Pareidolia and Perception of Anger in Vehicle Styles: Survey Results
Most people see human faces in car front and back ends because of the process of pareidolia. 96 people were surveyed to see how many of them saw a face in the vehicle styling. Participants were aged 18 to 72 years. 94% of the participants saw faces in the front-end design of production models. All participants that recognized faces indicated that most styles showed some degree of an angry expression. It was found that women were more likely to see faces in inanimate objects. However, with respect to whether women were more likely to perceive anger in the vehicle design, the results need further clarification. Survey responses were correlated to the design features of vehicles to determine what cues the respondents were likely looking at when responding. Whether the features looked anthropomorphic was key to anger perception. Features such as the headlights which could represent eyes and the air intake that could represent a mouth had high correlations to trends in scores. Results are compared among models, makers, by groupings of body styles classifications for the top 12 brands sold in the US, and by year for the top 20 models sold in the US in 2016. All of the top models sold increased in perception of an angry expression over the last 20 years or since the model was introduced, but the relative change varied by body style grouping.
Burnout Recognition for Call Center Agents by Using Skin Color Detection with Hand Poses
Call centers have been expanding and they have influence on activation in various markets increasingly. A call center’s work is known as one of the most demanding and stressful jobs. In this paper, we propose the fatigue detection system in order to detect burnout of call center agents in the case of a neck pain and upper back pain. Our proposed system is based on the computer vision technique combined skin color detection with the Viola-Jones object detector. To recognize the gesture of hand poses caused by stress sign, the YCbCr color space is used to detect the skin color region including face and hand poses around the area related to neck ache and upper back pain. A cascade of clarifiers by Viola-Jones is used for face recognition to extract from the skin color region. The detection of hand poses is given by the evaluation of neck pain and upper back pain by using skin color detection and face recognition method. The system performance is evaluated using two groups of dataset created in the laboratory to simulate call center environment. Our call center agent burnout detection system has been implemented by using a web camera and has been processed by MATLAB. From the experimental results, our system achieved 96.3% for upper back pain detection and 94.2% for neck pain detection.
Facial Recognition on the Basis of Facial Fragments
There are many articles that attempt to establish the role of different facial fragments in face recognition. Various approaches are used to estimate this role. Frequently, authors calculate the entropy corresponding to the fragment. This approach can only give approximate estimation. In this paper, we propose to use a more direct measure of the importance of different fragments for face recognition. We propose to select a recognition method and a face database and experimentally investigate the recognition rate using different fragments of faces. We present two such experiments in the paper. We selected the PCNC neural classifier as a method for face recognition and parts of the LFW (Labeled Faces in the Wild) face database as training and testing sets. The recognition rate of the best experiment is comparable with the recognition rate obtained using the whole face.
A Survey on Facial Feature Points Detection Techniques and Approaches
Automatic detection of facial feature points plays
an important role in applications such as facial feature tracking,
human-machine interaction and face recognition. The majority of
facial feature points detection methods using two-dimensional or
three-dimensional data are covered in existing survey papers. In
this article chosen approaches to the facial features detection have
been gathered and described. This overview focuses on the class
of researches exploiting facial feature points detection to represent
facial surface for two-dimensional or three-dimensional face. In
the conclusion, we discusses advantages and disadvantages of the
2.5D Face Recognition Using Gabor Discrete Cosine Transform
In this paper, we present a novel 2.5D face recognition method based on Gabor Discrete Cosine Transform (GDCT). In the proposed method, the Gabor filter is applied to extract feature vectors from the texture and the depth information. Then, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is used for dimensionality and redundancy reduction to improve computational efficiency. The system is combined texture and depth information in the decision level, which presents higher performance compared to methods, which use texture and depth information, separately. The proposed algorithm is examined on publically available Bosphorus database including models with pose variation. The experimental results show that the proposed method has a higher performance compared to the benchmark.
An Improved Face Recognition Algorithm Using Histogram-Based Features in Spatial and Frequency Domains
In this paper, we propose an improved face recognition algorithm using histogram-based features in spatial and frequency domains. For adding spatial information of the face to improve recognition performance, a region-division (RD) method is utilized. The facial area is firstly divided into several regions, then feature vectors of each facial part are generated by Binary Vector Quantization (BVQ) histogram using DCT coefficients in low frequency domains, as well as Local Binary Pattern (LBP) histogram in spatial domain. Recognition results with different regions are first obtained separately and then fused by weighted averaging. Publicly available ORL database is used for the evaluation of our proposed algorithm, which is consisted of 40 subjects with 10 images per subject containing variations in lighting, posing, and expressions. It is demonstrated that face recognition using RD method can achieve much higher recognition rate.
