Predictive Semi-Empirical NOx Model for Diesel Engine
Accurate prediction of NOx emission is a continuous challenge in the field of diesel engine-out emission modeling. Performing experiments for each conditions and scenario cost significant amount of money and man hours, therefore model-based development strategy has been implemented in order to solve that issue. NOx formation is highly dependent on the burn gas temperature and the O2 concentration inside the cylinder. The current empirical models are developed by calibrating the parameters representing the engine operating conditions with respect to the measured NOx. This makes the prediction of purely empirical models limited to the region where it has been calibrated. An alternative solution to that is presented in this paper, which focus on the utilization of in-cylinder combustion parameters to form a predictive semi-empirical NOx model. The result of this work is shown by developing a fast and predictive NOx model by using the physical parameters and empirical correlation. The model is developed based on the steady state data collected at entire operating region of the engine and the predictive combustion model, which is developed in Gamma Technology (GT)-Power by using Direct Injected (DI)-Pulse combustion object. In this approach, temperature in both burned and unburnt zone is considered during the combustion period i.e. from Intake Valve Closing (IVC) to Exhaust Valve Opening (EVO). Also, the oxygen concentration consumed in burnt zone and trapped fuel mass is also considered while developing the reported model. Several statistical methods are used to construct the model, including individual machine learning methods and ensemble machine learning methods. A detailed validation of the model on multiple diesel engines is reported in this work. Substantial numbers of cases are tested for different engine configurations over a large span of speed and load points. Different sweeps of operating conditions such as Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), injection timing and Variable Valve Timing (VVT) are also considered for the validation. Model shows a very good predictability and robustness at both sea level and altitude condition with different ambient conditions. The various advantages such as high accuracy and robustness at different operating conditions, low computational time and lower number of data points requires for the calibration establishes the platform where the model-based approach can be used for the engine calibration and development process. Moreover, the focus of this work is towards establishing a framework for the future model development for other various targets such as soot, Combustion Noise Level (CNL), NO2/NOx ratio etc.
Study of Dual Fuel Engine as Environmentally Friendly Engine
The diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses compressed air to combust. The diesel engines are widely used in the world because it has the most excellent combustion efficiency than other types of internal combustion engine. However, the exhaust emissions of it produce pollutants that are harmful to human health and the environment. Therefore, natural gas used as an alternative fuel using on compression ignition engine to respond those environment issues. This paper aims to discuss the comparison of the technical characteristics and exhaust gases emission from conventional diesel engine and dual fuel diesel engine. According to the study, the dual fuel engine applications have a lower compression pressure and has longer ignition delay compared with normal diesel mode. The engine power is decreased at dual fuel mode. However, the exhaust gases emission on dual fuel engine significantly reduce the nitrogen oxide (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2) and particular metter (PM) emissions.
Combustion Improvements by C4/C5 Bio-Alcohol Isomer Blended Fuels Combined with Supercharging and EGR in a Diesel Engine
Next generation bio-alcohols produced from non-food based sources like cellulosic biomass are promising renewable energy sources. The present study investigates engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions of a small single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled by four kinds of next generation bio-alcohol isomer and diesel fuel blends with a constant blending ratio of 3:7 (mass). The tested bio-alcohol isomers here are n-butanol and iso-butanol (C4 alcohol), and n-pentanol and iso-pentanol (C5 alcohol). To obtain simultaneous reductions in NOx and smoke emissions, the experiments employed supercharging combined with EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation). The boost pressures were fixed at two conditions, 100 kPa (naturally aspirated operation) and 120 kPa (supercharged operation) provided with a roots blower type supercharger. The EGR rates were varied from 0 to 25% using a cooled EGR technique. The results showed that both with and without supercharging, all the bio-alcohol blended diesel fuels improved the trade-off relation between NOx and smoke emissions at all EGR rates while maintaining good engine performance, when compared with diesel fuel operation. It was also found that regardless of boost pressure and EGR rate, the ignition delays of the tested bio-alcohol isomer blends are in the order of iso-butanol > n-butanol > iso-pentanol > n-pentanol. Overall, it was concluded that, except for the changes in the ignition delays the influence of bio-alcohol isomer blends on the engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions are relatively small.
