Effect of Needle Diameter on the Morphological Structure of Electrospun n-Bi2O3/Epoxy-PVA Nanofiber Mats
The effect of needle diameter on the morphological structure of electrospun n-Bi2O3/epoxy-PVA nanofibers has been investigated using three different types of needle diameters. The results were observed and investigated using two techniques of scanning electron microscope (SEM). The first technique is backscattered SEM while the second is secondary electron SEM. The results demonstrate that there is a correlation between the needle diameter and the morphology of electrospun nanofibers. As the internal needle diameter decreases, the average nanofiber diameter decreases and the fibers get thinner and smoother without agglomeration or beads formation. Moreover, with small needle diameter the nanofibrous porosity get larger compared with large needle diameter.
Optimization of Design Parameters for Wire Mesh Fin Arrays as a Heat Sink Using Taguchi Method
Heat transfer enhancement objects like extended surfaces, fins etc. are chosen for their thermal performance as well as for other design parameters depending on various applications. The present paper is on experimental study to investigate the heat transfer enhancement through wire mesh fin arrays equipped with horizontal base plate. The data used in performance analysis were obtained experimentally for the material (mild steel) for different heat inputs such as 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 watt, by varying wire mesh diameter, fin height and spacing between two fin arrays. Using the Taguchi experimental design method, optimum design parameters and their levels were investigated. Average heat transfer coefficient was considered as a performance characteristic parameter. An L9 (33) orthogonal array was selected as an experimental plan. Optimum results were found by experimenting. It is observed that the wire mesh diameter and fin height have a higher impact on heat transfer coefficient as compared to spacing between two fin arrays.
Experimental Study on the Vibration Isolation Performance of Metal-Net Rubber Vibration Absorber
Metal-net rubber is a new dry friction damping material, compared with the traditional metal rubber, which has high mechanization degree, and the mechanical performance of metal-net rubber is more stable. Through the sine sweep experiment and random vibration experiment of metal-net rubber vibration isolator, the influence of several important factors such as the lines slope, relative density and wire diameter on the transfer rate, natural frequency and root-mean-square response acceleration of metal-net rubber vibration isolation system, were studied through the method of control variables. Also, several relevant change curves under different vibration levels were derived, and the effects of vibration level on the natural frequency and root-mean-square response acceleration were analyzed through the curves.
Effects of Canned Cycles and Cutting Parameters on Hole Quality in Cryogenic Drilling of Aluminum 6061-6T
The influence of canned cycles and cutting parameters on hole quality in cryogenic drilling has been investigated experimentally and analytically. A three-level, three-parameter experiment was conducted by using the design-of-experiment methodology. The three levels of independent input parameters were the following: for canned cycles—a chip-breaking canned cycle (G73), a spot drilling canned cycle (G81), and a deep hole canned cycle (G83); for feed rates—0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 mm/rev; and for cutting speeds—60, 75, and 100 m/min. The selected work and tool materials were aluminum 6061-6T and high-speed steel (HSS), respectively. For cryogenic cooling, liquid nitrogen (LN2) was used and was applied externally. The measured output parameters were the three widely used quality characteristics of drilled holes—diameter error, circularity, and surface roughness. Pareto ANOVA was applied for analyzing the results. The findings revealed that the canned cycle has a significant effect on diameter error (contribution ratio 44.09%) and small effects on circularity and surface finish (contribution ratio 7.25% and 6.60%, respectively). The best results for the dimensional accuracy and surface roughness were achieved by G81. G73 produced the best circularity results; however, for dimensional accuracy, it was the worst level.
Wheel Diameter and Width Influence in Variability of Brake Data Measurement at Ministry of Transport Facilities
The brake systems of vehicles are tested periodically by a “brake tester” at Ministry of Transport (MOT) stations. This tester measures the effectiveness of vehicle. This parameter is established by the International Committee of Vehicle Inspection (CITA). In this paper, we present an investigation of the influence of the tire size on the measurements of brake force on three MOT brake testers. We performed an analysis of the vehicle braking capacity test at MOT stations. The influence of varying wheel diameter and width on the measurement of braking at MOT stations has been analyzed. Thereby, the MOT brake tester as a verification system for a vehicle has been evaluated.
