An Attack on the Lucas Based El-Gamal Cryptosystem in the Elliptic Curve Group Over Finite Field Using Greater Common Divisor
Greater common divisor (GCD) attack is an attack that relies on the polynomial structure of the cryptosystem. This attack required two plaintexts differ from a fixed number and encrypted under same modulus. This paper reports a security reaction of Lucas Based El-Gamal Cryptosystem in the Elliptic Curve group over finite field under GCD attack. Lucas Based El-Gamal Cryptosystem in the Elliptic Curve group over finite field was exposed mathematically to the GCD attack using GCD and Dickson polynomial. The result shows that the cryptanalyst is able to get the plaintext without decryption by using GCD attack. Thus, the study concluded that it is highly perilous when two plaintexts have a slight difference from a fixed number in the same Elliptic curve group over finite field.
A Combined Cipher Text Policy Attribute-Based Encryption and Timed-Release Encryption Method for Securing Medical Data in Cloud
The biggest problem in cloud is securing an outsourcing data. A cloud environment cannot be considered to be trusted. It becomes more challenging when outsourced data sources are managed by multiple outsourcers with different access rights. Several methods have been proposed to protect data confidentiality against the cloud service provider to support fine-grained data access control. We propose a method with combined Cipher Text Policy Attribute-based Encryption (CP-ABE) and Timed-release encryption (TRE) secure method to control medical data storage in public cloud.
Fingerprint Image Encryption Using a 2D Chaotic Map and Elliptic Curve Cryptography
Fingerprints are suitable as long-term markers of human identity since they provide detailed and unique individual features which are difficult to alter and durable over life time. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to encrypt and decrypt fingerprint images by using a specially designed Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) procedure based on block ciphers. In addition, to increase the confusing effect of fingerprint encryption, we also utilize a chaotic-behaved method called Arnold Cat Map (ACM) for a 2D scrambling of pixel locations in our method. Experimental results are carried out with various types of efficiency and security analyses. As a result, we demonstrate that the proposed fingerprint encryption/decryption algorithm is advantageous in several different aspects including efficiency, security and flexibility. In particular, using this algorithm, we achieve a margin of about 0.1% in the test of Number of Pixel Changing Rate (NPCR) values comparing to the-state-of-the-art performances.
Strengthening Legal Protection of Personal Data through Technical Protection Regulation in Line with Human Rights
Indonesia recognizes the right to privacy as a human right. Indonesia provides legal protection against data management activities because the protection of personal data is a part of human rights. This paper aims to describe the arrangement of data management and data management in Indonesia. This paper is a descriptive research with qualitative approach and collecting data from literature study. Results of this paper are comprehensive arrangement of data that have been set up as a technical requirement of data protection by encryption methods. Arrangements on encryption and protection of personal data are mutually reinforcing arrangements in the protection of personal data. Indonesia has two important and immediately enacted laws that provide protection for the privacy of information that is part of human rights.
Use of Personal Rhythm to Authenticate Encrypted Messages
When communicating using private and secure keys, there is always the doubt as to the identity of the message creator. We introduce an algorithm that uses the personal typing rhythm (keystroke dynamics) of the message originator to increase the trust of the authenticity of the message originator by the message recipient. The methodology proposes the use of a Rhythm Certificate Authority (RCA) to validate rhythm information. An illustrative example of the communication between Bob and Alice and the RCA is included. An algorithm of how to communicate with the RCA is presented. This RCA can be an independent authority or an enhanced Certificate Authority like the one used in public key infrastructure (PKI).
Secure Hashing Algorithm and Advance Encryption Algorithm in Cloud Computing
Cloud computing is one of the most sharp and important movement in various computing technologies. It provides flexibility to users, cost effectiveness, location independence, easy maintenance, enables multitenancy, drastic performance improvements, and increased productivity. On the other hand, there are also major issues like security. Being a common server, security for a cloud is a major issue; it is important to provide security to protect user’s private data, and it is especially important in e-commerce and social networks. In this paper, encryption algorithms such as Advanced Encryption Standard algorithms, their vulnerabilities, risk of attacks, optimal time and complexity management and comparison with other algorithms based on software implementation is proposed. Encryption techniques to improve the performance of AES algorithms and to reduce risk management are given. Secure Hash Algorithms, their vulnerabilities, software implementations, risk of attacks and comparison with other hashing algorithms as well as the advantages and disadvantages between hashing techniques and encryption are given.