Examination of Internally and Externally Coated Cr3C2 Exhaust Pipe of a Diesel Engine via Plasma Spray Method
In this experimental study; internal and external parts of an exhaust pipe were coated with a chromium carbide (Cr3C2) material having a thickness of 100 micron by using the plasma spray method. A diesel engine was used as the test engine. Thus, the results of continuing chemical reaction in coated and uncoated exhaust pipes were investigated. Internally and externally coated exhaust pipe was compared with the standard exhaust system. External heat transfer occurring as a result of coating the internal and external parts of the exhaust pipe was reduced and its effects on harmful exhaust emissions were investigated. As a result of the experiments; a remarkable improvement was determined in emission values as a result of delay in cooling of exhaust gases due to the coating.
Experimental Investigation of Hydrogen Addition in the Intake Air of Compressed Engines Running on Biodiesel Blend
This study investigates experimentally the effects
of hydrogen addition in the intake manifold of a diesel generator
operating with a 7% biodiesel-diesel oil blend (B7). An experimental
apparatus setup was used to conduct performance and emissions tests
in a single cylinder, air cooled diesel engine. This setup consisted
of a generator set connected to a wirewound resistor load bank that
was used to vary engine load. In addition, a flowmeter was used to
determine hydrogen volumetric flowrate and a digital anemometer
coupled with an air box to measure air flowrate. Furthermore, a
digital precision electronic scale was used to measure engine fuel
consumption and a gas analyzer was used to determine exhaust
gas composition and exhaust gas temperature. A thermopar was
installed near the exhaust collection to measure cylinder temperature.
In-cylinder pressure was measured using an AVL Indumicro data
acquisition system with a piezoelectric pressure sensor. An AVL
optical encoder was installed in the crankshaft and synchronized
with in-cylinder pressure in real time. The experimental procedure
consisted of injecting hydrogen into the engine intake manifold
at different mass concentrations of 2,6,8 and 10% of total fuel
mass (B7 + hydrogen), which represented energy fractions of 5,15,
20 and 24% of total fuel energy respectively. Due to hydrogen
addition, the total amount of fuel energy introduced increased
and the generators fuel injection governor prevented any increases
of engine speed. Several conclusions can be stated from the test
results. A reduction in specific fuel consumption as a function
of hydrogen concentration increase was noted. Likewise, carbon
dioxide emissions (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned
hydrocarbons (HC) decreased as hydrogen concentration increased.
On the other hand, nitrogen oxides emissions (NOx) increased due
to average temperatures inside the cylinder being higher. There
was also an increase in peak cylinder pressure and heat release
rate inside the cylinder, since the fuel ignition delay was smaller
due to hydrogen content increase. All this indicates that hydrogen
promotes faster combustion and higher heat release rates and can
be an important additive to all kind of fuels used in diesel generators.
Performance Evaluation of Karanja Oil Based Biodiesel Engine Using Modified Genetic Algorithm
This paper presents the evaluation of performance (BSFC and BTE), combustion (Pmax) and emission (CO, NOx, HC and smoke opacity) parameters of karanja biodiesel in a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection diesel engine by considering significant engine input parameters (blending ratio, compression ratio and load torque). Multi-objective optimization of performance, combustion and emission parameters is also carried out in a karanja biodiesel engine using hybrid RSM-NSGA-II technique. The pareto optimum solutions are predicted by running the hybrid RSM-NSGA-II technique. Each pareto optimal solution is having its own importance. Confirmation tests are also conducted at randomly selected few pareto solutions to check the authenticity of the results.