Extended Set of DCT-TPLBP and DCT-FPLBP for Face Recognition
In this paper, we describe an application for face
recognition. Many studies have used local descriptors to characterize
a face, the performance of these local descriptors remain low by
global descriptors (working on the entire image). The application of
local descriptors (cutting image into blocks) must be able to store
both the advantages of global and local methods in the Discrete
Cosine Transform (DCT) domain. This system uses neural network
techniques. The letter method provides a good compromise between
the two approaches in terms of simplifying of calculation and
classifying performance. Finally, we compare our results with those
obtained from other local and global conventional approaches.
Face Recognition Using Discrete Orthogonal Hahn Moments
One of the most critical decision points in the design of a
face recognition system is the choice of an appropriate face representation.
Effective feature descriptors are expected to convey sufficient, invariant
and non-redundant facial information. In this work we propose a set of
Hahn moments as a new approach for feature description. Hahn moments
have been widely used in image analysis due to their invariance, nonredundancy
and the ability to extract features either globally and locally.
To assess the applicability of Hahn moments to Face Recognition we
conduct two experiments on the Olivetti Research Laboratory (ORL)
database and University of Notre-Dame (UND) X1 biometric collection.
Fusion of the global features along with the features from local facial
regions are used as an input for the conventional k-NN classifier. The
method reaches an accuracy of 93% of correctly recognized subjects for
the ORL database and 94% for the UND database.
Methods of Geodesic Distance in Two-Dimensional Face Recognition
In this paper, we present a comparative study of three
methods of 2D face recognition system such as: Iso-Geodesic Curves
(IGC), Geodesic Distance (GD) and Geodesic-Intensity Histogram
(GIH). These approaches are based on computing of geodesic
distance between points of facial surface and between facial curves.
In this study we represented the image at gray level as a 2D surface in
a 3D space, with the third coordinate proportional to the intensity
values of pixels. In the classifying step, we use: Neural Networks
(NN), K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and Support Vector Machines
(SVM). The images used in our experiments are from two wellknown
databases of face images ORL and YaleB. ORL data base was
used to evaluate the performance of methods under conditions where
the pose and sample size are varied, and the database YaleB was used
to examine the performance of the systems when the facial
expressions and lighting are varied.
Local Spectrum Feature Extraction for Face Recognition
This paper presents two techniques, local feature
extraction using image spectrum and low frequency spectrum
modelling using GMM to capture the underlying statistical
information to improve the performance of face recognition
system. Local spectrum features are extracted using overlap sub
block window that are mapped on the face image. For each of this
block, spatial domain is transformed to frequency domain using
DFT. A low frequency coefficient is preserved by discarding high
frequency coefficients by applying rectangular mask on the
spectrum of the facial image. Low frequency information is non-
Gaussian in the feature space and by using combination of several
Gaussian functions that has different statistical properties, the best
feature representation can be modelled using probability density
function. The recognition process is performed using maximum
likelihood value computed using pre-calculated GMM components.
The method is tested using FERET datasets and is able to achieved
92% recognition rates.
Quantitative Analysis of PCA, ICA, LDA and SVM in Face Recognition
Face recognition is a technique to automatically
identify or verify individuals. It receives great attention in
identification, authentication, security and many more applications.
Diverse methods had been proposed for this purpose and also a lot of
comparative studies were performed. However, researchers could not
reach unified conclusion. In this paper, we are reporting an extensive
quantitative accuracy analysis of four most widely used face
recognition algorithms: Principal Component Analysis (PCA),
Independent Component Analysis (ICA), Linear Discriminant
Analysis (LDA) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) using AT&T,
Sheffield and Bangladeshi people face databases under diverse
situations such as illumination, alignment and pose variations.
Enhanced Face Recognition with Daisy Descriptors Using 1BT Based Registration
In this paper, it is proposed to improve Daisy Descriptor based face recognition using a novel One-Bit Transform (1BT) based pre-registration approach. The 1BT based pre-registration procedure is fast and has low computational complexity. It is shown that the face recognition accuracy is improved with the proposed approach. The proposed approach can facilitate highly accurate face recognition using DAISY descriptor with simple matching and thereby facilitate a low-complexity approach.