H.264 Video Privacy Protection Method Using Regions of Interest Encryption
Like a closed-circuit television (CCTV), video surveillance system is widely placed for gathering video from unspecified people to prevent crime, surveillance, or many other purposes. However, abuse of CCTV brings about concerns of personal privacy invasions. In this paper, we propose an encryption method to protect personal privacy system in H.264 compressed video bitstream with encrypting only regions of interest (ROI). There is no need to change the existing video surveillance system. In addition, encrypting ROI in compressed video bitstream is a challenging work due to spatial and temporal drift errors. For this reason, we propose a novel drift mitigation method when ROI is encrypted. The proposed method was implemented by using JM reference software based on the H.264 compressed videos, and experimental results show the verification of our proposed methods and its effectiveness.
Security Threats on Wireless Sensor Network Protocols
In this paper, we investigate security issues and challenges facing researchers in wireless sensor networks and countermeasures to resolve them. The broadcast nature of wireless communication makes Wireless Sensor Networks prone to various attacks. Due to resources limitation constraint in terms of limited energy, computation power and memory, security in wireless sensor networks creates different challenges than wired network security. We will discuss several attempts at addressing the issues of security in wireless sensor networks in an attempt to encourage more research into this area.
A Video Watermarking Algorithm Based on Chaotic and Wavelet Neural Network
This paper presented a video watermarking algorithm based on wavelet chaotic neural network. First, to enhance binary image’s security, the algorithm encrypted it with double chaotic based on Arnold and Logistic map, Then, the host video was divided into some equal frames and distilled the key frame through chaotic sequence which generated by Logistic. Meanwhile, we distilled the low frequency coefficients of luminance component and self-adaptively embedded the processed image watermark into the low frequency coefficients of the wavelet transformed luminance component with the wavelet neural network. The experimental result suggested that the presented algorithm has better invisibility and robustness against noise, Gaussian filter, rotation, frame loss and other attacks.
Maintaining User-Level Security in Short Message Service
Mobile phone has become as an essential thing in our life. Therefore, security is the most important thing to be considered in mobile communication. Short message service is the cheapest way of communication via the mobile phones. Therefore, security is very important in the short message service as well. This paper presents a method to maintain the security at user level. Different types of encryption methods are used to implement the user level security in mobile phones. Caesar cipher, Rail Fence, Vigenere cipher and RSA are used as encryption methods in this work. Caesar cipher and the Rail Fence methods are enhanced and implemented. The beauty in this work is that the user can select the encryption method and the key. Therefore, by changing the encryption method and the key time to time, the user can ensure the security of messages. By this work, while users can safely send/receive messages, they can save their information from unauthorised and unwanted people in their own mobile phone as well.
Radio Frequency Identification Encryption via Modified Two Dimensional Logistic Map
A modified two dimensional (2D) logistic map based on cross feedback control is proposed. This 2D map exhibits more random chaotic dynamical properties than the classic one dimensional (1D) logistic map in the statistical characteristics analysis. So it is utilized as the pseudo-random (PN) sequence generator, where the obtained real-valued PN sequence is quantized at first, then applied to radio frequency identification (RFID) communication system in this paper. This system is experimentally validated on a cortex-M0 development board, which shows the effectiveness in key generation, the size of key space and security. At last, further cryptanalysis is studied through the test suite in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
Security Analysis of SIMSec Protocol
Un-keyed SIM cards do not contain the required security infrastructure to provide end-to-end encryption with Service Providers. Hence, new, emerging, or smart services those require end-to-end encryption between SIM card and a Service Provider is impossible. SIMSec key exchange protocol creates symmetric keys between SIM card and Service Provider. After a successful protocol execution, SIM card and Service Provider creates the symmetric keys and can perform end-to-end data encryption when required. In this paper, our aim is to analyze the SIMSec protocol’s security. According to the results, SIM card and Service Provider can generate keys securely using SIMSec protocol.
