High Performance Electrocardiogram Steganography Based on Fast Discrete Cosine Transform
Based on fast discrete cosine transform (FDCT), the authors present a high capacity and high perceived quality method for electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. By using a simple adjusting policy to the 1-dimentional (1-D) DCT coefficients, a large volume of secret message can be effectively embedded in an ECG host signal and be successfully extracted at the intended receiver. Simulations confirmed that the resulting perceived quality is good, while the hiding capability of the proposed method significantly outperforms that of existing techniques. In addition, our proposed method has a certain degree of robustness. Since the computational complexity is low, it is feasible for our method being employed in real-time applications.
Optimal ECG Sampling Frequency for Multiscale Entropy-Based HRV
Multiscale entropy (MSE) is an extensively used index to provide a general understanding of multiple complexity of physiologic mechanism of heart rate variability (HRV) that operates on a wide range of time scales. Accurate selection of electrocardiogram (ECG) sampling frequency is an essential concern for clinically significant HRV quantification; high ECG sampling rate increase memory requirements and processing time, whereas low sampling rate degrade signal quality and results in clinically misinterpreted HRV. In this work, the impact of ECG sampling frequency on MSE based HRV have been quantified. MSE measures are found to be sensitive to ECG sampling frequency and effect of sampling frequency will be a function of time scale.
Wavelet-Based ECG Signal Analysis and Classification
This paper presents the processing and analysis of ECG signals. The study is based on wavelet transform and uses exclusively the MATLAB environment. This study includes removing Baseline wander and further de-noising through wavelet transform and metrics such as signal-to noise ratio (SNR), Peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and the mean squared error (MSE) are used to assess the efficiency of the de-noising techniques. Feature extraction is subsequently performed whereby signal features such as heart rate, rise and fall levels are extracted and the QRS complex was detected which helped in classifying the ECG signal. The classification is the last step in the analysis of the ECG signals and it is shown that these are successfully classified as Normal rhythm or Abnormal rhythm. The final result proved the adequacy of using wavelet transform for the analysis of ECG signals.
Empirical Mode Decomposition Based Denoising by Customized Thresholding
This paper presents a denoising method called EMD-Custom that was based on Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and the modified Customized Thresholding Function (Custom) algorithms. EMD was applied to decompose adaptively a noisy signal into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). Then, all the noisy IMFs got threshold by applying the presented thresholding function to suppress noise and to improve the signal to noise ratio (SNR). The method was tested on simulated data and real ECG signal, and the results were compared to the EMD-Based signal denoising methods using the soft and hard thresholding. The results showed the superior performance of the proposed EMD-Custom denoising over the traditional approach. The performances were evaluated in terms of SNR in dB, and Mean Square Error (MSE).
Electrocardiogram Signal Denoising Using a Hybrid Technique
This paper presents an efficient method of electrocardiogram signal denoising based on a hybrid approach. Two techniques are brought together to create an efficient denoising process. The first is an Adaptive Dual Threshold Filter (ADTF) and the second is the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). The presented approach is based on three steps of denoising, the DWT decomposition, the ADTF step and the highest peaks correction step. This paper presents some application of the approach on some electrocardiogram signals of the MIT-BIH database. The results of these applications are promising compared to other recently published techniques.
Heart-Rate Resistance Electrocardiogram Identification Based on Slope-Oriented Neural Networks
For electrocardiogram (ECG) biometrics system, it is a tedious process to pre-install user’s high-intensity heart rate (HR) templates in ECG biometric systems. Based on only resting enrollment templates, it is a challenge to identify human by using ECG with the high-intensity HR caused from exercises and stress. This research provides a heartbeat segment method with slope-oriented neural networks against the ECG morphology changes due to high intensity HRs. The method has overall system accuracy at 97.73% which includes six levels of HR intensities. A cumulative match characteristic curve is also used to compare with other traditional ECG biometric methods.
