The Association between Food Security Status and Depression in Two Iranian Ethnic Groups Living in Northwest of Iran
Food insecurity (FI) influences may result in poor physical and mental health outcomes. Minor ethnic group may experience higher level of FI, and this situation may be related with higher depression prevalence. The aim of this study was to determine the association of depression with food security status in major (Azeri) and minor (Kurdish) ethnicity living in Urmia, West Azerbaijan, north of Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 723 participants (427 women and 296 men) aged 20–64 years old, from two ethnic groups (445 Azeri and 278 Kurdish), were selected through a multi stage cluster systematic sampling. Depression rate was assessed by “Beck” short form questionnaire (validated in Iranians) through interviews. Household FI status (HFIS) was measured using adapted HFI access scale through face-to-face interviews at homes. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) of depression across HFIS. Higher percent of Kurds had moderate and severe depression in comparison with Azeri group (73 [17.3%] vs. 86 [27.9%]). There were not any significant differences between the two ethnicities in mild depression. Also, of all the subjects, moderate-to-sever FI was more prevalent in Kurds (28.5%), compared to Azeri group (17.3%) [P < 0.01]. Kurdish ethnic group living in food security or mild FI households had lower chance to have symptom of severe depression in comparison to those with sever FI (OR=0.097; 95% CI: 0.02-0.47). However, there was no significant association between depression and HFI in Azeri group. Findings revealed that the severity of HFI was related with severity depression in minor studied ethnic groups. However, in Azeri ethnicity as a major group, other confounders may have influence on the relation with depression and FI, that were not studied in the present study.
The New Educators: The Reasons for Saudi Arabia to Invest More in Student Counseling Programs
Student counseling programs can provide many benefits to students in schools all around the world. In theory, the government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabia) has committed itself to school counseling programs in educational institutions throughout the country. Student counselors face a number of burdens and obstacles that impact student counseling programs. It is also widely known that Saudi Arabia has extremely high prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, anxiety and depression, and diabetes in children. It has also been demonstrated that teachers and staff are inadequately prepared when dealing with health issues relating to diabetes in schools in Saudi Arabia. This study will clearly demonstrate how student counselors in Saudi Arabia could become 'New Educators' in Saudi schools in relation to these health issues. This would allow them to leverage their position as student counselor to improve the management of these health issues in Saudi schools, to improve the quality of care provided to school children, and to overcome burdens and obstacles that are currently negatively affecting student counseling in Saudi schools.
Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Psychosocial Consequences of Sickle Cell Disease: The Case of Patients in a Public Hospital in Ghana
Background: Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is of major public-health concern globally, with majority of patients living in Africa. Despite its relevance, there is a dearth of research to determine the socio-demographic distribution and psychosocial impact of SCD in Africa. The objective of this study therefore was to examine the socio-demographic distribution and psychosocial consequences of SCD among patients in Ghana and to assess their quality of life and coping mechanisms. Methods: A cross-sectional research design was used, involving the completion of questionnaires on socio-demographic characteristics, quality of life of individuals, anxiety and depression. Participants were 387 male and female patients attending a sickle cell clinic in a public hospital. Results: Results showed no gender and marital status differences in anxiety and depression. However, there were age and level of education variances in depression but not in anxiety. In terms of quality of life, patients were more satisfied by the presence of love, friends, relatives as well as home, community and neighbourhood environment. While pains of varied nature and severity were the major reasons for attending hospital in SCD condition, going to the hospital as well as having Faith in God was the frequently reported mechanisms for coping with an unbearable SCD attacks. Multiple regression analysis showed that some socio-demographic and quality of life indicators had strong associations with anxiety and/or depression. Conclusion: It is recommended that a multi-dimensional intervention strategy incorporating psychosocial dimensions should be considered in the treatment and management of SCD.
Relationship between Codependency, Perceived Social Support, and Depression in Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disability
The goal of this research was to study the relationship between codependency, perceived social support and depression in mothers of children with intellectual disability (ID). The correlational method was used in this study. The research population is comprised of mothers of educable children with ID in the age range of 25 to 61 years. From among this, a sample of 251 individuals, in the multistage cluster sampling method, was selected from educational districts in Tehran, who responded to the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale (SFCDS), the Social Support Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The findings of this study indicate that among mothers of children with ID depression has a positive and significant correlation with codependency (P<0.01, r=0.4) and a negative and significant correlation with the total score of social support (P<0.01, r=-0.34). Moreover, the results of stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that codependency is allocated a higher variance than social support in explaining depression (R2=0.023).