Face Recognition Based On Vector Quantization Using Fuzzy Neuro Clustering
A face recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame. A lot of algorithms have been proposed for face recognition. Vector Quantization (VQ) based face recognition is a novel approach for face recognition. Here a new codebook generation for VQ based face recognition using Integrated Adaptive Fuzzy Clustering (IAFC) is proposed. IAFC is a fuzzy neural network which incorporates a fuzzy learning rule into a competitive neural network. The performance of proposed algorithm is demonstrated by using publicly available AT&T database, Yale database, Indian Face database and a small face database, DCSKU database created in our lab. In all the databases the proposed approach got a higher recognition rate than most of the existing methods. In terms of Equal Error Rate (ERR) also the proposed codebook is better than the existing methods.
Video-Based Face Recognition Based On State-Space Model
This paper proposes a video-based framework for face recognition to identify which faces appear in a video sequence. Our basic idea is like a tracking task - to track a selection of person candidates over time according to the observing visual features of face images in video frames. Hence, we employ the state-space model to formulate video-based face recognition by dividing this problem into two parts: the likelihood and the transition measures. The likelihood measure is to recognize whose face is currently being observed in video frames, for which two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis is employed. The transition measure estimates the probability of changing from an incorrect recognition at the previous stage to the correct person at the current stage. Moreover, extra nodes associated with head nodes are incorporated into our proposed state-space model. The experimental results are also provided to demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of our proposed approach.
Normalization Discriminant Independent Component Analysis
In face recognition, feature extraction techniques
attempts to search for appropriate representation of the data. However,
when the feature dimension is larger than the samples size, it brings
performance degradation. Hence, we propose a method called
Normalization Discriminant Independent Component Analysis
(NDICA). The input data will be regularized to obtain the most
reliable features from the data and processed using Independent
Component Analysis (ICA). The proposed method is evaluated on
three face databases, Olivetti Research Ltd (ORL), Face Recognition
Technology (FERET) and Face Recognition Grand Challenge
(FRGC). NDICA showed it effectiveness compared with other
unsupervised and supervised techniques.
Face Localization and Recognition in Varied Expressions and Illumination
In this paper, we propose a robust scheme to work face alignment and recognition under various influences. For face representation, illumination influence and variable expressions are the important factors, especially the accuracy of facial localization and face recognition. In order to solve those of factors, we propose a robust approach to overcome these problems. This approach consists of two phases. One phase is preprocessed for face images by means of the proposed illumination normalization method. The location of facial features can fit more efficient and fast based on the proposed image blending. On the other hand, based on template matching, we further improve the active shape models (called as IASM) to locate the face shape more precise which can gain the recognized rate in the next phase. The other phase is to process feature extraction by using principal component analysis and face recognition by using support vector machine classifiers. The results show that this proposed method can obtain good facial localization and face recognition with varied illumination and local distortion.
Neural Network Based Approach for Face Detection cum Face Recognition
Automatic face detection is a complex problem in
image processing. Many methods exist to solve this problem such as
template matching, Fisher Linear Discriminate, Neural Networks,
SVM, and MRC. Success has been achieved with each method to
varying degrees and complexities. In proposed algorithm we used
upright, frontal faces for single gray scale images with decent
resolution and under good lighting condition. In the field of face
recognition technique the single face is matched with single face
from the training dataset. The author proposed a neural network
based face detection algorithm from the photographs as well as if any
test data appears it check from the online scanned training dataset.
Experimental result shows that the algorithm detected up to 95%
accuracy for any image.
Face Recognition using a Kernelization of Graph Embedding
Linearization of graph embedding has been emerged
as an effective dimensionality reduction technique in pattern
recognition. However, it may not be optimal for nonlinearly
distributed real world data, such as face, due to its linear nature. So, a
kernelization of graph embedding is proposed as a dimensionality
reduction technique in face recognition. In order to further boost the
recognition capability of the proposed technique, the Fisher-s
criterion is opted in the objective function for better data
discrimination. The proposed technique is able to characterize the
underlying intra-class structure as well as the inter-class separability.
Experimental results on FRGC database validate the effectiveness of
the proposed technique as a feature descriptor.
Assessment of Time-Lapse in Visible and Thermal Face Recognition
Although face recognition seems as an easy task for
human, automatic face recognition is a much more challenging task
due to variations in time, illumination and pose. In this paper, the
influence of time-lapse on visible and thermal images is examined.
Orthogonal moment invariants are used as a feature extractor to
analyze the effect of time-lapse on thermal and visible images and the
results are compared with conventional Principal Component
Analysis (PCA). A new triangle square ratio criterion is employed
instead of Euclidean distance to enhance the performance of nearest
neighbor classifier. The results of this study indicate that the ideal
feature vectors can be represented with high discrimination power
due to the global characteristic of orthogonal moment invariants.
