Forced Vibration of a Fiber Metal Laminated Beam Containing a Delamination
Forced vibration problem of a delaminated beam made of fiber metal laminates is studied in this paper. Firstly, a delamination is considered to divide the beam into four sections. The classic beam theory is assumed to dominate each section. The layers on two sides of the delamination are constrained to have the same deflection. This hypothesis approves the conditions of compatibility as well. Consequently, dynamic response of the beam is obtained by the means of differential transform method (DTM). In order to verify the correctness of the results, a model is constructed using commercial software ABAQUS 6.14. A linear spring with constant stiffness takes the effect of contact between delaminated layers into account. The attained semi-analytical outcomes are in great agreement with finite element analysis.
Reliability Analysis for Cyclic Fatigue Life Prediction in Railroad Bolt Hole
Bolted rail joint is one of the most vulnerable areas in railway track. A comprehensive approach was developed for studying the reliability of fatigue crack initiation of railroad bolt hole under random axle loads and random material properties. The operation condition was also considered as stochastic variables. In order to obtain the comprehensive probability model of fatigue crack initiation life prediction in railroad bolt hole, we used FEM, response surface method (RSM), and reliability analysis. Combined energy-density based and critical plane based fatigue concept is used for the fatigue crack prediction. The dynamic loads were calculated according to the axle load, speed, and track properties. The results show that axle load is most sensitive parameter compared to Poisson’s ratio in fatigue crack initiation life. Also, the reliability index decreases slowly due to high cycle fatigue regime in this area.
Finite Element Modeling of Stockbridge Damper and Vibration Analysis: Equivalent Cable Stiffness
Aeolian vibrations are the major cause for the
failure of conductor cables. Using a Stockbridge damper reduces
these vibrations and increases the life span of the conductor
cable. Designing an efficient Stockbridge damper that suits the
conductor cable requires a robust mathematical model with minimum
assumptions. However it is not easy to analytically model the complex
geometry of the messenger. Therefore an equivalent stiffness must be
determined so that it can be used in the analytical model. This paper
examines the bending stiffness of the cable and discusses the effect
of this stiffness on the natural frequencies. The obtained equivalent
stiffness compensates for the assumption of modeling the messenger
as a rod. The results from the free vibration analysis of the analytical
model with the equivalent stiffness is validated using the full scale
finite element model of the Stockbridge damper.
Modeling and Simulation of Honeycomb Steel Sandwich Panels under Blast Loading
Honeycomb sandwich panels have been widely used as protective structural elements against blast loading. The main advantages of these panels include their light weight due to the presence of voids, as well as their energy absorption capability. Terrorist activities have imposed new challenges to structural engineers to design protective measures for vital structures. Since blast loading is not usually considered in the load combinations during the design process of a structure, researchers around the world have been motivated to study the behavior of potential elements capable of resisting sudden loads imposed by the detonation of explosive materials. One of the best candidates for this objective is the honeycomb sandwich panel. Studying the effects of explosive materials on the panels requires costly and time-consuming experiments. Moreover, these type of experiments need permission from defense organizations which can become a hurdle. As a result, modeling and simulation using an appropriate tool can be considered as a good alternative. In this research work, the finite element package ABAQUS® is used to study the behavior of hexagonal and squared honeycomb steel sandwich panels under the explosive effects of different amounts of trinitrotoluene (TNT). The results of finite element modeling of a specific honeycomb configuration are initially validated by comparing them with the experimental results from literature. Afterwards, several configurations including different geometrical properties of the honeycomb wall are investigated and the results are compared with the original model. Finally, the effectiveness of the core shape and wall thickness are discussed, and conclusions are made.
Numerical Simulation of Punching Shear of Flat Plates with Low Reinforcement
Punching shear failure is usually the governing failure mode of flat plate structures. Punching failure is brittle in nature which induces more vulnerability to this type of structure. In the present study, a 3D finite element model of a flat plate with low reinforcement ratio and without any transverse reinforcement has been developed. Punching shear stress and the deflection data were obtained on the surface of the flat plate as well as through the thickness of the model from numerical simulations. The obtained data were compared with the experimental results. Variation of punching stress with respect to deflection as obtained from numerical results is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results; the range of variation of punching stress is within 5%. The numerical simulation shows an early and gradual onset of nonlinearity, whereas the same is late and abrupt as observed in the experimental results. The range of variation of punching stress for different slab thicknesses between experimental and numerical results is less than 15%. The developed numerical model is useful to complement available punching test series performed in the past. The results obtained from the numerical model will be helpful for designing retrofitting schemes of flat plates.
Structural Health Monitoring of Buildings and Infrastructure
Structures such as buildings, bridges, dams, wind turbines etc. need to be maintained against various factors such as deterioration, excessive loads, environment, temperature, etc. Choosing an appropriate monitoring system is important for determining any critical damage to a structure and address that to avoid any adverse consequence. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) has emerged as an effective technique to monitor the health of the structures. SHM refers to an ongoing structural performance assessment using different kinds of sensors attached to or embedded in the structures to evaluate their integrity and safety to help engineers decide on rehabilitation measures. Ability of SHM in identifying the location and severity of structural damages by considering any changes in characteristics of the structures such as their frequency, stiffness and mode shapes helps engineers to monitor the structures and take the most effective corrective actions to maintain their safety and extend their service life. The main objective of this study is to review the overall SHM process specifically determining the natural frequency of an instrumented simply-supported concrete beam using modal testing and finite element model updating.