The Effectiveness of Metaphor Therapy on Depression among Female Students
The present study aimed to determine the
effectiveness of Metaphor therapy on depression among female
students. The sample included 60 female students with depression
symptoms selected by simple sampling and randomly divided into
two equal groups (experimental and control groups). Beck
Depression Inventory was used to measure the variables. This was an
experimental study with a pre-test/post-test design with control
group. Eight metaphor therapy sessions were held for the
experimental group. A post-test was administered to both groups.
Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of covariance
(MANCOVA). Results showed that the Metaphor therapy decreased
depression in the experimental group compared to the control group.
Meaning in Life, Hope, and Mental Health: Relation between Meaning in Life, Hope, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress among Afghan Refugees in Iran
The present research was carried out in order to investigate the relationship between meaning in life and hope with depression, anxiety and stress in Afghan Refugees in Alborz province in Iran. In this research, method of study is a descriptive correlation type. One hundred and fifty-eight Afghan refugees (64 male, 94 female) participated in this study. All participants completed the Meaning in Life Questionnaires (MLQ), Hope Scale (HS), and The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). The results revealed that Meaning in Life was positively associated with hope, presence of meaning, search of meaning, and negatively associated with depression and anxiety. Hope was positively associated with presence of meaning and search of meaning, and hope was negatively associated with depression, anxiety, and stress. Depression, anxiety, and stress were positively correlated with each other. Meaning in life and hope could influence on mental health.
Addictive Use Due to Personality: Focused on Big Five Personality Traits and Game Addiction
This study examined whether big five personality traits
affect game addiction with control of psychological, social, and
demographic factors. Specifically, using data from a survey of 789
game users in Korea, we conducted a regression analysis to see the
associations of psychological (loneliness/depression), social (activities
with family/friends), self-efficacy (game/general), gaming (daily
gaming time/perception), demographic (age/gender), and personality
traits (extraversion, neuroticism conscientiousness, agreeableness, &
openness) with the degree of game addiction. Results showed that
neuroticism increase game addiction with no effect of extraversion on
the addiction. General self-efficacy negatively affected game
addiction, whereas game self-efficacy increased the degree of game
addiction. Loneliness enhanced game addiction while depression
showed a negative effect on the addiction. Results and implications are
Hierarchically Modeling Cognition and Behavioral Problems of an Under-Represented Group
This study examined the mental health and behavioral
problems in early adolescence with the instrument of Achenbach
System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). The purpose of
the study was stratified sampling method was used to collect data
from 1975 participants. Multiple regression models and hierarchical
regression models were applied to examine the relations between the
background variables and internalizing problems, and the ones
between students’ performance and internalizing problems. The
results indicated that several background variables as predictors could
significantly predict the anxious/depressed problem; reading and
social study scores could significantly predict the anxious/depressed
problem. However the class as a hierarchical macro factor did not
indicate the significant effect. In brief, the majority of these models
represented that the background variables, behaviors and academic
performance were significantly related to the anxious/depressed
Analysis of EEG Signals Using Wavelet Entropy and Approximate Entropy: A Case Study on Depression Patients
Analyzing brain signals of the patients suffering from the state of depression may lead to interesting observations in the signal parameters that is quite different from a normal control. The present study adopts two different methods: Time frequency domain and nonlinear method for the analysis of EEG signals acquired from depression patients and age and sex matched normal controls. The time frequency domain analysis is realized using wavelet entropy and approximate entropy is employed for the nonlinear method of analysis. The ability of the signal processing technique and the nonlinear method in differentiating the physiological aspects of the brain state are revealed using Wavelet entropy and Approximate entropy.
A Comparison of Transdiagnostic Components in Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Unipolar Mood Disorder and Nonclinical Population
Background: Dimensional and transdiagnostic approaches as a result of high comorbidity among mental disorders have captured researchers and clinicians interests for exploring the latent factors to development and maintenance of some psychological disorders. The goal of present study is comparing some of these common factors between generalized anxiety disorder and unipolar mood disorder. Methods: 27 patients with generalized anxiety disorder, 29 patients with depression disorder were recruited by using SCID-I and 69 non-clinical populations were selected by using GHQ cut off point. MANCOVA was used for analyzing data. Results: The results show that worry, rumination, intolerance of uncertainty, maladaptive metacognitive beliefs, and experiential avoidance were all significantly different between GAD and unipolar mood disorder groups. However, there weren’t any significant differences in difficulties in emotion regulation and neuroticism between GAD and unipolar mood disorder groups. Discussion: Results indicate that although there are some transdiagnostic and common factors in GAD and unipolar mood disorder, there may be some specific vulnerability factors for each disorder. Further study is needed for answering these questions.