Effect of Nanoparticle Diameter of Nano-Fluid on Average Nusselt Number in the Chamber
In this numerical study, effects of using Al2O3-water
nanofluid on the rate of heat transfer have been investigated. Physical
model is a square enclosure with insulated top and bottom horizontal
walls, while the vertical walls are kept at different constant
temperatures. Two appropriate models are used to evaluate the
viscosity and thermal conductivity of nanofluid. The governing
stream-vorticity equations are solved using a second order central
finite difference scheme, coupled to the conservation of mass and
energy. The study has been carried out for the nanoparticle diameter
30, 60 and 90 nm and the solid volume fraction 0 to 0.04. Results are
presented by average Nusselt number and normalized Nusselt number
in different range of φ and D for mixed convection dominated
regime. It is found that different heat transfer rate is predicted when
the effect of nanoparticle diameter is taken into account.
The Effect of Geometrical Ratio and Nanoparticle Reinforcement on the Properties of Al-Based Nanocomposite Hollow Sphere Structures
In the present study, the properties of Al-Al2O3
nanocomposite hollow sphere structures were investigated. For this
reason, the Al-based nanocomposite hollow spheres with different
amounts of nano-alumina reinforcement (0-10wt %) and different
ratio of thickness to diameter (t/D: 0.06-0.3) were prepared via a
powder metallurgy method. Then, the effect of mentioned parameters
was studied on physical and quasi static mechanical properties of
their related prepared structures (open/closed cell) such as density,
hardness, strength, and energy absorption. It was found that, as the
t/D ratio increases the relative density, compressive strength and
energy absorption increase. The highest values of strength and energy
absorption were obtained from the specimen with 5 wt. % of
nanoparticle reinforcement, t/D of 0.3 (t=1 mm, D=400μm) as 22.88
MPa and 13.24 MJ/m3, respectively. The moderate specific strength
of prepared composites in the present study showed the good
consistency with the properties of others low carbon steel composite
with similar structure.
Influence of Flame-Holder on Existence Important Parameters in a Duct Combustion Simulator
The effects of flame-holder position, the ratio of flame
holder diameter to combustion chamber diameter and injection angle
on fuel propulsive droplets sizing and effective mass fraction have
been studied by a cold flow. We named the mass of fuel vapor inside
the flammability limit as the effective mass fraction. An empty
cylinder as well as a flame-holder which are a simulator for duct
combustion has been considered. The airflow comes into the cylinder
from one side and injection operation will be done by four nozzles
which are located on the entrance of cylinder. To fulfill the
calculations a modified version of KIVA-3V code which is a
transient, three-dimensional, multiphase, multi component code for
the analysis of chemically reacting flows with sprays, is used.
Investigation of Bubble Growth during Nucleate Boiling Using CFD
Boiling process is characterized by the rapid
formation of vapour bubbles at the solid–liquid interface (nucleate
boiling) with pre-existing vapour or gas pockets. Computational fluid
dynamics (CFD) is an important tool to study bubble dynamics. In
the present study, CFD simulation has been carried out to determine
the bubble detachment diameter and its terminal velocity. Volume of
fluid method is used to model the bubble and the surrounding by
solving single set of momentum equations and tracking the volume
fraction of each of the fluids throughout the domain. In the
simulation, bubble is generated by allowing water-vapour to enter a
cylinder filled with liquid water through an inlet at the bottom. After
the bubble is fully formed, the bubble detaches from the surface and
rises up during which the bubble accelerates due to the net balance
between buoyancy force and viscous drag. Finally when these forces
exactly balance each other, it attains a constant terminal velocity. The
bubble detachment diameter and the terminal velocity of the bubble
are captured by the monitor function provided in FLUENT. The
detachment diameter and the terminal velocity obtained are compared
with the established results based on the shape of the bubble. A good
agreement is obtained between the results obtained from simulation
and the equations in comparison with the established results.
Diameter of Zero Divisor Graphs of Finite Direct Product of Lattices
In this paper, we verify the diameter of zero divisor
graphs with respect to direct product.
Turbulence Modeling of Source and Sink Flows
Flows developed between two parallel disks have
many engineering applications. Two types of non-swirling flows can
be generated in such a domain. One is purely source flow in disc type
domain (outward flow). Other is purely sink flow in disc type domain
(inward flow). This situation often appears in some turbo machinery
components such as air bearings, heat exchanger, radial diffuser,
vortex gyroscope, disc valves, and viscosity meters. The main goal of
this paper is to show the mesh convergence, because mesh
convergence saves time, and economical to run and increase the
efficiency of modeling for both sink and source flow. Then flow field
is resolved using a very fine mesh near-wall, using enhanced wall
treatment. After that we are going to compare this flow using
standard k-epsilon, RNG k-epsilon turbulence models. Lastly
compare some experimental data with numerical solution for sink
flow. The good agreement of numerical solution with the
experimental works validates the current modeling.