Privacy of RFID Systems: Security of Personal Data for End-Users
Privacy of RFID systems is receiving increasing attention in the RFID community. RFID privacy is important as the RFID tags will be attached to all kinds of products and physical objects including people. The possible abuse or excessive use of RFID tracking capability by malicious users can lead to potential privacy violations. In this paper, we will discuss how the different industries use RFID and the potential privacy and security issues while RFID is implemented in these industries. Although RFID technology offers interesting services to customer and retailers, it could also endanger the privacy of end-users. Personal data can be leaked if a protection mechanism is not deployed in the RFID systems. The paper summarizes many different solutions for implementing privacy and security while deploying RFID systems.
Independent Encryption Technique for Mobile Voice Calls
The legality of some countries or agencies’ acts to spy
on personal phone calls of the public became a hot topic to many
social groups’ talks. It is believed that this act is considered an
invasion to someone’s privacy. Such act may be justified if it is
singling out specific cases but to spy without limits is very
unacceptable. This paper discusses the needs for not only a simple
and light weight technique to secure mobile voice calls but also a
technique that is independent from any encryption standard or library.
It then presents and tests one encrypting algorithm that is based of
Frequency scrambling technique to show fair and delay-free process
that can be used to protect phone calls from such spying acts.
Big Data Analytics and Data Security in the Cloud via Fully Homomorphic Encryption
This paper describes the problem of building secure
computational services for encrypted information in the Cloud
Computing without decrypting the encrypted data; therefore, it meets
the yearning of computational encryption algorithmic aspiration
model that could enhance the security of big data for privacy,
confidentiality, availability of the users. The cryptographic model
applied for the computational process of the encrypted data is the
Fully Homomorphic Encryption Scheme. We contribute a theoretical
presentations in a high-level computational processes that are based
on number theory and algebra that can easily be integrated and
leveraged in the Cloud computing with detail theoretic mathematical
concepts to the fully homomorphic encryption models. This
contribution enhances the full implementation of big data analytics
based cryptographic security algorithm.
Real-Time Image Encryption Using a 3D Discrete Dual Chaotic Cipher
In this paper, an encryption algorithm is proposed for real-time image encryption. The scheme employs a dual chaotic generator based on a three dimensional (3D) discrete Lorenz attractor. Encryption is achieved using non-autonomous modulation where the data is injected into the dynamics of the master chaotic generator. The second generator is used to permute the dynamics of the master generator using the same approach. Since the data stream can be regarded as a random source, the resulting permutations of the generator dynamics greatly increase the security of the transmitted signal. In addition, a technique is proposed to mitigate the error propagation due to the finite precision arithmetic of digital hardware. In particular, truncation and rounding errors are eliminated by employing an integer representation of the data which can easily be implemented. The simple hardware architecture of the algorithm makes it suitable for secure real-time applications.
Searchable Encryption in Cloud Storage
Cloud outsource storage is one of important services in cloud computing. Cloud users upload data to cloud servers to reduce the cost of managing data and maintaining hardware and software. To ensure data confidentiality, users can encrypt their files before uploading them to a cloud system. However, retrieving the target file from the encrypted files exactly is difficult for cloud server. This study proposes a protocol for performing multikeyword searches for encrypted cloud data by applying k-nearest neighbor technology. The protocol ranks the relevance scores of encrypted files and keywords, and prevents cloud servers from learning search keywords submitted by a cloud user. To reduce the costs of file transfer communication, the cloud server returns encrypted files in order of relevance. Moreover, when a cloud user inputs an incorrect keyword and the number of wrong alphabet does not exceed a given threshold; the user still can retrieve the target files from cloud server. In addition, the proposed scheme satisfies security requirements for outsourced data storage.