Impact of Altered Behavioral Condition on Markers of Oxidative Stress and Different Biochemical Parameters
Aim- Study was undertaken to investigate the effect of altered behavioral condition like depression on various oxidative stress markers and biochemical parameters in rats. Methods- Rats were subjected for short (21 days) and long term (84 days) social isolation; the rats displayed an increase in depression on force swim test relative to control. Various markers of oxidative stress like lipid per oxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), Supers oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and biochemical parameters like SGOT, SGPT, and blood glucose were determined. Results- There was significant increase in the level of LPO and decrease in the levels of GSH, SOD and CAT after long term isolation. Biochemical parameters were significantly altered after social isolation. Conclusion- Increased oxidative stress in depression which may leads to alteration of biochemical parameters.
The Relationship between Depression Interpersonal Communication and Media Using Among International Students
Student-s movements have been going increasing in
last decades. International students can have different psychological
and sociological problems in their adaptation process. Depression is
one of the most important problems in this procedure. This research
purposed to reveal level of foreign students- depression, kinds of
interpersonal communication networks (host/ethnic interpersonal
communication) and media usage (host/ethnic media usage).
Additionally study aimed to display the relationship between
depression and communication (host/ethnic interpersonal
communication and host/ethnic media usage) among foreign
university students. A field research was performed among 283
foreign university students who have been attending 8 different
universities in Turkey. A purposeful sampling technique was used in
this research cause of data collect facilities. Results indicated that
58.3% of foreign students- depression stage was “intermediate" while
33.2% of foreign students- depression level was “low". Add to this,
host interpersonal communication behaviors and Turkish web sites
usages were negatively and significantly correlated with depression.
Effect of Depression, Self-Regulation Control and Characteristics of ADHD as the Cause of School Brawl in Jakarta, Indonesia
School brawls have taken casualties to the life of
students in Jakarta. In the last time, school brawl studies investigate
the cause with groups approach such as cognitive dissonance that
provocation and resentment among student in the schools. This
research focus on individual factors as the cause of school brawls,
where the characteristics of children with ADHD, lack of self-control
regulation, and level of depression. The results show that in fact the
lower influence of individual factor to be come conduct disorder. The
meaning students have good self-regulation control, insignificant
characteristics of children with ADHD, and moderate of depression
level. Concluded group factor more significant than individual factor
to caused school brawl.
The Relationship between Adolescent Emotional Inhibition and Depression Disorder: The Moderate Effect of Gender
The association between emotional inhibition strategies linked to depression has been showed inconsistent among studies. Mild emotional inhibition maybe benefit for social interaction, especially for female among East Asian cultures. The present study aimed to examine whether the inhibition–depression relationship is dependent on level of emotion inhibition and gender context, given differing value of suppressing emotional displays. We hypothesized that the negative associations between inhibition and adolescent depression would not directly, in which affected by interaction between emotion inhibition and gender. To test this hypothesis, we asked 309 junior high school students which age range from 12 to14 years old to report on their use of emotion inhibition and depression syndrome. A multiple regressions analysis revealed that significant interaction that gender as a moderator to the relationships between emotion inhibition and adolescent depression. The group with the highest level of depression was girls with high levels of emotion inhibition, whose depression score was higher than that of boys with high levels of emotion inhibition. The result highlights that the importance of context in understanding the inhibition-depression relationship.
Impact of Personality and Loneliness on Life: Role of Online Flow Experiences
The present study examines the mediating effect of
online flow experience on the relationship between extraversionintroversion,
locus of control and loneliness, and depression and
satisfaction with life. The data was obtained using a structured
questionnaire prepared by adapting standardized scales available from
a sample of 102 engineering students from different technical
institutions at Bhubaneswar, India. The results indicate that there is a
positive significant relationship between introversion, external locus
of control, loneliness, depression and online flow experience, and
extraversion, internal locus of control and satisfaction with life. The
results also suggest that online flow experience mediates the
relationship between the aforementioned variables.