HRV Analysis Based Arrhythmic Beat Detection Using kNN Classifier
Health diseases have a vital significance affecting human being's life and life quality. Sudden death events can be prevented owing to early diagnosis and treatment methods. Electrical signals, taken from the human being's body using non-invasive methods and showing the heart activity is called Electrocardiogram (ECG). The ECG signal is used for following daily activity of the heart by clinicians. Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is a physiological parameter giving the variation between the heart beats. ECG data taken from MITBIH Arrhythmia Database is used in the model employed in this study. The detection of arrhythmic heart beats is aimed utilizing the features extracted from the HRV time domain parameters. The developed model provides a satisfactory performance with ~89% accuracy, 91.7 % sensitivity and 85% specificity rates for the detection of arrhythmic beats.
Implementation of a Web-Based Wireless ECG Measuring and Recording System
Measuring the Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is an
essential process for the diagnosis of the heart diseases. The ECG
signal has the information of the degree of how much the heart
performs its functions. In medical diagnosis and treatment systems,
Decision Support Systems processing the ECG signal are being
developed for the use of clinicians while medical examination. In this
study, a modular wireless ECG (WECG) measuring and recording
system using a single board computer and e-Health sensor platform
is developed. In this designed modular system, after the ECG signal
is taken from the body surface by the electrodes first, it is filtered and
converted to digital form. Then, it is recorded to the health database
using Wi-Fi communication technology. The real time access of the
ECG data is provided through the internet utilizing the developed
Diagnosis of the Heart Rhythm Disorders by Using Hybrid Classifiers
In this study, it was tried to identify some heart rhythm disorders by electrocardiography (ECG) data that is taken from MIT-BIH arrhythmia database by subtracting the required features, presenting to artificial neural networks (ANN), artificial immune systems (AIS), artificial neural network based on artificial immune system (AIS-ANN) and particle swarm optimization based artificial neural network (PSO-NN) classifier systems. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of hybrid AIS-ANN and PSO-ANN classifiers with regard to the ANN and AIS. For this purpose, the normal sinus rhythm (NSR), atrial premature contraction (APC), sinus arrhythmia (SA), ventricular trigeminy (VTI), ventricular tachycardia (VTK) and atrial fibrillation (AF) data for each of the RR intervals were found. Then these data in the form of pairs (NSR-APC, NSR-SA, NSR-VTI, NSR-VTK and NSR-AF) is created by combining discrete wavelet transform which is applied to each of these two groups of data and two different data sets with 9 and 27 features were obtained from each of them after data reduction. Afterwards, the data randomly was firstly mixed within themselves, and then 4-fold cross validation method was applied to create the training and testing data. The training and testing accuracy rates and training time are compared with each other.
As a result, performances of the hybrid classification systems, AIS-ANN and PSO-ANN were seen to be close to the performance of the ANN system. Also, the results of the hybrid systems were much better than AIS, too. However, ANN had much shorter period of training time than other systems. In terms of training times, ANN was followed by PSO-ANN, AIS-ANN and AIS systems respectively. Also, the features that extracted from the data affected the classification results significantly.
A Pole Radius Varying Notch Filter with Transient Suppression for Electrocardiogram
Noise removal techniques play a vital role in the performance of electrocardiographic (ECG) signal processing systems. ECG signals can be corrupted by various kinds of noise such as baseline wander noise, electromyographic interference, and powerline interference. One of the significant challenges in ECG signal processing is the degradation caused by additive 50 or 60 Hz powerline interference. This work investigates the removal of power line interference and suppression of transient response for filtering noise corrupted ECG signals. We demonstrate the effectiveness of infinite impulse response (IIR) notch filter with time varying pole radius for improving the transient behavior. The temporary change in the pole radius of the filter diminishes the transient behavior. Simulation results show that the proposed IIR filter with time varying pole radius outperforms traditional IIR notch filters in terms of mean square error and transient suppression.