Multi Response Optimization in Drilling Al6063/SiC/15% Metal Matrix Composite
This investigation proposes a grey-based Taguchi method to solve the multi-response problems. The grey-based Taguchi method is based on the Taguchi’s design of experimental method, and adopts grey relational analysis (GRA) to transfer multi-response problems into single-response problems. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to optimize the drilling process parameters considering weighted output response characteristics using grey relational analysis. The output response characteristics considered are surface roughness, burr height and hole diameter error under the experimental conditions of cutting speed, feed rate, step angle, and cutting environment. The drilling experiments were conducted using L27 orthogonal array. A combination of orthogonal array, design of experiments and grey relational analysis was used to ascertain best possible drilling process parameters that give minimum surface roughness, burr height and hole diameter error. The results reveal that combination of Taguchi design of experiment and grey relational analysis improves surface quality of drilled hole.
Application of Neural Networks to Predict Changing the Diameters of Bubbles in Pool Boiling Distilled Water
In this research, the capability of neural networks in
modeling and learning complicated and nonlinear relations has been
used to develop a model for the prediction of changes in the diameter
of bubbles in pool boiling distilled water. The input parameters used
in the development of this network include element temperature, heat
flux, and retention time of bubbles. The test data obtained from the
experiment of the pool boiling of distilled water, and the
measurement of the bubbles form on the cylindrical element. The
model was developed based on training algorithm, which is
typologically of back-propagation type. Considering the correlation
coefficient obtained from this model is 0.9633. This shows that this
model can be trusted for the simulation and modeling of the size of
bubble and thermal transfer of boiling.
Numerical and Experimental Investigations on Jet Impingement Cooling
Effective cooling of electronic equipment has emerged
as a challenging and constraining problem of the new century. In the
present work the feasibility and effectiveness of jet impingement
cooling on electronics were investigated numerically and
experimentally. Studies have been conducted to see the effect of the
geometrical parameters such as jet diameter (D), jet to target
spacing (Z) and ratio of jet spacing to jet diameter (Z/D) on the heat
transfer characteristics. The values of Reynolds numbers considered
are in the range 7000 to 42000. The results obtained from the
numerical studies are validated by conducting experiments. From the
studies it is found that the optimum value of Z/D ratio is 5. For a
given Reynolds number, the Nusselt number increases by about 28%
if the diameter of the nozzle is increased from 1mm to 2mm.
Correlations are proposed for Nusselt number in terms of Reynolds
number and these are valid for air as the cooling medium.
Optimization of Electrospinning Parameter by Employing Genetic Algorithm in order to Produce Desired Nanofiber Diameter
A numerical simulation of optimization all of electrospinning processing parameters to obtain smallest nanofiber diameter have been performed by employing genetic algorithm (GA). Fitness function in genetic algorithm methods, which was different for each parameter, was determined by simulation approach based on the Reneker’s model. Moreover, others genetic algorithm parameter, namely length of population, crossover and mutation were applied to get the optimum electrospinning processing parameters. In addition, minimum fiber diameter, 32 nm, was achieved from a simulation by applied the optimum parameters of electrospinning. This finding may be useful for process control and prediction of electrospun fiber production. In this paper, it is also compared between predicted parameters with some experimental results.
Research on Pressed Pile Test and Finite Element Analysis of Large-diameter Steel Pipe Pile of Zhanjiang Port
In order to study pressed pile test and ultimate bearing
capacity character of large-diameter steel pipe pile, based on two high-piled wharfs of Zhanjiang Port, pressed pile test and numerical simulation of three large-diameter steel pipe piles are analyzed in this
paper. Anchored pile method is used to pressed pile test, and the
curves of Q-s and ultimate bearing capacity are attained. Then the three piles are numerically simulated by ABAQUS, and results of numerical simulation and those of field test are comparatively analyzed. The results show that settlement value of numerical
simulation is larger than that of field test in the process of loading, the difference value is widening with the increasing of load, and the
ultimate difference value of settlement is 20% to 30%.
Forest Growth Simulation: Tropical Rain Forest Stand Table Projection
The study on the tree growth for four species groups of commercial timber in Koh Kong province, Cambodia-s tropical rainforest is described. The simulation for these four groups had been successfully developed in the 5-year interval through year-60. Data were obtained from twenty permanent sample plots in the duration of thirteen years. The aim for this study was to develop stand table simulation system of tree growth by the species group. There were five steps involved in the development of the tree growth simulation: aggregate the tree species into meaningful groups by using cluster analysis; allocate the trees in the diameter classes by the species group; observe the diameter movement of the species group. The diameter growth rate, mortality rate and recruitment rate were calculated by using some mathematical formula. Simulation equation had been created by combining those parameters. Result showed the dissimilarity of the diameter growth among species groups.
