Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 19

Facial Recognition on the Basis of Facial Fragments

There are many articles that attempt to establish the role of different facial fragments in face recognition. Various approaches are used to estimate this role. Frequently, authors calculate the entropy corresponding to the fragment. This approach can only give approximate estimation. In this paper, we propose to use a more direct measure of the importance of different fragments for face recognition. We propose to select a recognition method and a face database and experimentally investigate the recognition rate using different fragments of faces. We present two such experiments in the paper. We selected the PCNC neural classifier as a method for face recognition and parts of the LFW (Labeled Faces in the Wild) face database as training and testing sets. The recognition rate of the best experiment is comparable with the recognition rate obtained using the whole face.

Fused Structure and Texture (FST) Features for Improved Pedestrian Detection
In this paper, we present a pedestrian detection descriptor called Fused Structure and Texture (FST) features based on the combination of the local phase information with the texture features. Since the phase of the signal conveys more structural information than the magnitude, the phase congruency concept is used to capture the structural features. On the other hand, the Center-Symmetric Local Binary Pattern (CSLBP) approach is used to capture the texture information of the image. The dimension less quantity of the phase congruency and the robustness of the CSLBP operator on the flat images, as well as the blur and illumination changes, lead the proposed descriptor to be more robust and less sensitive to the light variations. The proposed descriptor can be formed by extracting the phase congruency and the CSLBP values of each pixel of the image with respect to its neighborhood. The histogram of the oriented phase and the histogram of the CSLBP values for the local regions in the image are computed and concatenated to construct the FST descriptor. Several experiments were conducted on INRIA and the low resolution DaimlerChrysler datasets to evaluate the detection performance of the pedestrian detection system that is based on the FST descriptor. A linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used to train the pedestrian classifier. These experiments showed that the proposed FST descriptor has better detection performance over a set of state of the art feature extraction methodologies.
Image Analysis for Obturator Foramen Based on Marker-Controlled Watershed Segmentation and Zernike Moments
Obturator Foramen is a specific structure in Pelvic bone images and recognition of it is a new concept in medical image processing. Moreover, segmentation of bone structures such as Obturator Foramen plays an essential role for clinical research in orthopedics. In this paper, we present a novel method to analyze the similarity between the substructures of the imaged region and a hand drawn template as a preprocessing step for computation of Pelvic bone rotation on hip radiographs. This method consists of integrated usage of Marker-controlled Watershed segmentation and Zernike moment feature descriptor and it is used to detect Obturator Foramen accurately. Marker-controlled Watershed segmentation is applied to separate Obturator Foramen from the background effectively. Then, Zernike moment feature descriptor is used to provide matching between binary template image and the segmented binary image for final extraction of Obturator Foramens. Finally, Pelvic bone rotation rate calculation for each hip radiograph is performed automatically to select and eliminate hip radiographs for further studies which depend on Pelvic bone angle measurements. The proposed method is tested on randomly selected 100 hip radiographs. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method is able to segment Obturator Foramen with 96% accuracy.
3D Objects Indexing with a Direct and Analytical Method for Calculating the Spherical Harmonics Coefficients
In this paper, we propose a new method for threedimensional object indexing based on D.A.M.C-S.H.C descriptor (Direct and Analytical Method for Calculating the Spherical Harmonics Coefficients). For this end, we propose a direct calculation of the coefficients of spherical harmonics with perfect precision. The aims of the method are to minimize, the processing time on the 3D objects database and the searching time of similar objects to a request object. Firstly we start by defining the new descriptor using a new division of 3-D object in a sphere. Then we define a new distance which will be tested and prove his efficiency in the search for similar objects in the database in which we have objects with very various and important size.
Retrieving Similar Segmented Objects Using Motion Descriptors

The fuzzy composition of objects depicted in images acquired through MR imaging or the use of bio-scanners has often been a point of controversy for field experts attempting to effectively delineate between the visualized objects. Modern approaches in medical image segmentation tend to consider fuzziness as a characteristic and inherent feature of the depicted object, instead of an undesirable trait. In this paper, a novel technique for efficient image retrieval in the context of images in which segmented objects are either crisp or fuzzily bounded is presented. Moreover, the proposed method is applied in the case of multiple, even conflicting, segmentations from field experts. Experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the suggested method in retrieving similar objects from the aforementioned categories while taking into account the fuzzy nature of the depicted data.