Analysis of Electrocardiograph (ECG) Signal for the Detection of Abnormalities Using MATLAB
The proposed method is to study and analyze Electrocardiograph (ECG) waveform to detect abnormalities present with reference to P, Q, R and S peaks. The first phase includes the acquisition of real time ECG data. In the next phase, generation of signals followed by pre-processing. Thirdly, the procured ECG signal is subjected to feature extraction. The extracted features detect abnormal peaks present in the waveform Thus the normal and abnormal ECG signal could be differentiated based on the features extracted. The work is implemented in the most familiar multipurpose tool, MATLAB. This software efficiently uses algorithms and techniques for detection of any abnormalities present in the ECG signal. Proper utilization of MATLAB functions (both built-in and user defined) can lead us to work with ECG signals for processing and analysis in real time applications. The simulation would help in improving the accuracy and the hardware could be built conveniently.
The Estimation of Human Vital Signs Complexity
Nonstationary and nonlinear signals generated by living complex systems defy traditional mechanistic approaches, which are based on homeostasis. Previous our studies have shown that the evaluation of the interactions of physiological signals by using special analysis methods is suitable for observation of physiological processes. It is demonstrated the possibility of using deep physiological model, based on the interpretation of the changes of the human body’s functional states combined with an application of the analytical method based on matrix theory for the physiological signals analysis, which was applied on high risk cardiac patients. It is shown that evaluation of cardiac signals interactions show peculiar for each individual functional changes at the onset of hemodynamic restoration procedure. Therefore, we suggest that the alterations of functional state of the body, after patients overcome surgery can be complemented by the data received from the suggested approach of the evaluation of functional variables’ interactions.
Discrete Wavelet Transform Decomposition Level Determination Exploiting Sparseness Measurement
Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) has been widely adopted in biomedical signal processing for denoising, compression
and so on. Choosing a suitable decomposition level (DL) in DWT is of paramount importance to its performance. In this paper, we propose to exploit sparseness of the transformed signals to determine the appropriate DL. Simulation results have shown that the sparseness of transformed signals after DWT increases with the increasing DLs. Additional Monte-Carlo simulation results have verified the effectiveness of sparseness measure in determining the DL.
Detecting Abnormal ECG Signals Utilising Wavelet Transform and Standard Deviation
ECG contains very important clinical information about the cardiac activities of the heart. Often the ECG signal needs to be captured for a long period of time in order to identify abnormalities in certain situations. Such signal apart of a large volume often is characterised by low quality due to the noise and other influences. In order to extract features in the ECG signal with time-varying characteristics at first need to be preprocessed with the best parameters. Also, it is useful to identify specific parts of the long lasting signal which have certain abnormalities and to direct the practitioner to those parts of the signal. In this work we present a method based on wavelet transform, standard deviation and variable threshold which achieves 100% accuracy in identifying the ECG signal peaks and heartbeat as well as identifying the standard deviation, providing a quick reference to abnormalities.
Hospital Based Electrocardiogram Sensor Grid
The technological concepts such as wireless hospital
and portable cardiac telemetry system require the development of
physiological signal acquisition devices to be easily integrated into
the hospital database. In this paper we present the low cost, portable
wireless ECG acquisition hardware that transmits ECG signals to a
dedicated computer.The front end of the system obtains and
processes incoming signals, which are then transmitted via a
microcontroller and wireless Bluetooth module. A monitoring
purpose Bluetooth based end user application integrated with patient
database management module is developed for the computers. The
system will act as a continuous event recorder, which can be used to
follow up patients who have been resuscitatedfrom cardiac arrest,
ventricular tachycardia but also for diagnostic purposes for patients
with arrhythmia symptoms. In addition, cardiac information can be
saved into the patient-s database of the hospital.
An Improved QRS Complex Detection for Online Medical Diagnosis
This paper presents the work of signal discrimination
specifically for Electrocardiogram (ECG) waveform. ECG signal is
comprised of P, QRS, and T waves in each normal heart beat to
describe the pattern of heart rhythms corresponds to a specific
individual. Further medical diagnosis could be done to determine any
heart related disease using ECG information. The emphasis on QRS
Complex classification is further discussed to illustrate the
importance of it. Pan-Tompkins Algorithm, a widely known
technique has been adapted to realize the QRS Complex
classification process. There are eight steps involved namely
sampling, normalization, low pass filter, high pass filter (build a band
pass filter), derivation, squaring, averaging and lastly is the QRS
detection. The simulation results obtained is represented in a
Graphical User Interface (GUI) developed using MATLAB.
