Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 15

15
10008705
Comparative Study of Ad Hoc Routing Protocols in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks for Smart City
Abstract:

In this paper, we perform the investigation of some routing protocols in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) context. Indeed, we study the efficiency of protocols like Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV), Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Optimized Link State Routing convention (OLSR) and Vehicular Multi-hop algorithm for Stable Clustering (VMASC) in terms of packet delivery ratio (PDR) and throughput. The performance evaluation and comparison between the studied protocols shows that the VMASC is the best protocols regarding fast data transmission and link stability in VANETs. The validation of all results is done by the NS3 simulator.

14
10008439
Study on the Application of Lime to Improve the Rheological Properties of Polymer Modified Bitumen
Abstract:

Bitumen is one of the most applicable materials in pavement engineering. It is a binding material with unique viscoelastic properties, especially when it mixes with polymer. In this study, to figure out the viscoelastic behaviour of the polymer modified with bitumen (PMB), a series of dynamic shearing rheological (DSR) tests were conducted. Four percentages of lime (i.e. 1%, 2%, 4% and 5%) were mixed with PMB and tested under four different temperatures including 64ºC, 70ºC, 76ºC and 82ºC. The results indicated that complex shearing modulus (G*) increased by increasing the frequency due to raised resistance against deformation. The phase angle (δ) showed a decreasing trend by incrementing the frequency. The addition of lime percentages increased the complex modulus value and declined phase angle parameter. Increasing the temperature decreased the complex modulus and increased the phase angle until 70ºC. The decreasing trend of rutting factor with increasing temperature revealed that rutting factor improved by the addition of the lime to the PMB.

13
10004546
VANETs: Security Challenges and Future Directions
Authors:
Abstract:
Connected vehicles are equipped with wireless sensors that aid in Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) communication. These vehicles will in the near future provide road safety, improve transport efficiency, and reduce traffic congestion. One of the challenges for connected vehicles is how to ensure that information sent across the network is secure. If security of the network is not guaranteed, several attacks can occur, thereby compromising the robustness, reliability, and efficiency of the network. This paper discusses existing security mechanisms and unique properties of connected vehicles. The methodology employed in this work is exploratory. The paper reviews existing security solutions for connected vehicles. More concretely, it discusses various cryptographic mechanisms available, and suggests areas of improvement. The study proposes a combination of symmetric key encryption and public key cryptography to improve security. The study further proposes message aggregation as a technique to overcome message redundancy. This paper offers a comprehensive overview of connected vehicles technology, its applications, its security mechanisms, open challenges, and potential areas of future research.
12
9998695
Design of Regular Communication Area for Infrared Electronic-Toll-Collection Systems
Abstract:

A design of communication area for infrared electronic-toll-collection systems to provide an extended communication interval in the vehicle traveling direction and regular boundary between contiguous traffic lanes is proposed. By utilizing two typical low-cost commercial infrared LEDs with different half-intensity angles Φ1/2 = 22◦ and 10◦, the radiation pattern of the emitter is designed to properly adjust the spatial distribution of the signal power. The aforementioned purpose can be achieved with an LED array in a three-piece structure with appropriate mounting angles. With this emitter, the influence of the mounting parameters, including the mounting height and mounting angles of the on-board unit and road-side unit, on the system performance in terms of the received signal strength and communication area are investigated. The results reveal that, for our emitter proposed in this paper, the ideal ”long-and-narrow” characteristic of the communication area is very little affected by these mounting parameters. An optimum mounting configuration is also suggested.

11
16424
Exploration of the Communication Area of Infrared Short-Range Communication Systems for Intervehicle Communication
Abstract:

Infrared communication in the wavelength band 780- 950 nm is very suitable for short-range point-to-point communications. It is a good choice for vehicle-to-vehicle communication in several intelligent-transportation-system (ITS) applications such as cooperative driving, collision warning, and pileup-crash prevention. In this paper, with the aid of a physical model established in our previous works, we explore the communication area of an infrared intervehicle communication system utilizing a typical low-cost cormmercial lightemitting diodes (LEDs) as the emitter and planar p-i-n photodiodes as the receiver. The radiation pattern of the emitter fabricated by aforementioned LEDs and the receiving pattern of the receiver are approximated by a linear combination of cosinen functions. This approximation helps us analyze the system performance easily. Both multilane straight-road conditions and curved-road conditions with various radius of curvature are taken into account. The condition of a small car communicating with a big truck, i.e., there is a vertical mounting height difference between the emitter and the receiver, is also considered. Our results show that the performance of the system meets the requirement of aforementioned ITS applications in terms of the communication area.