Specialized Reduced Models of Dynamic Flows in 2-Stroke Engines
The complexity of scavenging by ports and its impact on engine efficiency create the need to understand and to model it as realistically as possible. However, there are few empirical scavenging models and these are highly specialized. In a design optimization process, they appear very restricted and their field of use is limited. This paper presents a comparison of two methods to establish and reduce a model of the scavenging process in 2-stroke diesel engines. To solve the lack of scavenging models, a CFD model has been developed and is used as the referent case. However, its large size requires a reduction. Two techniques have been tested depending on their fields of application: The NTF method and neural networks. They both appear highly appropriate drastically reducing the model’s size (over 90% reduction) with a low relative error rate (under 10%). Furthermore, each method produces a reduced model which can be used in distinct specialized fields of application: the distribution of a quantity (mass fraction for example) in the cylinder at each time step (pseudo-dynamic model) or the qualification of scavenging at the end of the process (pseudo-static model).
Effects of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Addition in Diesel and Diesel-Biodiesel Blends on the Performance Characteristics of a CI Engine
An experimental investigation is carried out to
establish the performance characteristics of a compression ignition
engine while using cerium oxide nanoparticles as additive in neat
diesel and diesel-biodiesel blends. In the first phase of the
experiments, stability of neat diesel and diesel-biodiesel fuel blends
with the addition of cerium oxide nanoparticles is analyzed. After
series of experiments, it is found that the blends subjected to high
speed blending followed by ultrasonic bath stabilization improves the
stability. In the second phase, performance characteristics are studied
using the stable fuel blends in a single cylinder four stroke engine
coupled with an electrical dynamometer and a data acquisition
system. The cerium oxide acts as an oxygen donating catalyst and
provides oxygen for combustion. The activation energy of cerium
oxide acts to burn off carbon deposits within the engine cylinder at
the wall temperature and prevents the deposition of non-polar
compounds on the cylinder wall results reduction in HC emissions.
The tests revealed that cerium oxide nanoparticles can be used as
additive in diesel and diesel-biodiesel blends to improve complete
combustion of the fuel significantly.
Effect of Hydrogen-Diesel Dual Fuel Combustion on the Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Four Stroke-Single Cylinder Diesel Engine
The present work attempts to investigate the
combustion, performance and emission characteristics of an existing
single-cylinder four-stroke compression-ignition engine operated in
dual-fuel mode with hydrogen as an alternative fuel. Environmental
concerns and limited amount of petroleum fuels have caused interests
in the development of alternative fuels like hydrogen for internal
combustion (IC) engines. In this experimental investigation, a diesel
engine is made to run using hydrogen in dual fuel mode with diesel,
where hydrogen is introduced into the intake manifold using an LPGCNG
injector and pilot diesel is injected using diesel injectors. A
Timed Manifold Injection (TMI) system has been developed to vary
the injection strategies. The optimized timing for the injection of
hydrogen was 10^0 CA after top dead center (ATDC). From the study
it was observed that with increasing hydrogen rate, enhancement in
brake thermal efficiency (BTHE) of the engine has been observed
with reduction in brake specific energy consumption (BSEC).
Furthermore, Soot contents decrease with an increase in indicated
specific NOx emissions with the enhancement of hydrogen flow rate.
Optimization of Turbocharged Diesel Engines
The turbocharger and turbocharging have been the
inherent component of diesel engines, so that critical parameters of
such engines, as BSFC (Brake Specific Fuel Consumption) or
thermal efficiency, fuel consumption, BMEP (Brake Mean Effective
Pressure), the power density output and emission level have been
improved extensively. In general, the turbocharger can be considered
as the most complex component of diesel engines, because it has
closely interrelated turbomachinery concepts of the turbines and the
compressors to thermodynamic fundamentals of internal combustion
engines and stress analysis of all components.
In this paper, a waste gate for a conventional single stage radial
turbine is investigated by consideration of turbochargers operation
constrains and engine operation conditions, without any detail
designs in the turbine and the compressor. Amount of opening waste
gate which extended between the ranges of full opened and closed
valve, is demonstrated by limiting compressor boost pressure ratio.
Obtaining of an optimum point by regard above mentioned items is
surveyed by three linked meanline modeling programs together
which consist of Turbomatch®, Compal®, Rital® madules in concepts
An Experimental Investigation of Petrodiesel and Cotton Seed Biodiesel (CSOME) in Diesel Engine
Biodiesel is widely investigated to solve the twin
problem of depletion of fossil fuel and environmental degradation.