Capacitive ECG Measurement by Conductive Fabric Tape
Capacitive electrocardiogram (ECG) measurement is an attractive approach for long-term health monitoring. However, there is little literature available on its implementation, especially for multichannel system in standard ECG leads. This paper begins from the design criteria for capacitive ECG measurement and presents a multichannel limb-lead capacitive ECG system with conductive fabric tapes pasted on a double layer PCB as the capacitive sensors. The proposed prototype system incorporates a capacitive driven-body (CDB) circuit to reduce the common-mode power-line interference (PLI). The presented prototype system has been verified to be stable by theoretic analysis and practical long-term experiments. The signal quality is competitive to that acquired by commercial ECG machines. The feasible size and distance of capacitive sensor have also been evaluated by a series of tests. From the test results, it is suggested to be greater than 60 cm2 in sensor size and be smaller than 1.5 mm in distance for capacitive ECG measurement.
ROC Analysis of PVC Detection Algorithm using ECG and Vector-ECG Charateristics
ECG analysis method was developed using ROC
analysis of PVC detecting algorithm. ECG signal of MIT-BIH
arrhythmia database was analyzed by MATLAB. First of all, the
baseline was removed by median filter to preprocess the ECG signal.
R peaks were detected for ECG analysis method, and normal VCG
was extracted for VCG analysis method. Four PVC detecting
algorithm was analyzed by ROC curve, which parameters are
maximum amplitude of QRS complex, width of QRS complex, r-r
interval and geometric mean of VCG. To set cut-off value of
parameters, ROC curve was estimated by true-positive rate
(sensitivity) and false-positive rate. sensitivity and false negative rate
(specificity) of ROC curve calculated, and ECG was analyzed using
cut-off value which was estimated from ROC curve. As a result, PVC
detecting algorithm of VCG geometric mean have high availability,
and PVC could be detected more accurately with amplitude and width
of QRS complex.
ECG Analysis using Nature Inspired Algorithm
This paper presents an algorithm based on the
wavelet decomposition, for feature extraction from the ECG signal
and recognition of three types of Ventricular Arrhythmias using
neural networks. A set of Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT)
coefficients, which contain the maximum information about the
arrhythmias, is selected from the wavelet decomposition. After that a
novel clustering algorithm based on nature inspired algorithm (Ant
Colony Optimization) is developed for classifying arrhythmia types.
The algorithm is applied on the ECG registrations from the MIT-BIH
arrhythmia and malignant ventricular arrhythmia databases. We
applied Daubechies 4 wavelet in our algorithm. The wavelet
decomposition enabled us to perform the task efficiently and
produced reliable results.
Web Server with Multi-Agent Support for Medical Practitioners by JADE Technology
The multi-agent system for processing Bio-signals
will help the medical practitioners to have a standard examination
procedure stored in web server. Web Servers supporting any standard
Search Engine follow all possible combinations of the search
keywords as an input by the user to a Search Engine. As a result, a
huge number of Web-pages are shown in the Web browser. It also
helps the medical practitioner to interact with the expert in the field
his need in order to make a proper judgment in the diagnosis phase
.A web server uses a web server plug in to establish and
maintained the medical practitioner to make a fast analysis. If the
user uses the web server client can get a related data requesting their
search. DB agent, EEG / ECG / EMG agents- user placed with
difficult aspects for updating medical information-s in web server.
Design of Medical Information Storage System – ECG Signal
This paper presents the design, implementation and
results related to the storage system of medical information
associated to the ECG (Electrocardiography) signal. The system
includes the signal acquisition modules, the preprocessing and signal
processing, followed by a module of transmission and reception of
the signal, along with the storage and web display system of the
medical platform. The tests were initially performed with this signal,
with the purpose to include more biosignal under the same system in
A Trainable Neural Network Ensemble for ECG Beat Classification
This paper illustrates the use of a combined neural
network model for classification of electrocardiogram (ECG) beats.
