Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 4

4
10003962
Viability of Eggshells Ash Affecting the Setting Time of Cement
Abstract:

This research paper reports on the feasibility and viability of eggshells ash and its effects on the water content and setting time of cement. An experiment was carried out to determine the quantity of water required in order to follow standard cement paste of normal consistency in accordance with MS EN 196-3:2007. The eggshells ash passing the 90µm sieve was used in the investigation. Eggshells ash with percentage of 0%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% were constituted to replace the cement. Chemical properties of both eggshells ash and cement are compared. From the results obtained, both eggshells ash and cement have the same chemical composition and primary composition which is the calcium compounds. Results from the setting time show that by adding the eggshells ash to the cement, the setting time of the cement decreases. In short, the higher amount of eggshells ash, the faster the rate of setting and apply to all percentage of eggshells ash that were used in this investigation. Both initial and final setting times fulfill the setting time requirements by Malaysian Standard. Hence, it is suggested that eggshells ash can be used as an admixture in concrete mix.

3
10003585
Continuous Fixed Bed Reactor Application for Decolourization of Textile Effluent by Adsorption on NaOH Treated Eggshell
Abstract:
Fixed bed adsorption has become a frequently used industrial application in wastewater treatment processes. Various low cost adsorbents have been studied for their applicability in treatment of different types of effluents. In this work, the intention of the study was to explore the efficacy and feasibility for azo dye, Acid Orange 7 (AO7) adsorption onto fixed bed column of NaOH Treated eggshell (TES). The effect of various parameters like flow rate, initial dye concentration, and bed height were exploited in this study. The studies confirmed that the breakthrough curves were dependent on flow rate, initial dye concentration solution of AO7 and bed depth. The Thomas, Yoon–Nelson, and Adams and Bohart models were analysed to evaluate the column adsorption performance. The adsorption capacity, rate constant and correlation coefficient associated to each model for column adsorption was calculated and mentioned. The column experimental data were fitted well with Thomas model with coefficients of correlation R2 ≥0.93 at different conditions but the Yoon–Nelson, BDST and Bohart–Adams model (R2=0.911), predicted poor performance of fixed-bed column. The (TES) was shown to be suitable adsorbent for adsorption of AO7 using fixed-bed adsorption column.
2
16583
Leatherback Turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) after Incubation Eggshell in Andaman Sea, Thailand Study: Microanalysis on Ultrastructure and Elemental Composition
Abstract:

There are few studies on eggshell of leatherback turtle which is endangered species in Thailand. This study was focusing on the ultrastructure and elemental composition of leatherback turtle eggshells collected from Andaman Sea Shore, Thailand during the nesting season using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Three eggshell layers of leatherback turtle; the outer cuticle layer or calcareous layer, the middle layer or middle multistrata layer and the inner fibrous layer were recognized. The outer calcareous layer was thick and porosity which consisted of loose nodular units of various crystal shapes and sizes. The loose attachment between these units resulted in numerous spaces and openings. The middle layer was compact thick with several multistrata and contained numerous openings connecting to both outer cuticle layer and inner fibrous layer. The inner fibrous layer was compact and thin, and composed of numerous reticular fibers. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis detector revealed energy spectrum of X-rays character emitted from all elements on each layer. The percentages of all elements were found in the following order: carbon (C) > oxygen (O) > calcium (Ca) > sulfur (S) > potassium (K) > aluminum (Al) > iodine (I) > silicon (Si) > chlorine (Cl) > sodium (Na) > fluorine (F) > phosphorus (P) > magnesium (Mg). Each layer consisted of high percentage of CaCO3 (approximately 98%) implying that it was essential for turtle embryonic development. A significant difference was found in the percentages of Ca and Mo in the 3layers. Moreover, transition metal, metal and toxic non-metal contaminations were found in leatherback turtle eggshell samples. These were palladium (Pd), molybdenum (Mo), copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), lead (Pb), and bromine (Br). The contamination elements were seen in the outer layers except for Mo. All elements were readily observed and mapped using Smiling program. X-ray images which mapped the location of all elements were showed. Calcium containing in the eggshell appeared in high contents and was widely distributing in clusters of the outer cuticle layer to form CaCO3 structure. Moreover, the accumulation of Na and Cl was observed to form NaCl which was widely distributing in 3 eggshell layers. The results from this study would be valuable on assessing the emergent success in this endangered species.

1
13720
Biomechanical Properties of Hen's Eggshell: Experimental Study and Numerical Modeling
Abstract:

In this article, biomechanical aspects of hen-s eggshell as a natural ceramic structure are studied. The images, taken by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), are used to investigate the microscopic aspects of the egg. It is observed that eggshell has a three-layered microstructure with different morphological and structural characteristics. Studies on the eggshell membrane (ESM) as a prosperous tissue suggest that it is placed to prevent the penetration of microorganisms into the egg. Finally, numerical models of the egg are presented to study the stress distribution and its deformation under different loading conditions. The effects of two different types of loading (hydrostatic and point loadings) on two different shell models (with constant and variable thicknesses) are investigated in detail.

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