The main objective of the present work is to compare performance,
emissions, and combustion characteristics of biodiesel derived from
cotton seed oil in a diesel engine with the baseline results of
petrodiesel fuel. Tests have been conducted on a single cylinder, four
stroke CIDI diesel engine with a speed of 1500 rpm and a fixed
compression ratio of 17.5 at different load conditions. The
performance parameters evaluated include brake thermal efficiency,
brake specific fuel consumption, brake power, indicated mean
effective pressure, mechanical efficiency, and exhaust gas
temperature. Regarding combustion study, cylinder pressure, rate of
pressure rise, net heat release rate, cumulative heat release, mean gas
temperature, mass fraction burned, and fuel line pressure were
evaluated. The emission parameters such as carbon monoxide, carbon
dioxide, un-burnt hydrocarbon, oxides of nitrogen, and smoke
opacity were also measured by a smoke meter and an exhaust gas
analyzer and compared with baseline results. The brake thermal
efficiency of cotton seed oil methyl ester (CSOME) was lower than
that of petrodiesel and brake specific fuel consumption was found to
be higher. However, biodiesel resulted in the reduction of carbon
dioxide, un-burnt hydrocarbon, and smoke opacity at the expense of
nitrogen oxides. Carbon monoxide emissions for biodiesel was higher
at maximum output power. It has been found that the combustion
characteristics of cotton seed oil methyl ester closely followed those
of standard petrodiesel. The experimental results suggested that
biodiesel derived from cotton seed oil could be used as a good
substitute to petrodiesel fuel in a conventional diesel without any
Power Management Strategy for Solar-Wind-Diesel Stand-alone Hybrid Energy System
This paper presents a simulation and mathematical model of stand-alone solar-wind-diesel based hybrid energy system (HES). A power management system is designed for multiple energy resources in a stand-alone hybrid energy system. Both Solar photovoltaic and wind energy conversion system consists of maximum power point tracking (MPPT), voltage regulation, and basic power electronic interfaces. An additional diesel generator is included to support and improve the reliability of stand-alone system when renewable energy sources are not available. A power management strategy is introduced to distribute the generated power among resistive load banks. The frequency regulation is developed with conventional phase locked loop (PLL) system. The power management algorithm was applied in Matlab®/Simulink® to simulate the results.
Optimal Diesel Engine Technology Analysis Matching the Platform of the Helicopter
In the paper environmental impact analysis the optimal Diesel engine for a light helicopter was performed. The paper consist an answer to the question of what the optimal Diesel engine for a light helicopter is, taking into consideration its expected performance and design capacity. The use of turbocharged engine with self-ignition and an electronic control system can substantially reduce the negative impact on the environment by decreasing toxic substance emission, fuel consumption and therefore carbon dioxide emission. In order to establish the environmental benefits of the diesel engine technologies, mathematical models were created, providing additional insight on the environmental impact and performance of a classic turboshaft and an advanced diesel engine light helicopter, incorporating technology developments.
Design of Controllers to Control Frequency for Distributed Generation
In this paper a hybrid distributed generation (DG) system connected to isolated load is studied. The DG system consisting of photo voltaic (PV) system, fuel cells, aqua electrolyzer, diesel engine generator and a battery energy storage system. The ambient temperature value of PV is taken as constant to make the output power of PV is directly proportional to the radiation and output power of other DG sources and frequency of the system is controlled by simple integral (I), proportional plus integral (PI), and proportional plus integral and derivative(PID) controllers. A maiden attempt is made to apply a more recent and powerful optimization technique named as bacterial foraging technique for optimization of controllers gains of the proposed hybrid DG system. The system responses with bacterial foraging based controllers are compared with that of classical method. Investigations reveal that bacterial foraging based controllers gives better responses than the classical method and also PID controller is best. Sensitivity analysis is carried out which demonstrates the robustness of the optimized gain values for system loading condition.