Enhanced Face Recognition with Daisy Descriptors Using 1BT Based Registration

In this paper, it is proposed to improve Daisy Descriptor based face recognition using a novel One-Bit Transform (1BT) based pre-registration approach. The 1BT based pre-registration procedure is fast and has low computational complexity. It is shown that the face recognition accuracy is improved with the proposed approach. The proposed approach can facilitate highly accurate face recognition using DAISY descriptor with simple matching and thereby facilitate a low-complexity approach.

Evaluation of Robust Feature Descriptors for Texture Classification
Texture is an important characteristic in real and synthetic scenes. Texture analysis plays a critical role in inspecting surfaces and provides important techniques in a variety of applications. Although several descriptors have been presented to extract texture features, the development of object recognition is still a difficult task due to the complex aspects of texture. Recently, many robust and scaling-invariant image features such as SIFT, SURF and ORB have been successfully used in image retrieval and object recognition. In this paper, we have tried to compare the performance for texture classification using these feature descriptors with k-means clustering. Different classifiers including K-NN, Naive Bayes, Back Propagation Neural Network , Decision Tree and Kstar were applied in three texture image sets - UIUCTex, KTH-TIPS and Brodatz, respectively. Experimental results reveal SIFTS as the best average accuracy rate holder in UIUCTex, KTH-TIPS and SURF is advantaged in Brodatz texture set. BP neuro network works best in the test set classification among all used classifiers.
Human Detection using Projected Edge Feature
The purpose of this paper is to detect human in images. This paper proposes a method for extracting human body feature descriptors consisting of projected edge component series. The feature descriptor can express appearances and shapes of human with local and global distribution of edges. Our method evaluated with a linear SVM classifier on Daimler-Chrysler pedestrian dataset, and test with various sub-region size. The result shows that the accuracy level of proposed method similar to Histogram of Oriented Gradients(HOG) feature descriptor and feature extraction process is simple and faster than existing methods.
Local Image Descriptor using VQ-SIFT for Image Retrieval
In this paper, we present local image descriptor using VQ-SIFT for more effective and efficient image retrieval. Instead of SIFT's weighted orientation histograms, we apply vector quantization (VQ) histogram as an alternate representation for SIFT features. Experimental results show that SIFT features using VQ-based local descriptors can achieve better image retrieval accuracy than the conventional algorithm while the computational cost is significantly reduced.
SIFT Accordion: A Space-Time Descriptor Applied to Human Action Recognition
Recognizing human action from videos is an active field of research in computer vision and pattern recognition. Human activity recognition has many potential applications such as video surveillance, human machine interaction, sport videos retrieval and robot navigation. Actually, local descriptors and bag of visuals words models achieve state-of-the-art performance for human action recognition. The main challenge in features description is how to represent efficiently the local motion information. Most of the previous works focus on the extension of 2D local descriptors on 3D ones to describe local information around every interest point. In this paper, we propose a new spatio-temporal descriptor based on a spacetime description of moving points. Our description is focused on an Accordion representation of video which is well-suited to recognize human action from 2D local descriptors without the need to 3D extensions. We use the bag of words approach to represent videos. We quantify 2D local descriptor describing both temporal and spatial features with a good compromise between computational complexity and action recognition rates. We have reached impressive results on publicly available action data set
Landscape Data Transformation: Categorical Descriptions to Numerical Descriptors
Categorical data based on description of the agricultural landscape imposed some mathematical and analytical limitations. This problem however can be overcome by data transformation through coding scheme and the use of non-parametric multivariate approach. The present study describes data transformation from qualitative to numerical descriptors. In a collection of 103 random soil samples over a 60 hectare field, categorical data were obtained from the following variables: levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, pH, hue, chroma, value and data on topography, vegetation type, and the presence of rocks. Categorical data were coded, and Spearman-s rho correlation was then calculated using PAST software ver. 1.78 in which Principal Component Analysis was based. Results revealed successful data transformation, generating 1030 quantitative descriptors. Visualization based on the new set of descriptors showed clear differences among sites, and amount of variation was successfully measured. Possible applications of data transformation are discussed.
A Robust Visual Tracking Algorithm with Low-Rank Region Covariance
Region covariance (RC) descriptor is an effective and efficient feature for visual tracking. Current RC-based tracking algorithms use the whole RC matrix to track the target in video directly. However, there exist some issues for these whole RCbased algorithms. If some features are contaminated, the whole RC will become unreliable, which results in lost object-tracking. In addition, if some features are very discriminative to the background, other features are still processed and thus reduce the efficiency. In this paper a new robust tracking method is proposed, in which the whole RC matrix is decomposed into several low rank matrices. Those matrices are dynamically chosen and processed so as to achieve a good tradeoff between discriminability and complexity. Experimental results have shown that our method is more robust to complex environment changes, especially either when occlusion happens or when the background is similar to the target compared to other RC-based methods.
Effectiveness of Dominant Color Descriptor Technique in Medical Image Retrieval Application
This paper presents a dominant color descriptor technique for medical image retrieval. The medical image system will collect and store into medical database. The purpose of dominant color descriptor (DCD) technique is to retrieve medical image and to display similar image using queried image. First, this technique will search and retrieve medical image based on keyword entered by user. After image is found, the system will assign this image as a queried image. DCD technique will calculate the image value of dominant color. Then, system will search and retrieve again medical image based on value of dominant color query image. Finally, the system will display similar images with the queried image to user. Simple application has been developed and tested using dominant color descriptor. Result based on experiment indicates this technique is effective and can be used for medical image retrieval.
Scale-Space Volume Descriptors for Automatic 3D Facial Feature Extraction