Gray Level Image Encryption
The aim of this paper is image encryption using Genetic Algorithm (GA). The proposed encryption method consists of two phases. In modification phase, pixels locations are altered to reduce correlation among adjacent pixels. Then, pixels values are changed in the diffusion phase to encrypt the input image. Both phases are performed by GA with binary chromosomes. For modification phase, these binary patterns are generated by Local Binary Pattern (LBP) operator while for diffusion phase binary chromosomes are obtained by Bit Plane Slicing (BPS). Initial population in GA includes rows and columns of the input image. Instead of subjective selection of parents from this initial population, a random generator with predefined key is utilized. It is necessary to decrypt the coded image and reconstruct the initial input image. Fitness function is defined as average of transition from 0 to 1 in LBP image and histogram uniformity in modification and diffusion phases, respectively. Randomness of the encrypted image is measured by entropy, correlation coefficients and histogram analysis. Experimental results show that the proposed method is fast enough and can be used effectively for image encryption.
Calculus Logarithmic Function for Image Encryption
When we prefer to make the data secure from various attacks and fore integrity of data, we must encrypt the data before it is transmitted or stored. This paper introduces a new effective and lossless image encryption algorithm using a natural logarithmic function. The new algorithm encrypts an image through a three stage process. In the first stage, a reference natural logarithmic function is generated as the foundation for the encryption image. The image numeral matrix is then analyzed to five integer numbers, and then the numbers’ positions are transformed to matrices. The advantages of this method is useful for efficiently encrypting a variety of digital images, such as binary images, gray images, and RGB images without any quality loss. The principles of the presented scheme could be applied to provide complexity and then security for a variety of data systems such as image and others.
Cloud Computing Cryptography "State-of-the-Art"
Cloud computing technology is very useful in present day to day life, it uses the internet and the central remote servers to provide and maintain data as well as applications. Such applications in turn can be used by the end users via the cloud communications without any installation. Moreover, the end users’ data files can be accessed and manipulated from any other computer using the internet services. Despite the flexibility of data and application accessing and usage that cloud computing environments provide, there are many questions still coming up on how to gain a trusted environment that protect data and applications in clouds from hackers and intruders. This paper surveys the “keys generation and management” mechanism and encryption/decryption algorithms used in cloud computing environments, we proposed new security architecture for cloud computing environment that considers the various security gaps as much as possible. A new cryptographic environment that implements quantum mechanics in order to gain more trusted with less computation cloud communications is given.
Digital Image Encryption Scheme using Chaotic Sequences with a Nonlinear Function
In this study, a system of encryption based on chaotic
sequences is described. The system is used for encrypting digital
image data for the purpose of secure image transmission. An image
secure communication scheme based on Logistic map chaotic
sequences with a nonlinear function is proposed in this paper.
Encryption and decryption keys are obtained by one-dimensional
Logistic map that generates secret key for the input of the nonlinear
function. Receiver can recover the information using the received
signal and identical key sequences through the inverse system
technique. The results of computer simulations indicate that the
transmitted source image can be correctly and reliably recovered by
using proposed scheme even under the noisy channel. The
performance of the system will be discussed through evaluating the
quality of recovered image with and without channel noise.
A Survey on Principal Aspects of Secure Image Transmission
This paper is a review on the aspects and approaches of design an image cryptosystem. First a general introduction given for cryptography and images encryption and followed by different techniques in image encryption and related works for each technique surveyed. Finally, general security analysis methods for encrypted images are mentioned.
Implementation of Security Algorithms for u-Health Monitoring System
Data security in u-Health system can be an important
issue because wireless network is vulnerable to hacking. However, it is
not easy to implement a proper security algorithm in an embedded
u-health monitoring because of hardware constraints such as low
performance, power consumption and limited memory size and etc. To
secure data that contain personal and biosignal information, we
implemented several security algorithms such as Blowfish, data
encryption standard (DES), advanced encryption standard (AES) and
Rivest Cipher 4 (RC4) for our u-Health monitoring system and the
results were successful. Under the same experimental conditions, we
compared these algorithms. RC4 had the fastest execution time.
Memory usage was the most efficient for DES. However, considering
performance and safety capability, however, we concluded that AES
was the most appropriate algorithm for a personal u-Health monitoring
A Robust Data Hiding Technique based on LSB Matching
Many researchers are working on information hiding
techniques using different ideas and areas to hide their secrete data.