10
7233
A Study of DSRC Radio Testbed under Heavy Channel Load
Abstract:
Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) is a key enabling technology for the next generation of communication-based safety applications. One of the important problems for DSRC deployment is maintaining high performance under heavy channel load. Many studies focus on congestion control mechanisms for simulating hundreds of physical radios deployed on vehicles. The U.S. department of transportation-s (DOT) Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) division has a plan to chosen prototype on-board devices capable of transmitting basic “Here I am" safety messages to other vehicles. The devices will be used in an IntelliDrive safety pilot deployment of up to 3,000 vehicles. It is hard to log the information of 3,000 vehicles. In this paper we present the designs and issues related to the DSRC Radio Testbed under heavy channel load. The details not only include the architecture of DSRC Radio Testbed, but also describe how the Radio Interfere System is used to help for emulating the congestion radio environment.
Keywords:
9
3885
Traffic Load based Performance Analysis of DSR and STAR Routing Protocol
Abstract:
The wireless adhoc network is comprised of wireless node which can move freely and are connected among themselves without central infrastructure. Due to the limited transmission range of wireless interfaces, in most cases communication has to be relayed over intermediate nodes. Thus, in such multihop network each node (also called router) is independent, self-reliant and capable to route the messages over the dynamic network topology. Various protocols are reported in this field and it is very difficult to decide the best one. A key issue in deciding which type of routing protocol is best for adhoc networks is the communication overhead incurred by the protocol. In this paper STAR a table driven and DSR on demand protocols based on IEEE 802.11 are analyzed for their performance on different performance measuring metrics versus varying traffic CBR load using QualNet 5.0.2 network simulator.
8
62
Analysis of Delay and Throughput in MANET for DSR Protocol
Abstract:
A wireless Ad-hoc network consists of wireless nodes communicating without the need for a centralized administration, in which all nodes potentially contribute to the routing process.In this paper, we report the simulation results of four different scenarios for wireless ad hoc networks having thirty nodes. The performances of proposed networks are evaluated in terms of number of hops per route, delay and throughput with the help of OPNET simulator. Channel speed 1 Mbps and simulation time 600 sim-seconds were taken for all scenarios. For the above analysis DSR routing protocols has been used. The throughput obtained from the above analysis (four scenario) are compared as shown in Figure 3. The average media access delay at node_20 for two routes and at node_20 for four different scenario are compared as shown in Figures 4 and 5. It is observed that the throughput will degrade when it will follow different hops for same source to destination (i.e. it has dropped from 1.55 Mbps to 1.43 Mbps which is around 9.7%, and then dropped to 0.48Mbps which is around 35%).
7
9209
Performance of QoS Parameters in MANET Application Traffics in Large Scale Scenarios
Abstract:
A mobile Ad-hoc network consists of wireless nodes communicating without the need for a centralized administration. A user can move anytime in an ad hoc scenario and, as a result, such a network needs to have routing protocols which can adopt dynamically changing topology. To accomplish this, a number of ad hoc routing protocols have been proposed and implemented, which include DSR, OLSR and AODV. This paper presents a study on the QoS parameters for MANET application traffics in large-scale scenarios with 50 and 120 nodes. The application traffics analyzed in this study is File Transfer Protocol (FTP). In large scale networks (120 nodes) OLSR shows better performance and in smaller scale networks (50 nodes)AODV shows less packet drop rate and OLSR shows better throughput.
Keywords:
6
6713
Simulation Study for Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols in Mobile Adhoc Network
Abstract:

Due to insufficient frequency band and tremendous growth of the mobile users, complex computation is needed for the use of resources. Long distance communication began with the introduction of telegraphs and simple coded pulses, which were used to transmit short messages. Since then numerous advances have rendered reliable transfer of information both easier and quicker. Wireless network refers to any type of computer network that is wireless, and is commonly associated with a telecommunications network whose interconnections between nodes is implemented without the use of wires. Wireless network can be broadly categorized in infrastructure network and infrastructure less network. Infrastructure network is one in which we have a base station to serve the mobile users and in the infrastructure less network is one in which no infrastructure is available to serve the mobile users this kind of networks are also known as mobile Adhoc networks. In this paper we have simulated the result for different scenarios with protocols like AODV and DSR; we simulated the result for throughput, delay and receiving traffic in the given scenario.