Combustion and Emission of a Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Diesel and Hydrogen-Methane Mixture
The present study conducted experimental investigation on combustion and emission characteristics of compression ignition engine using diesel as pilot fuel and methane, hydrogen and methane/hydrogen mixture as gaseous fuels at 1800 rev min-1. The effect of gaseous fuel on peak cylinder pressure and heat release is modest at low to medium loads. At high load, the high combustion temperature and high quantity of pilot fuel contribute to better combustion efficiency for all kinds of gaseous fuels and increases the peak cylinder pressure. Enrichment of hydrogen in methane gradually increases the peak cylinder pressure. The brake thermal efficiency increases with higher hydrogen fraction at lower loads. Hydrogen addition in methane contributed to a proportional reduction of CO/CO2/HC emission without penalty of NOx. For particulate emission, methane and hydrogen, could both suppress the particle emission. 30% hydrogen fraction in methane is observed to be best in reducing the particulate emission.
Performance Analysis of an Island Power System Including Wind Turbines Operating under Random Wind Speed
With continuous rise of oil price, how to develop alternative energy source has become a hot topic around the world. This study discussed the dynamic characteristics of an island power system operating under random wind speed lower than nominal wind
speeds of wind turbines. The system primarily consists of three diesel engine power generation systems, three constant-speed variable-pitch wind turbines, a small hydraulic induction generation system, and lumped static loads. Detailed models based on Matlab/Simulink were developed to cater for the dynamic behavior of the system. The results suggested this island power system can operate stably in this operational mode. This study can serve as an important reference for planning, operation, and further expansion of island power systems.
Combustion, Emission and Performance Characteristics of a Light Duty Diesel Engine Fuelled with Methanol Diesel Blends
Combustion, emission and performance
characterization of a single cylinder diesel engine using methanol
diesel blends was carried out. The blends were 5% (v/v) methanol in
diesel (MD05) and 10% (v/v) methanol in diesel (MD10). The
problem of solubility of methanol and diesel was addressed by an
agitator placed inside the fuel tank to prevent phase separation. The
results indicated that total combustion duration was reduced by15.8%
for MD05 and 31.27% for MD10compared to the baseline data.
Ignition delay was increased with increasing methanol volume
fraction in the test fuel. Total cyclic heat release was reduced by
1.5% for MD05 and 6.7% for MD10 as compared to diesel baseline.
Emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons along with smoke were
reduced and that of nitrogen oxides were increased with rising
methanol contents in the test fuel. Full load brake thermal efficiency
was marginally reduced with increased methanol composition in the
CFD Investigation of the Effects of Re-Entrant Combustion Chamber Geometry in a HSDI Diesel Engine
A CFD simulation has applied to explore the effects of combustion chamber geometry on engine performance and pollutant emissions in a HSDI diesel engine. Three ITs (Injection Timing) at 2.65 CA BTDC, 0.65 CA BTDC and 1.35 CA ATDC, all with 30 crank angle pilot separations has firstly considered to identify the optimum IT for achieving the minimum amount of pollutant emissions. In order to investigate the effect of combustion chamber, thirteen different piston bowl configurations have been designed and analyzed. For all the studied cases, compression ratio, squish bowl volume and the amount of injected fuel were kept constant to assure that variation in the engine performance were only caused by geometric parameters. The results showed that by changing the geometric parameters on piston bowl, the amount of emission pollutants can be decreased while the other performance parameters of engine remain constant.
State Feedback Speed Controller for Turbocharged Diesel Engine and Its Robustness
In this paper, the full state feedback controllers
capable of regulating and tracking the speed trajectory are presented.
A fourth order nonlinear mean value model of a 448 kW turbocharged
diesel engine published earlier is used for the purpose.
For designing controllers, the nonlinear model is linearized and
represented in state-space form. Full state feedback controllers
capable of meeting varying speed demands of drivers are presented.
Main focus here is to investigate sensitivity of the controller to the
perturbations in the parameters of the original nonlinear model.
Suggested controller is shown to be highly insensitive to the
parameter variations. This indicates that the controller is likely
perform with same accuracy even after significant wear and tear of
engine due to its use for years.
