactions are always accompanied with the formation of coke which deposits on the walls of the tubular reactors. The investigation has attempted to control catalytic coking by the applying aluminum, zinc and ceramic coating like aluminum-magnesium by thermal spray and pack cementation method. Rate of coke formation during steam cracking of naphtha has been investigated both for uncoated stainless steel (with different alloys) and metal coating constructed with thermal Spray and pack cementation method with metal powders of Aluminum, Aluminum-Magnesium, zinc, silicon, nickel and chromium. The results of the study show that passivating the surface of SS321 with a coating of Aluminum and Aluminum-Magnesium can significantly reduce the rate of coke deposition during naphtha pyrolysis. SEM and EDAX techniques (Philips XL Series) were used to examine the coke deposits formed by the metal-hydrocarbon reactions. Our objective was to separate the different stages by identifying the characteristic morphologies.
CFD Flow and Heat Transfer Simulation for Empty and Packed Fixed Bed Reactor in Catalytic Cracking of Naphtha
This work aims to test the application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling to fixed bed catalytic cracking reactors. Studies of CFD with a fixed bed design commonly use a regular packing with N=2 to define bed geometry. CFD allows us to obtain a more accurate view of the fluid flow and heat transfer mechanisms present in fixed bed equipment. Naphtha was used as feedstock and the reactor length was 80cm. It is divided in three sections that catalyst bed packed in the middle section of the reactor. The reaction scheme was involved one primary reaction and 24 secondary reactions. Because of high CPU times in these simulations, parallel processing have been used. In this study the coke formation process in fixed bed and empty tube reactor was simulated and coke in these reactors are compared. In addition, the effect of steam ratio and feed flow rate on coke formation was investigated.