Moreover, the effect of time-lapse has been decreasing and enhancing
the accuracy of face recognition considerably in comparison with
PCA. Furthermore, our experimental results based on moment
invariant and triangle square ratio criterion show that the proposed
approach achieves on average 13.6% higher in recognition rate than
Face Recognition using Features Combination and a New Non-linear Kernel
To improve the classification rate of the face
recognition, features combination and a novel non-linear kernel are
proposed. The feature vector concatenates three different radius of
local binary patterns and Gabor wavelet features. Gabor features are
the mean, standard deviation and the skew of each scaling and
orientation parameter. The aim of the new kernel is to incorporate
the power of the kernel methods with the optimal balance between
the features. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method,
numerous methods are tested by using four datasets, which are
consisting of various emotions, orientations, configuration,
expressions and lighting conditions. Empirical results show the
superiority of the proposed technique when compared to other
Face Recognition with PCA and KPCA using Elman Neural Network and SVM
In this paper, in order to categorize ORL database face
pictures, principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Kernel Principal
Component Analysis (KPCA) methods by using Elman neural
network and Support Vector Machine (SVM) categorization methods
are used. Elman network as a recurrent neural network is proposed
for modeling storage systems and also it is used for reviewing the
effect of using PCA numbers on system categorization precision rate
and database pictures categorization time. Categorization stages are
conducted with various components numbers and the obtained results
of both Elman neural network categorization and support vector
machine are compared. In optimum manner 97.41% recognition
accuracy is obtained.
Low Resolution Face Recognition Using Mixture of Experts
Human activity is a major concern in a wide variety of
applications, such as video surveillance, human computer interface
and face image database management. Detecting and recognizing
faces is a crucial step in these applications. Furthermore, major
advancements and initiatives in security applications in the past years
have propelled face recognition technology into the spotlight. The
performance of existing face recognition systems declines significantly
if the resolution of the face image falls below a certain level.
This is especially critical in surveillance imagery where often, due to
many reasons, only low-resolution video of faces is available. If these
low-resolution images are passed to a face recognition system, the
performance is usually unacceptable. Hence, resolution plays a key
role in face recognition systems. In this paper we introduce a new
low resolution face recognition system based on mixture of expert
neural networks. In order to produce the low resolution input images
we down-sampled the 48 × 48 ORL images to 12 × 12 ones using
the nearest neighbor interpolation method and after that applying
the bicubic interpolation method yields enhanced images which is
given to the Principal Component Analysis feature extractor system.
Comparison with some of the most related methods indicates that
the proposed novel model yields excellent recognition rate in low
resolution face recognition that is the recognition rate of 100% for
the training set and 96.5% for the test set.
Face Texture Reconstruction for Illumination Variant Face Recognition
In illumination variant face recognition, existing
methods extracting face albedo as light normalized image may lead to
loss of extensive facial details, with light template discarded. To
improve that, a novel approach for realistic facial texture
reconstruction by combining original image and albedo image is
proposed. First, light subspaces of different identities are established
from the given reference face images; then by projecting the original
and albedo image into each light subspace respectively, texture
reference images with corresponding lighting are reconstructed and
two texture subspaces are formed. According to the projections in
texture subspaces, facial texture with normal light can be synthesized.
Due to the combination of original image, facial details can be
preserved with face albedo. In addition, image partition is applied to
improve the synthesization performance. Experiments on Yale B and
CMUPIE databases demonstrate that this algorithm outperforms the
others both in image representation and in face recognition.
Face Detection in Color Images using Color Features of Skin
Because of increasing demands for security in today-s
society and also due to paying much more attention to machine
vision, biometric researches, pattern recognition and data retrieval in
color images, face detection has got more application. In this article
we present a scientific approach for modeling human skin color, and
also offer an algorithm that tries to detect faces within color images
by combination of skin features and determined threshold in the
model. Proposed model is based on statistical data in different color
spaces. Offered algorithm, using some specified color threshold, first,
divides image pixels into two groups: skin pixel group and non-skin
pixel group and then based on some geometric features of face
decides which area belongs to face.
Two main results that we received from this research are as follow:
first, proposed model can be applied easily on different databases and
color spaces to establish proper threshold. Second, our algorithm can
adapt itself with runtime condition and its results demonstrate
desirable progress in comparison with similar cases.