Trapping Efficiency of Diesel Particles Through a Square Duct
Diesel Engines emit complex mixtures of inorganic
and organic compounds in the form of both solid and vapour phase
particles. Most of the particulates released are ultrafine nanoparticles
which are detrimental to human health and can easily enter the body
by respiration. The emissions standards on particulate matter release
from diesel engines are constantly upgraded within the European
Union and with future regulations based on the particles numbers
released instead of merely mass, the need for effective aftertreatment
devices will increase. Standard particulate filters in the form of wall
flow filters can have problems with high soot accumulation,
producing a large exhaust backpressure. A potential solution would
be to combine the standard filter with a flow through filter to reduce
the load on the wall flow filter. In this paper soot particle trapping has
been simulated in different continuous flow filters of monolithic
structure including the use of promoters, at laminar flow conditions.
An Euler Lagrange model, the discrete phase model in Ansys used
with user defined functions for forces acting on particles. A method
to quickly screen trapping of 5 nm and 10 nm particles in different
catalysts designs with tracers was also developed.
Simulations of square duct monoliths with promoters show that the
strength of the vortices produced are not enough to give a high
amount of particle deposition on the catalyst walls. The smallest
particles in the simulations, 5 and 10 nm particles were trapped to a
higher extent, than larger particles up to 1000 nm, in all studied
geometries with the predominant deposition mechanism being
Brownian diffusion. The comparison of the different filters designed
with a wall flow filter does show that the options for altering a design
of a flow through filter, without imposing a too large pressure drop
penalty are good.
Ignition Delay Correlation for a Direct Injection Diesel Engine Fuelled with Automotive Diesel and Water Diesel Emulsion
Most of ignition delay correlations studies have been
developed in a constant volume bombs which cannot capture the
dynamic variation in pressure and temperature during the ignition
delay as in real engines. Watson, Assanis et. al. and Hardenberg
and Hase correlations have been developed based on experimental
data of diesel engines. However, they showed limited predictive
ability of ignition delay when compared to experimental results. The
objective of the study was to investigate the dependency of ignition
delay time on engine brake power. An experimental investigation of
the effect of automotive diesel and water diesel emulsion fuels on
ignition delay under steady state conditions of a direct injection diesel
engine was conducted. A four cylinder, direct injection naturally
aspirated diesel engine was used in this experiment over a wide range
of engine speeds and two engine loads. The ignition delay
experimental data were compared with predictions of Assanis et. al.
and Watson ignition delay correlations. The results of the
experimental investigation were then used to develop a new ignition
delay correlation. The newly developed ignition delay correlation has
shown a better agreement with the experimental data than Assanis et.
al. and Watson when using automotive diesel and water diesel
emulsion fuels especially at low to medium engine speeds at both
loads. In addition, the second derivative of cylinder pressure which is
the most widely used method in determining the start of combustion
Simultaneously Reduction of NOx and Soot Emissions in a DI Heavy Duty diesel Engine Operating at High Cooled EGR Rates
One promising way to achieve low temperature
combustion regime is the use of a large amount of cooled EGR. In
this paper, the effect of injection timing on low temperature
combustion process and emissions were investigated via three
dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) procedures in a DI
diesel engine using high EGR rates. The results show when
increasing EGR from low levels to levels corresponding to reduced
temperature combustion, soot emission after first increasing, is
decreased beyond 40% EGR and get the lowest value at 58% EGR
rate. Soot and NOx emissions are simultaneously decreased at
advanced injection timing before 20.5 ºCA BTDC in conjunction
with 58% cooled EGR rate in compared to baseline case.
Performance Evaluation of a Diesel Engine Fueled with Methyl Ester of shea Butter
Biodiesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engines has been developed for some three decades now. While it is gaining wide acceptance in Europe, USA and some parts of Asia, the same cannot be said of Africa. With more than 35 countries in the continent depending on imported crude oil, it is necessary to look for alternative fuels which can be produced from resources available locally within any country. Hence this study presents performance of single cylinder diesel engine using blends of shea butter biodiesel. Shea butter was transformed into biodiesel by transesterification process. Tests are conducted to compare the biodiesel with baseline diesel fuel in terms of engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics. The results obtained showed that the addition of biodiesel to diesel fuel decreases the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and increases the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC). These results are expected due to the lower energy content of biodiesel fuel. On the other hand while the NOx emissions increased with increase in biodiesel content in the fuel blends, the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), un-burnt hydrocarbon (UHC) and smoke opacity decreased. The engine performance which indicates that the biodiesel has properties and characteristics similar to diesel fuel and the reductions in exhaust emissions make shea butter biodiesel a viable additive or substitute to diesel fuel.