Prediction of Soil Hydraulic Conductivity from Particle-Size Distribution
Hydraulic conductivity is one parameter important for predicting the movement of water and contaminants dissolved in the water through the soil. The hydraulic conductivity is measured on soil samples in the lab and sometimes tests carried out in the field. The hydraulic conductivity has been related to soil particle diameter by a number of investigators. In this study, 25 set of soil samples with sand texture. The results show approximately success in predicting hydraulic conductivity from particle diameters data. The following relationship obtained from multiple linear regressions on data (R2 = 0.52): Where d10, d50 and d60, are the soil particle diameter (mm) that 10%, 50% and 60% of all soil particles are finer (smaller) by weight and Ks, saturated hydraulic conductivity is expressed in m/day. The results of regression analysis showed that d10 play a more significant role with respect to Ks, saturated hydraulic conductivity (m/day), and has been named as the effective parameter in Ks calculation.
Preliminary Study on Determining Stem Diameter Variations of Sympodial Orchid
Changes in stem diameter of orchid plants were
investigated in a control growing climate. Previous studies have
focused on stem diameter in relation to plant water on terrestrial
plants in order to schedule the irrigation. The objective of this work
was to evaluate the ability of the strain gauges to capture changes in
the epiphytes plant stem. Experiments were carried out by using the
sympodial orchid, Dendrobium Sonia in a stressed condition. From
the findings, the sensor can detect changes in the plant stem and the
result can easily be used as a reference for further studies for the
development of a proper watering system.
Hardness Variations as Affected by Bar Diameter of AISI 4140 Steel
Hardness of the widely used structural steel is of vital
importance since it may help in the determination of many
mechanical properties of a material under loading situations. In order
to obtain reliable information for design, properties homogeneity
should be validated. In the current study the hardness variation over
the different diameters of the same AISI 4140 bar is investigated.
Measurements were taken on the two faces of the stock at equally
spaced eight sectors and fifteen layers. Statistical and graphical
analysis are performed to asses the distribution of hardness
measurements over the specified area. Hardness measurements
showed some degree of dispersion with about ± 10% of its nominal
value provided by manufacturer. Hardness value is found to have a
slight decrease trend as the diameter is reduced. However, an
opposite behavior is noticed regarding the sequence of the sector
indicating a nonuniform distribution over the same area either on the
same face or considering the corresponding sector on the other face
(cross section) of the same material bar.
The Method of Evaluation Artery Diameter from Ultrasound Video
The cardiovascular system has become the most
important subject of clinical research, particularly measurement of
arterial blood flow. Therefore correct determination of arterial
diameter is crucial. We propose a novel, semi-automatic method for
artery lumen detection. The method is based on Gaussian probability
function. Usability of our proposed method was assessed by
analyzing ultrasound B-mode CFA video sequences acquired from
eleven healthy volunteers. The correlation coefficient between the
manual and semi-automatic measurement of arterial diameter was
0.996. Our proposed method for detecting artery boundary is novel
and accurate enough for the measurement of artery diameter.
Theoretical Investigations on Different Casing and Rotor Diameters Ratio to Optimize Shaft Output of a Vaned Type Air Turbine
This paper details a new concept of using compressed air as a potential zero pollution power source for motorbikes. In place of an internal combustion engine, the motorbike is equipped with an air turbine transforms the energy of the compressed air into shaft work. The mathematical modeling and performance evaluation of a small capacity compressed air driven vaned type novel air turbine is presented in this paper. The effect of isobaric admission and adiabatic expansion of high pressure air for different rotor diameters, casing diameters and ratio of rotor to casing diameters of the turbine have been considered and analyzed. It is concluded that the work output is found optimum for some typical values of rotor / casing diameter ratios. In this study, the maximum power works out to 3.825 kW (5.20 HP) for casing diameter of 200 mm and rotor to casing diameter ratio of 0.65 to 0.60 which is sufficient to run motorbike.
