Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 11

11
10008011
Generalized π-Armendariz Authentication Cryptosystem
Abstract:

Algebra is one of the important fields of mathematics. It concerns with the study and manipulation of mathematical symbols. It also concerns with the study of abstractions such as groups, rings, and fields. Due to the development of these abstractions, it is extended to consider other structures, such as vectors, matrices, and polynomials, which are non-numerical objects. Computer algebra is the implementation of algebraic methods as algorithms and computer programs. Recently, many algebraic cryptosystem protocols are based on non-commutative algebraic structures, such as authentication, key exchange, and encryption-decryption processes are adopted. Cryptography is the science that aimed at sending the information through public channels in such a way that only an authorized recipient can read it. Ring theory is the most attractive category of algebra in the area of cryptography. In this paper, we employ the algebraic structure called skew -Armendariz rings to design a neoteric algorithm for zero knowledge proof. The proposed protocol is established and illustrated through numerical example, and its soundness and completeness are proved.

10
10002583
Comparison between Separable and Irreducible Goppa Code in McEliece Cryptosystem
Abstract:
The McEliece cryptosystem is an asymmetric type of cryptography based on error correction code. The classical McEliece used irreducible binary Goppa code which considered unbreakable until now especially with parameter [1024, 524, and 101], but it is suffering from large public key matrix which leads to be difficult to be used practically. In this work Irreducible and Separable Goppa codes have been introduced. The Irreducible and Separable Goppa codes used are with flexible parameters and dynamic error vectors. A Comparison between Separable and Irreducible Goppa code in McEliece Cryptosystem has been done. For encryption stage, to get better result for comparison, two types of testing have been chosen; in the first one the random message is constant while the parameters of Goppa code have been changed. But for the second test, the parameters of Goppa code are constant (m=8 and t=10) while the random message have been changed. The results show that the time needed to calculate parity check matrix in separable are higher than the one for irreducible McEliece cryptosystem, which is considered expected results due to calculate extra parity check matrix in decryption process for g2(z) in separable type, and the time needed to execute error locator in decryption stage in separable type is better than the time needed to calculate it in irreducible type. The proposed implementation has been done by Visual studio C#.
9
10001355
Deterministic Random Number Generator Algorithm for Cryptosystem Keys
Abstract:
One of the crucial parameters of digital cryptographic systems is the selection of the keys used and their distribution. The randomness of the keys has a strong impact on the system’s security strength being difficult to be predicted, guessed, reproduced, or discovered by a cryptanalyst. Therefore, adequate key randomness generation is still sought for the benefit of stronger cryptosystems. This paper suggests an algorithm designed to generate and test pseudo random number sequences intended for cryptographic applications. This algorithm is based on mathematically manipulating a publically agreed upon information between sender and receiver over a public channel. This information is used as a seed for performing some mathematical functions in order to generate a sequence of pseudorandom numbers that will be used for encryption/decryption purposes. This manipulation involves permutations and substitutions that fulfill Shannon’s principle of “confusion and diffusion”. ASCII code characters were utilized in the generation process instead of using bit strings initially, which adds more flexibility in testing different seed values. Finally, the obtained results would indicate sound difficulty of guessing keys by attackers.
8
3104
Novel Method for Elliptic Curve Multi-Scalar Multiplication
Abstract:
The major building block of most elliptic curve cryptosystems are computation of multi-scalar multiplication. This paper proposes a novel algorithm for simultaneous multi-scalar multiplication, that is by employing addition chains. The previously known methods utilizes double-and-add algorithm with binary representations. In order to accomplish our purpose, an efficient empirical method for finding addition chains for multi-exponents has been proposed.
7
1875
A New Knapsack Public-Key Cryptosystem Based on Permutation Combination Algorithm
Abstract:
A new secure knapsack cryptosystem based on the Merkle-Hellman public key cryptosystem will be proposed in this paper. Although it is common sense that when the density is low, the knapsack cryptosystem turns vulnerable to the low-density attack. The density d of a secure knapsack cryptosystem must be larger than 0.9408 to avoid low-density attack. In this paper, we investigate a new Permutation Combination Algorithm. By exploiting this algorithm, we shall propose a novel knapsack public-key cryptosystem. Our proposed scheme can enjoy a high density to avoid the low-density attack. The density d can also exceed 0.9408 to avoid the low-density attack.
6
9381
New Analysis Methods on Strict Avalanche Criterion of S-Boxes
Abstract:
S-boxes (Substitution boxes) are keystones of modern symmetric cryptosystems (block ciphers, as well as stream ciphers). S-boxes bring nonlinearity to cryptosystems and strengthen their cryptographic security. They are used for confusion in data security An S-box satisfies the strict avalanche criterion (SAC), if and only if for any single input bit of the S-box, the inversion of it changes each output bit with probability one half. If a function (cryptographic transformation) is complete, then each output bit depends on all of the input bits. Thus, if it were possible to find the simplest Boolean expression for each output bit in terms of the input bits, each of these expressions would have to contain all of the input bits if the function is complete. From some important properties of S-box, the most interesting property SAC (Strict Avalanche Criterion) is presented and to analyze this property three analysis methods are proposed.
5
7276
FPGA Implementation of RSA Cryptosystem
Abstract:
In this paper, the hardware implementation of the RSA public-key cryptographic algorithm is presented. The RSA cryptographic algorithm is depends on the computation of repeated modular exponentials. The Montgomery algorithm is used and modified to reduce hardware resources and to achieve reasonable operating speed for FPGA. An efficient architecture for modular multiplications based on the array multiplier is proposed. We have implemented a RSA cryptosystem based on Montgomery algorithm. As a result, it is shown that proposed architecture contributes to small area and reasonable speed.
4
1883
Generalisation of Kipnis and Shamir Cryptanalysis of the HFE public key cryptosystem
Abstract:
In [4], Kipnis and Shamir have cryptanalised a version of HFE of degree 2. In this paper, we describe the generalization of this attack of HFE of degree more than 2. We are based on Fourier Transformation to acheive partially this attack.
3
3467
Implementation and Analysis of Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems over Polynomial basis and ONB
Abstract:
Polynomial bases and normal bases are both used for elliptic curve cryptosystems, but field arithmetic operations such as multiplication, inversion and doubling for each basis are implemented by different methods. In general, it is said that normal bases, especially optimal normal bases (ONB) which are special cases on normal bases, are efficient for the implementation in hardware in comparison with polynomial bases. However there seems to be more examined by implementing and analyzing these systems under similar condition. In this paper, we designed field arithmetic operators for each basis over GF(2233), which field has a polynomial basis recommended by SEC2 and a type-II ONB both, and analyzed these implementation results. And, in addition, we predicted the efficiency of two elliptic curve cryptosystems using these field arithmetic operators.
2
8025
An Efficient Segmentation Method Based on Local Entropy Characteristics of Iris Biometrics
Abstract:
An efficient iris segmentation method based on analyzing the local entropy characteristic of the iris image, is proposed in this paper and the strength and weaknesses of the method are analyzed for practical purposes. The method shows special strength in providing designers with an adequate degree of freedom in choosing the proper sections of the iris for their application purposes.
1
13928
Analysis and Comparison of Image Encryption Algorithms
Abstract:

With the fast progression of data exchange in electronic way, information security is becoming more important in data storage and transmission. Because of widely using images in industrial process, it is important to protect the confidential image data from unauthorized access. In this paper, we analyzed current image encryption algorithms and compression is added for two of them (Mirror-like image encryption and Visual Cryptography). Implementations of these two algorithms have been realized for experimental purposes. The results of analysis are given in this paper.

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