This paper introduces a robust technique of hiding secret data in
image based on LSB insertion and RSA encryption technique. The
key of the proposed technique is to encrypt the secret data. Then the
encrypted data will be converted into a bit stream and divided it into
number of segments. However, the cover image will also be divided
into the same number of segments. Each segment of data will be
compared with each segment of image to find the best match
segment, in order to create a new random sequence of segments to be
inserted then in a cover image. Experimental results show that the
proposed technique has a high security level and produced better
A Semi- One Time Pad Using Blind Source Separation for Speech Encryption
We propose a new perspective on speech
communication using blind source separation. The original speech is
mixed with key signals which consist of the mixing matrix, chaotic
signals and a random noise. However, parts of the keys (the mixing
matrix and the random noise) are not necessary in decryption. In
practice implement, one can encrypt the speech by changing the noise
signal every time. Hence, the present scheme obtains the advantages
of a One Time Pad encryption while avoiding its drawbacks in key
exchange. It is demonstrated that the proposed scheme is immune
against traditional attacks.
A New Approach of Wireless Network Traffic on VPN
This work presents a new approach of securing a
wireless network. The configuration is focused on securing &
Protecting wireless network traffic for a small network such as a
home or dorm room. The security Mechanism provided both
authentication, allowing only known authorized users access to the
wireless network, and encryption, preventing anyone from reading
the wireless traffic. The mentioned solution utilizes the open source
free S/WAN software which implements the Internet Protocol
Security –IPSEC. In addition to wireless components, wireless NIC
in PC and wireless access point needs a machine running Linux to act
as security gateway. While the current configuration assumes that the
wireless PC clients are running Linux, Windows XP/VISTA/7 based
machines equipped with VPN software which will allow to interface
with this configuration.
Study of Effect of Removal of Shiftrows and Mixcolumns Stages of AES and AES-KDS on their Encryption Quality and Hence Security
This paper demonstrates the results when either
Shiftrows stage or Mixcolumns stage and when both the stages are
omitted in the well known block cipher Advanced Encryption
Standard(AES) and its modified version AES with Key Dependent
S-box(AES-KDS), using avalanche criterion and other tests namely
encryption quality, correlation coefficient, histogram analysis and
key sensitivity tests.
A NXM Version of 5X5 Playfair Cipher for any Natural Language (Urdu as Special Case)
In this paper a modified version NXM of traditional 5X5 playfair cipher is introduced which enable the user to encrypt message of any Natural language by taking appropriate size of the matrix depending upon the size of the natural language. 5X5 matrix has the capability of storing only 26 characters of English language and unable to store characters of any language having more than 26 characters. To overcome this limitation NXM matrix is introduced which solve this limitation. In this paper a special case of Urdu language is discussed. Where # is used for completing odd pair and * is used for repeating letters.
Visual Cryptography by Random Grids with Identifiable Shares
This paper proposes a visual cryptography by random
grids scheme with identifiable shares. The method encodes an image
O in two shares that exhibits the following features: (1) each generated
share has the same scale as O, (2) any share singly has noise-like
appearance that reveals no secret information on O, (3) the secrets can
be revealed by superimposing the two shares, (4) folding a share up
can disclose some identification patterns, and (5) both of the secret
information and the designated identification patterns are recognized
by naked eye without any computation. The property to show up
identification patterns on folded shares establishes a simple and
friendly interface for users to manage the numerous shares created by
New DES based on Elliptic Curves
It is known that symmetric encryption algorithms are
fast and easy to implement in hardware. Also elliptic curves have
proved to be a good choice for building encryption system. Although
most of the symmetric systems have been broken, we can create a
hybrid system that has the same properties of the symmetric
encryption systems and in the same time, it has the strength of
elliptic curves in encryption. As DES algorithm is considered the
core of all successive symmetric encryption systems, we modified
DES using elliptic curves and built a new DES algorithm that is hard
to be broken and will be the core for all other symmetric systems.