Studying Effects of Alternative Biodiesel Fuel in Performance and Pollutants of Diesel Engines
Since injection engines have a considerable portion, in
consumption of energy and environmental pollution, using an
alternative source of energy with lower pollutant effects in this
regard is necessary.
Biodiesel fuel is a suitable alternative for gasoline in diesel
In this research the property of biodiesel, the function and the
pollution effects of diesel engine, when using 100% biodiesel, using
100% gasoline and mixing ratio of both fuels for comparing them,
have been investigated.
The researches have shown, using biodiesel fuel in prevalent
diesel engine, will reduce the pollutants such as Co, half burned
carbohydrate and suspended particles and a little increase in
oxidation will achieve while power consumption, particularly fuel
and thermal efficiency of diesel fuel has the same.
A Study on the Effect of Valve Timing on the Combustion and Emission Characteristics for a 4-cylinder PCCI Diesel Engine
PCCI engines can reduce NOx and PM emissions
simultaneously without sacrificing thermal efficiency, but a low
combustion temperature resulting from early fuel injection, and
ignition occurring prior to TDC, can cause higher THC and CO
emissions and fuel consumption. In conclusion, it was found that the
PCCI combustion achieved by the 2-stage injection strategy with
optimized calibration factors (e.g. EGR rate, injection pressure, swirl
ratio, intake pressure, injection timing) can reduce NOx and PM
emissions simultaneously. This research works are expected to
provide valuable information conducive to a development of an
innovative combustion engine that can fulfill upcoming stringent
Three Dimensional Modeling of Mixture Formation and Combustion in a Direct Injection Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine
Due to the stringent legislation for emission of diesel
engines and also increasing demand on fuel consumption, the
importance of detailed 3D simulation of fuel injection, mixing and
combustion have been increased in the recent years. In the present
work, FIRE code has been used to study the detailed modeling of
spray and mixture formation in a Caterpillar heavy-duty diesel
engine. The paper provides an overview of the submodels
implemented, which account for liquid spray atomization, droplet
secondary break-up, droplet collision, impingement, turbulent
dispersion and evaporation. The simulation was performed from
intake valve closing (IVC) to exhaust valve opening (EVO). The
predicted in-cylinder pressure is validated by comparing with
existing experimental data. A good agreement between the predicted
and experimental values ensures the accuracy of the numerical
predictions collected with the present work. Predictions of engine
emissions were also performed and a good quantitative agreement
between measured and predicted NOx and soot emission data were
obtained with the use of the present Zeldowich mechanism and
Hiroyasu model. In addition, the results reported in this paper
illustrate that the numerical simulation can be one of the most
powerful and beneficial tools for the internal combustion engine
design, optimization and performance analysis.
Experimental Studies on the Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with Used Cooking Oil Methyl Esterand its Diesel Blends
Transesterified vegetable oils (biodiesel) are promising alternative fuel for diesel engines. Used vegetable oils are disposed from restaurants in large quantities. But higher viscosity restricts their direct use in diesel engines. In this study, used cooking oil was dehydrated and then transesterified using an alkaline catalyst. The combustion, performance and emission characteristics of Used Cooking oil Methyl Ester (UCME) and its blends with diesel oil are analysed in a direct injection C.I. engine. The fuel properties and the combustion characteristics of UCME are found to be similar to those of diesel. A minor decrease in thermal efficiency with significant improvement in reduction of particulates, carbon monoxide and unburnt hydrocarbons is observed compared to diesel. The use of transesterified used cooking oil and its blends as fuel for diesel engines will reduce dependence on fossil fuels and also decrease considerably the environmental pollution.