5
13577
Intelligent Caching in on-demand Routing Protocol for Mobile Adhoc Networks
Abstract:
An on-demand routing protocol for wireless ad hoc networks is one that searches for and attempts to discover a route to some destination node only when a sending node originates a data packet addressed to that node. In order to avoid the need for such a route discovery to be performed before each data packet is sent, such routing protocols must cache routes previously discovered. This paper presents an analysis of the effect of intelligent caching in a non clustered network, using on-demand routing protocols in wireless ad hoc networks. The analysis carried out is based on the Dynamic Source Routing protocol (DSR), which operates entirely on-demand. DSR uses the cache in every node to save the paths that are learnt during route discovery procedure. In this implementation, caching these paths only at intermediate nodes and using the paths from these caches when required is tried. This technique helps in storing more number of routes that are learnt without erasing the entries in the cache, to store a new route that is learnt. The simulation results on DSR have shown that this technique drastically increases the available memory for caching the routes discovered without affecting the performance of the DSR routing protocol in any way, except for a small increase in end to end delay.
4
12230
Trust Enhanced Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Adhoc Networks
Abstract:
Nodes in mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) do not rely on a central infrastructure but relay packets originated by other nodes. Mobile ad hoc networks can work properly only if the participating nodes collaborate in routing and forwarding. For individual nodes it might be advantageous not to collaborate, though. In this conceptual paper we propose a new approach based on relationship among the nodes which makes them to cooperate in an Adhoc environment. The trust unit is used to calculate the trust values of each node in the network. The calculated trust values are being used by the relationship estimator to determine the relationship status of nodes. The proposed enhanced protocol was compared with the standard DSR protocol and the results are analyzed using the network simulator-2.
3
3568
Extended Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for the Non Co-Operating Nodes in Mobile Adhoc Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, a new approach based on the extent of friendship between the nodes is proposed which makes the nodes to co-operate in an ad hoc environment. The extended DSR protocol is tested under different scenarios by varying the number of malicious nodes and node moving speed. It is also tested varying the number of nodes in simulation used. The result indicates the achieved throughput by extended DSR is greater than the standard DSR and indicates the percentage of malicious drops over total drops are less in the case of extended DSR than the standard DSR.
2
1537
Impact of MAC Layer on the Performance of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad hoc Networks
Abstract:
Mobile Ad hoc Networks is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by multi-hop wireless links without centralized infrastructure support. As mobile communication gains popularity, the need for suitable ad hoc routing protocols will continue to grow. Efficient dynamic routing is an important research challenge in such a network. Bandwidth constrained mobile devices use on-demand approach in their routing protocols because of its effectiveness and efficiency. Many researchers have conducted numerous simulations for comparing the performance of these protocols under varying conditions and constraints. Most of them are not aware of MAC Protocols, which will impact the relative performance of routing protocols considered in different network scenarios. In this paper we investigate the choice of MAC protocols affects the relative performance of ad hoc routing protocols under different scenarios. We have evaluated the performance of these protocols using NS2 simulations. Our results show that the performance of routing protocols of ad hoc networks will suffer when run over different MAC Layer protocols.
1
11308
Upgrading Performance of DSR Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
Abstract:

Routing in mobile ad hoc networks is a challenging task because nodes are free to move randomly. In DSR like all On- Demand routing algorithms, route discovery mechanism is associated with great delay. More Clearly in DSR routing protocol to send route reply packet, when current route breaks, destination seeks a new route. In this paper we try to change route selection mechanism proactively. We also define a link stability parameter in which a stability value is assigned to each link. Given this feature, destination node can estimate stability of routes and can select the best and more stable route. Therefore we can reduce the delay and jitter of sending data packets.

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