Effect of Rotor to Casing Ratios with Different Rotor Vanes on Performance of Shaft Output of a Vane Type Novel Air Turbine
This paper deals with new concept of using compressed atmospheric air as a zero pollution power source for running motorbikes. The motorbike is equipped with an air turbine in place of an internal combustion engine, and transforms the energy of the compressed air into shaft work. The mathematical modeling and performance evaluation of a small capacity compressed air driven vaned type novel air turbine is presented in this paper. The effect of isobaric admission and adiabatic expansion of high pressure air for different rotor to casing diameter ratios with respect to different vane angles (number of vanes) have been considered and analyzed. It is found that the shaft work output is optimum for some typical values of rotor / casing diameter ratios at a particular value of vane angle (no. of vanes). In this study, the maximum power is obtained as 4.5kW - 5.3kW (5.5-6.25 HP) when casing diameter is taken 100 mm, and rotor to casing diameter ratios are kept from 0.65 to 0.55. This value of output is sufficient to run motorbike.
Optimizing Electrospinning Parameters for Finest Diameter of Nano Fibers
Nano fibers produced by electrospinning are of industrial and scientific attention due to their special characteristics such as long length, small diameter and high surface area. Applications of electrospun structures in nanotechnology are included tissue scaffolds, fibers for drug delivery, composite reinforcement, chemical sensing, enzyme immobilization, membrane-based filtration, protective clothing, catalysis, solar cells, electronic devices and others. Many polymer and ceramic precursor nano fibers have been successfully electrospun with diameters in the range from 1 nm to several microns. The process is complex so that fiber diameter is influenced by various material, design and operating parameters. The objective of this work is to apply genetic algorithm on the parameters of electrospinning which have the most significant effect on the nano fiber diameter to determine the optimum parameter values before doing experimental set up. Effective factors including initial polymer concentration, initial jet radius, electrical potential, relaxation time, initial elongation, viscosity and distance between nozzle and collector are considered to determine finest diameter which is selected by user.
Affect of Viscosity and Droplet Diameter on water-in-oil (w/o) Emulsions: An Experimental Study
The influence of viscosity on droplet diameter for
water-in-crude oil (w/o) emulsion with two different ratios; 20-80 %
and 50-50 % w/o emulsion was examined in the Brookfield
Rotational Digital Rheometer. The emulsion was prepared with
sorbitan sesquiolate (Span 83) act as emulsifier at varied temperature
and stirring speed in rotation per minute (rpm). Results showed that
the viscosity of w/o emulsion was strongly augmented by increasing
volume of water and decreased the temperature. The changing of
viscosity also altered the droplet size distribution. Changing of
droplet diameter was depends on the viscosity and the behavior of
emulsion either Newtonian or non-Newtonian.
The Effect of Mixture Velocity and Droplet Diameter on Oil-water Separator using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
The characteristics of fluid flow and phase separation
in an oil-water separator were numerically analysed as part of the
work presented herein. Simulations were performed for different
velocities and droplet diameters, and the way this parameters can
influence the separator geometry was studied.
The simulations were carried out using the software package
Fluent 6.2, which is designed for numerical simulation of fluid flow
and mass transfer. The model consisted of a cylindrical horizontal
separator. A tetrahedral mesh was employed in the computational
domain. The condition of two-phase flow was simulated with the
two-fluid model, taking into consideration turbulence effects using
the k-ε model.
The results showed that there is a strong dependency of phase
separation on mixture velocity and droplet diameter. An increase in
mixture velocity will bring about a slow down in phase separation
and as a consequence will require a weir of greater height. An
increase in droplet diameter will produce a better phase separation.
The simulations are in agreement with results reported in literature
and show that CFD can be a useful tool in studying a horizontal oilwater
Capacitive Air Bubble Detector Operated at Different Frequencies for Application in Hemodialysis
Air bubbles have been detected in human circulation
of end-stage renal disease patients who are treated by hemodialysis.
The consequence of air embolism, air bubbles, is under recognized
and usually overlooked in daily practice. This paper shows results of
a capacitor based detection method that capable of detecting the
presence of air bubbles in the blood stream in different frequencies.
The method is based on a parallel plates capacitor made of platinum
with an area of 1.5 cm2 and a distance between the two plates is 1cm.
The dielectric material used in this capacitor is Dextran70 solution
which mimics blood rheology. Simulations were carried out using
RC circuit at two frequencies 30Hz and 3 kHz and results compared
with experiments and theory. It is observed that by injecting air
bubbles of different diameters into the device, there were significant
changes in the capacitance of the capacitor. Furthermore, it is
observed that the output voltage from the circuit increased with
increasing air bubble diameter. These results demonstrate the
feasibility of this approach in improving air bubble detection in