Non-negative Principal Component Analysis for Face Recognition
Principle component analysis is often combined with
the state-of-art classification algorithms to recognize human faces.
However, principle component analysis can only capture these
features contributing to the global characteristics of data because it is a
global feature selection algorithm. It misses those features
contributing to the local characteristics of data because each principal
component only contains some levels of global characteristics of data.
In this study, we present a novel face recognition approach using
non-negative principal component analysis which is added with the
constraint of non-negative to improve data locality and contribute to
elucidating latent data structures. Experiments are performed on the
Cambridge ORL face database. We demonstrate the strong
performances of the algorithm in recognizing human faces in
comparison with PCA and NREMF approaches.
Mobile to Server Face Recognition: A System Overview
This paper presents a system overview of Mobile to Server Face Recognition, which is a face recognition application developed specifically for mobile phones. Images taken from mobile phone cameras lack of quality due to the low resolution of the cameras. Thus, a prototype is developed to experiment the chosen method. However, this paper shows a result of system backbone without the face recognition functionality. The result demonstrated in this paper indicates that the interaction between mobile phones and server is successfully working. The result shown before the database is completely ready. The system testing is currently going on using real images and a mock-up database to test the functionality of the face recognition algorithm used in this system. An overview of the whole system including screenshots and system flow-chart are presented in this paper. This paper also presents the inspiration or motivation and the justification in developing this system.
A New Biologically Inspired Pattern Recognition Spproach for Face Recognition
This paper reports a new pattern recognition approach for face recognition. The biological model of light receptors - cones and rods in human eyes and the way they are associated with pattern vision in human vision forms the basis of this approach. The functional model is simulated using CWD and WPD. The paper also discusses the experiments performed for face recognition using the features extracted from images in the AT & T face database. Artificial Neural Network and k- Nearest Neighbour classifier algorithms are employed for the recognition purpose. A feature vector is formed for each of the face images in the database and recognition accuracies are computed and compared using the classifiers. Simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms traditional way of feature extraction methods prevailing for pattern recognition in terms of recognition accuracy for face images with pose and illumination variations.
3D Face Recognition Using Modified PCA Methods
In this paper we present an approach for 3D face
recognition based on extracting principal components of range
images by utilizing modified PCA methods namely 2DPCA and
bidirectional 2DPCA also known as (2D) 2 PCA.A preprocessing
stage was implemented on the images to smooth them using median
and Gaussian filtering. In the normalization stage we locate the nose
tip to lay it at the center of images then crop each image to a standard
size of 100*100. In the face recognition stage we extract the principal
component of each image using both 2DPCA and (2D) 2 PCA.
Finally, we use Euclidean distance to measure the minimum distance
between a given test image to the training images in the database. We
also compare the result of using both methods. The best result
achieved by experiments on a public face database shows that 83.3
percent is the rate of face recognition for a random facial expression.
Probabilistic Bayesian Framework for Infrared Face Recognition
Face recognition in the infrared spectrum has attracted a lot of interest in recent years. Many of the techniques used in infrared are based on their visible counterpart, especially linear techniques like PCA and LDA. In this work, we introduce a probabilistic Bayesian framework for face recognition in the infrared spectrum. In the infrared spectrum, variations can occur between face images of the same individual due to pose, metabolic, time changes, etc. Bayesian approaches permit to reduce intrapersonal variation, thus making them very interesting for infrared face recognition. This framework is compared with classical linear techniques. Non linear techniques we developed recently for infrared face recognition are also presented and compared to the Bayesian face recognition framework. A new approach for infrared face extraction based on SVM is introduced. Experimental results show that the Bayesian technique is promising and lead to interesting results in the infrared spectrum when a sufficient number of face images is used in an intrapersonal learning process.
Video-based Face Recognition: A Survey
During the past several years, face recognition in video
has received significant attention. Not only the wide range of
commercial and law enforcement applications, but also the availability
of feasible technologies after several decades of research contributes
to the trend. Although current face recognition systems have reached a
certain level of maturity, their development is still limited by the
conditions brought about by many real applications. For example,
recognition images of video sequence acquired in an open
environment with changes in illumination and/or pose and/or facial
occlusion and/or low resolution of acquired image remains a largely
unsolved problem. In other words, current algorithms are yet to be
developed. This paper provides an up-to-date survey of video-based
face recognition research. To present a comprehensive survey, we
categorize existing video based recognition approaches and present
detailed descriptions of representative methods within each category.
In addition, relevant topics such as real time detection, real time
tracking for video, issues such as illumination, pose, 3D and low
resolution are covered.