An automatic method for the extraction of feature points for face based applications is proposed. The system is based upon volumetric feature descriptors, which in this paper has been extended to incorporate scale space. The method is robust to noise and has the ability to extract local and holistic features simultaneously from faces stored in a database. Extracted features are stable over a range of faces, with results indicating that in terms of intra-ID variability, the technique has the ability to outperform manual landmarking.

3D Model Retrieval based on Normal Vector Interpolation Method
In this paper, we proposed the distribution of mesh normal vector direction as a feature descriptor of a 3D model. A normal vector shows the entire shape of a model well. The distribution of normal vectors was sampled in proportion to each polygon's area so that the information on the surface with less surface area may be less reflected on composing a feature descriptor in order to enhance retrieval performance. At the analysis result of ANMRR, the enhancement of approx. 12.4%~34.7% compared to the existing method has also been indicated.
A Universal Model for Content-Based Image Retrieval
In this paper a novel approach for generalized image retrieval based on semantic contents is presented. A combination of three feature extraction methods namely color, texture, and edge histogram descriptor. There is a provision to add new features in future for better retrieval efficiency. Any combination of these methods, which is more appropriate for the application, can be used for retrieval. This is provided through User Interface (UI) in the form of relevance feedback. The image properties analyzed in this work are by using computer vision and image processing algorithms. For color the histogram of images are computed, for texture cooccurrence matrix based entropy, energy, etc, are calculated and for edge density it is Edge Histogram Descriptor (EHD) that is found. For retrieval of images, a novel idea is developed based on greedy strategy to reduce the computational complexity. The entire system was developed using AForge.Imaging (an open source product), MATLAB .NET Builder, C#, and Oracle 10g. The system was tested with Coral Image database containing 1000 natural images and achieved better results.
Robust H∞ Filter Design for Uncertain Fuzzy Descriptor Systems: LMI-Based Design

This paper examines the problem of designing a robust H∞ filter for a class of uncertain fuzzy descriptor systems described by a Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy model. Based on a linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach, LMI-based sufficient conditions for the uncertain nonlinear descriptor systems to have an H∞ performance are derived. To alleviate the ill-conditioning resulting from the interaction of slow and fast dynamic modes, solutions to the problem are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities which are independent of the singular perturbation ε, when ε is sufficiently small. The proposed approach does not involve the separation of states into slow and fast ones and it can be applied not only to standard, but also to nonstandard uncertain nonlinear descriptor systems. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the design developed in this paper.

Fast Extraction of Edge Histogram in DCT Domain based on MPEG7
In these days, multimedia data is transmitted and processed in compressed format. Due to the decoding procedure and filtering for edge detection, the feature extraction process of MPEG-7 Edge Histogram Descriptor is time-consuming as well as computationally expensive. To improve efficiency of compressed image retrieval, we propose a new edge histogram generation algorithm in DCT domain in this paper. Using the edge information provided by only two AC coefficients of DCT coefficients, we can get edge directions and strengths directly in DCT domain. The experimental results demonstrate that our system has good performance in terms of retrieval efficiency and effectiveness.
Image Similarity: A Genetic Algorithm Based Approach
The paper proposes an approach using genetic algorithm for computing the region based image similarity. The image is denoted using a set of segmented regions reflecting color and texture properties of an image. An image is associated with a family of image features corresponding to the regions. The resemblance of two images is then defined as the overall similarity between two families of image features, and quantified by a similarity measure, which integrates properties of all the regions in the images. A genetic algorithm is applied to decide the most plausible matching. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated using examples from an image database of general-purpose images, and is shown to produce good results.
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