We present a trainable neural network ensemble approach to develop
customized electrocardiogram beat classifier in an effort to further
improve the performance of ECG processing and to offer
individualized health care.
We process a three stage technique for detection of premature
ventricular contraction (PVC) from normal beats and other heart
diseases. This method includes a denoising, a feature extraction and a
classification. At first we investigate the application of stationary
wavelet transform (SWT) for noise reduction of the
electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. Then feature extraction module
extracts 10 ECG morphological features and one timing interval
feature. Then a number of multilayer perceptrons (MLPs) neural
networks with different topologies are designed.
The performance of the different combination methods as well as
the efficiency of the whole system is presented. Among them,
Stacked Generalization as a proposed trainable combined neural
network model possesses the highest recognition rate of around 95%.
Therefore, this network proves to be a suitable candidate in ECG
signal diagnosis systems. ECG samples attributing to the different
ECG beat types were extracted from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia
database for the study.
A New Approach to ECG Biometric Systems: A Comparitive Study between LPC and WPD Systems
In this paper, a novel method for a biometric system based on the ECG signal is proposed, using spectral coefficients computed through linear predictive coding (LPC). ECG biometric systems have traditionally incorporated characteristics of fiducial points of the ECG signal as the feature set. These systems have been shown to contain loopholes and thus a non-fiducial system allows for tighter security. In the proposed system, incorporating non-fiducial features from the LPC spectrum produced a segment and subject recognition rate of 99.52% and 100% respectively. The recognition rates outperformed the biometric system that is based on the wavelet packet decomposition (WPD) algorithm in terms of recognition rates and computation time. This allows for LPC to be used in a practical ECG biometric system that requires fast, stringent and accurate recognition.
Comparison of the Parameter using ECG with Bisepctrum Parameter using EEG during General Anesthesia
The measurement of anesthetic depth is necessary in
anesthesiology. NN10 is very simple method among the RR intervals
analysis methods. NN10 parameter means the numbers of above the 10
ms intervals of the normal to normal RR intervals.
Bispectrum analysis is defined as 2D FFT. EEG signal reflected the
non-linear peristalsis phenomena according to the change brain
function. After analyzing the bispectrum of the 2 dimension, the most
significant power spectrum density peaks appeared abundantly at the
specific area in awakening and anesthesia state. These points are
utilized to create the new index since many peaks appeared at the
specific area in the frequency coordinate. The measured range of an
index was 0-100. An index is 20-50 at an anesthesia, while the index is
90-60 at the awake.
In this paper, the relation between NN10 parameter using ECG and
bisepctrum index using EEG is observed to estimate the depth of
anesthesia during anesthesia and then we estimated the utility of the
Atrial Fibrillation Analysis Based on Blind Source Separation in 12-lead ECG
Atrial Fibrillation is the most common sustained
arrhythmia encountered by clinicians. Because of the invisible
waveform of atrial fibrillation in atrial activation for human, it is
necessary to develop an automatic diagnosis system. 12-Lead ECG
now is available in hospital and is appropriate for using Independent
Component Analysis to estimate the AA period. In this research, we
also adopt a second-order blind identification approach to transform
the sources extracted by ICA to more precise signal and then we use
frequency domain algorithm to do the classification. In experiment,
we gather a significant result of clinical data.
A Novel Compression Algorithm for Electrocardiogram Signals based on Wavelet Transform and SPIHT
Electrocardiogram (ECG) data compression algorithm
is needed that will reduce the amount of data to be transmitted, stored
and analyzed, but without losing the clinical information content. A
wavelet ECG data codec based on the Set Partitioning In Hierarchical
Trees (SPIHT) compression algorithm is proposed in this paper. The
SPIHT algorithm has achieved notable success in still image coding.
We modified the algorithm for the one-dimensional (1-D) case and
applied it to compression of ECG data.
By this compression method, small percent root mean square
difference (PRD) and high compression ratio with low
implementation complexity are achieved. Experiments on selected
records from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database revealed that the
proposed codec is significantly more efficient in compression and in
computation than previously proposed ECG compression schemes.