Stress, Perceived Social Support, Coping Capability and Depression: A Study of Local and Foreign Students in the Malaysian Context
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of
perceived social support and stress on the coping capability and level
of depression of foreign and local students in Malaysia. Using
convenience sampling, 200 students from three universities in
Selangor, Malaysia participated in the study. The results of this study
revealed that there was a significant relationship between perceived
social support and coping capability. It is also found that there is a
negative relationship between coping capability and depression.
Further, stress and depression are positively related whereas stress
and coping capability are negatively related. Lastly, there is no
significant difference for the stress level and coping capability
amongst local and foreign students.
Are Adolescent Girls More Depressive than Adolescent Boys in Turkey?
Depression is a serious mental health problem that
affects people of all ages, including children and adolescents. Studies
showed that female gender is one of the risk factors may influence
the development of depression in adolescents. However, some of the
studies from Turkey suggested that gender does not lead to any
significant difference in the youth depression level. Therefore, the
presented study investigated whether girls differ from boys in respect
of depression. The association between genders and test scores for
the adolescents in a population of primary and secondary school
students was also evaluated. The study was consisting of 254
adolescents (122 boys and 132 girls) with a mean age of 13.86±1.43
(Mean±SD) ranging from 12-16 years. Psychological assessment was
performed using Children-s Depression Inventory (CDI). Chi-square
and Student-s t-test statistics were employed to analyze the data. The
mean of the CDI scores of the girls were higher than boys- CDI
scores (t = -4.580, p = 0.001). Higher ratio appeared for the girls
when they compared with boy group-s depression levels using a CDI
cut-off point of 19 (p = 0.001, Odds Ratio = 2,603). The findings of
the present study suggested that adolescent girls have high level of
depression than adolescent boys aged between 12-16 years in
Turkey. Although some studies reported that there is no any
differences depression level between adolescent boys and girls in
Turkey, result of the present study showed that adolescent girls have
high level of depression than adolescent boys in Turkey.
Comparative Study of Filter Characteristics as Statistical Vocal Correlates of Clinical Psychiatric State in Human
Acoustical properties of speech have been shown to
be related to mental states of speaker with symptoms: depression
and remission. This paper describes way to address the issue of
distinguishing depressed patients from remitted subjects based on
measureable acoustics change of their spoken sound. The vocal-tract
related frequency characteristics of speech samples from female
remitted and depressed patients were analyzed via speech
processing techniques and consequently, evaluated statistically by
cross-validation with Support Vector Machine. Our results
comparatively show the classifier's performance with effectively
correct separation of 93% determined from testing with the subjectbased
feature model and 88% from the frame-based model based on
the same speech samples collected from hospital visiting interview
sessions between patients and psychiatrists.
Exploring Life Meaningfulness and Its Psychosocial Correlates among Recovering Substance Users – An Indian Perspective
The present study was done primarily to address two major research gaps: firstly, development of an empirical measure of life meaningfulness for substance users and secondly, to determine the psychosocial determinants of life meaningfulness among the substance users. The study is classified into two phases: the first phase which dealt with development of Life Meaningfulness Scale and the second phase which examined the relationship between life meaningfulness and social support, abstinence self efficacy and depression. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used for framing items. A Principal Component Analysis yielded three components: Overall Goal Directedness, Striving for healthy lifestyle and Concern for loved ones which collectively accounted for 42.06% of the total variance. The scale and its subscales were also found to be highly reliable. Multiple regression analyses in the second phase of the study revealed that social support and abstinence self efficacy significantly predicted life meaningfulness among 48 recovering inmates of a de-addiction center while level of depression failed to predict life meaningfulness.
Depression and Its Effects on a Cognitive Performance Test
In this study, participants with adjustment disorder with depressed mood (aged 18-54 years) with mild depression (N=18), severe depression (N=12) were compared with healthy controls (N=20) on the Multidimensional Aptitude Battery (MAB) a cognitive performance test. Using One Way Analysis of Variance and Matched Sample t-test. The results of the analysis shows that severely depressed participants performed poorly on the cognitive performance test relative to controls, however there were no significant differences on the cognitive performance test scores between the severely depressed and the mildly depressed. In addition, performance on the non-verbal performance subtest was poorer than that of the verbal subtest, suggesting that depression affects the executive functions of the person.