Compression ratios of up to 48:1 for ECG signals lead to acceptable
results for visual inspection.
Robust Detection of R-Wave Using Wavelet Technique
Electrocardiogram (ECG) is considered to be the
backbone of cardiology. ECG is composed of P, QRS & T waves and
information related to cardiac diseases can be extracted from the
intervals and amplitudes of these waves. The first step in extracting
ECG features starts from the accurate detection of R peaks in the
QRS complex. We have developed a robust R wave detector using
wavelets. The wavelets used for detection are Daubechies and
Symmetric. The method does not require any preprocessing therefore,
only needs the ECG correct recordings while implementing the
detection. The database has been collected from MIT-BIH arrhythmia
database and the signals from Lead-II have been analyzed. MatLab
7.0 has been used to develop the algorithm. The ECG signal under
test has been decomposed to the required level using the selected
wavelet and the selection of detail coefficient d4 has been done based
on energy, frequency and cross-correlation analysis of decomposition
structure of ECG signal. The robustness of the method is apparent
from the obtained results.
A Combinatorial Model for ECG Interpretation
A new, combinatorial model for analyzing and inter-
preting an electrocardiogram (ECG) is presented. An application of
the model is QRS peak detection. This is demonstrated with an
online algorithm, which is shown to be space as well as time efficient.
Experimental results on the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database show that
this novel approach is promising. Further uses for this approach are
discussed, such as taking advantage of its small memory requirements
and interpreting large amounts of pre-recorded ECG data.
Extraction of Fetal Heart Rate and Fetal Heart Rate Variability from Mother's ECG Signal
This paper describes a new method for extracting the fetal heart rate (fHR) and the fetal heart rate variability (fHRV) signal non-invasively using abdominal maternal electrocardiogram (mECG) recordings. The extraction is based on the fundamental frequency (Fourier-s) theorem. The fundamental frequency of the mother-s electrocardiogram signal (fo-m) is calculated directly from the abdominal signal. The heart rate of the fetus is usually higher than that of the mother; as a result, the fundamental frequency of the fetal-s electrocardiogram signal (fo-f) is higher than that of the mother-s (fo-f > fo-m). Notch filters to suppress mother-s higher harmonics were designed; then a bandpass filter to target fo-f and reject fo-m is implemented. Although the bandpass filter will pass some other frequencies (harmonics), we have shown in this study that those harmonics are actually carried on fo-f, and thus have no impact on the evaluation of the beat-to-beat changes (RR intervals). The oscillations of the time-domain extracted signal represent the RR intervals. We have also shown in this study that zero-to-zero evaluation of the periods is more accurate than the peak-to-peak evaluation. This method is evaluated both on simulated signals and on different abdominal recordings obtained at different gestational ages.
Design and Simulation of Portable Telemedicine System for High Risk Cardiac Patients
Deaths from cardiovascular diseases have decreased substantially over the past two decades, largely as a result of advances in acute care and cardiac surgery. These developments have produced a growing population of patients who have survived a myocardial infarction. These patients need to be continuously monitored so that the initiation of treatment can be given within the crucial golden hour. The available conventional methods of monitoring mostly perform offline analysis and restrict the mobility of these patients within a hospital or room. Hence the aim of this paper is to design a Portable Cardiac Telemedicine System to aid the patients to regain their independence and return to an active work schedule, there by improving the psychological well being. The portable telemedicine system consists of a Wearable ECG Transmitter (WET) and a slightly modified mobile phone, which has an inbuilt ECG analyzer. The WET is placed on the body of the patient that continuously acquires the ECG signals from the high-risk cardiac patients who can move around anywhere. This WET transmits the ECG to the patient-s Bluetooth enabled mobile phone using blue tooth technology. The ECG analyzer inbuilt in the mobile phone continuously analyzes the heartbeats derived from the received ECG signals. In case of any panic condition, the mobile phone alerts the patients care taker by an SMS and initiates the transmission of a sample ECG signal to the doctor, via the mobile network.