Experimental and Numerical Investigations on Flexural Behavior of Macro-Synthetic FRC
Promotion of the Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) as a construction material for civil engineering projects has invoked numerous researchers to investigate their mechanical behavior. Even though there is satisfactory information about the effects of fiber type and length, concrete mixture, casting type and other variables on the strength and deformability parameters of FRC, the numerical modeling of such materials still needs research attention. The focus of this study is to investigate the feasibility of Concrete Damaged Plasticity (CDP) model in prediction of Macro-synthetic FRC structures behavior. CDP model requires the tensile behavior of concrete to be well characterized. For this purpose, a series of uniaxial direct tension and four point bending tests were conducted on the notched specimens to define bilinear tension softening (post-peak tension stress-strain) behavior. With these parameters obtained, the flexural behavior of macro-synthetic FRC beams were modeled and the results showed a good agreement with the experimental measurements.
Effect of Infills in Influencing the Dynamic Responses of Multistoried Structures
Investigating the dynamic responses of high rise
structures under the effect of siesmic ground motion is extremely
important for the proper analysis and design of multitoried structures.
Since the presence of infilled walls strongly influences the behaviour
of frame systems in multistoried buildings, there is an increased need
for developing guidelines for the analysis and design of infilled
frames under the effect of dynamic loads for safe and proper design
of buildings. In this manuscript, we evaluate the natural frequencies
and natural periods of single bay single storey frames considering the
effect of infill walls by using the Eigen value analysis and validating
with SAP 2000 (free vibration analysis). Various parameters obtained
from the diagonal strut model followed for the free vibration analysis
is then compared with the Finite Element model, where infill is
modeled as shell elements (four noded). We also evaluated the effect
of various parameters on the natural periods of vibration obtained by
free vibration analysis in SAP 2000 comparing them with those
obtained by the empirical expressions presented in I.S. 1893(Part I)-
Influence of Single and Multiple Skin-Core Debonding on Free Vibration Characteristics of Innovative GFRP Sandwich Panels
An Australian manufacturer has fabricated an
innovative GFRP sandwich panel made from E-glass fiber skin and a
modified phenolic core for structural applications. Debonding, which
refers to separation of skin from the core material in composite
sandwiches, is one of the most common types of damage in
composites. The presence of debonding is of great concern because it
not only severely affects the stiffness but also modifies the dynamic
behaviour of the structure. Generally it is seen that the majority of
research carried out has been concerned about the delamination of
laminated structures whereas skin-core debonding has received
relatively minor attention. Furthermore it is observed that research
done on composite slabs having multiple skin-core debonding is very
limited. To address this gap, a comprehensive research investigating
dynamic behaviour of composite panels with single and multiple
debonding is presented. The study uses finite-element modelling and
analyses for investigating the influence of debonding on free
vibration behaviour of single and multilayer composite sandwich
panels. A broad parametric investigation has been carried out by
varying debonding locations, debonding sizes and support conditions
of the panels in view of both single and multiple debonding.
Numerical models were developed with Strand7 finite element
package by innovatively selecting the suitable elements to diligently
represent their actual behavior. Three-dimensional finite element
models were employed to simulate the physically real situation as
close as possible, with the use of an experimentally and numerically
validated finite element model. Comparative results and conclusions
based on the analyses are presented. For similar extents and locations
of debonding, the effect of debonding on natural frequencies appears
greatly dependent on the end conditions of the panel, giving greater
decrease in natural frequency when the panels are more restrained.
Some modes are more sensitive to debonding and this sensitivity
seems to be related to their vibration mode shapes. The fundamental
mode seems generally the least sensitive mode to debonding with
respect to the variation in free vibration characteristics. The results
indicate the effectiveness of the developed three dimensional finite
element models in assessing debonding damage in composite
The Effect of Nose Radius on Cutting Force and Temperature during Machining Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)
This paper presents a study the effect of nose radius
(Rz-mm) on cutting force components and temperatures during the
machining simulation in an orthogonal cutting process for titanium
alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). The cutting process was performed at various
nose radiuses (Rz-mm) while the depth of cut (d-mm), feed rate (fmm/
tooth) and cutting speed (vc-m/ min) were remained constant.
The main cutting force (Fc), feed cutting force (Ft) and temperatures
were estimated by using finite element modeling (FEM) through
ABAQUS/EXPLICIT software and the simulation was developed the
two-dimension via an orthogonal cutting process during machining
titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). The results led to the conclusion that the
nose radius (Rz-mm) has affected directly on the cutting force
components. However, temperature gave no indication or has no
significant relation with nose radius during machining titanium alloy
(Ti-6Al-4V). Hence, any increase or decrease in the nose radius (Rzmm)
during machining operation led to effect on the cutting forces
and thus it will be effective on surface finish, quality, and quantity of
Modeling of Radiofrequency Nerve Lesioning in Inhomogeneous Media
Radiofrequency (RF) lesioning of nerves have been commonly used to alleviate chronic pain, where RF current preventing transmission of pain signals through the nerve by heating the nerve causing the pain. There are some factors that affect the temperature distribution and the nerve lesion size, one of these factors is the inhomogeneities in the tissue medium. Our objective is to calculate the temperature distribution and the nerve lesion size in an inhomogeneous medium surrounding the RF electrode. A two 3-D finite element models are used to compare the temperature distribution in the homogeneous and inhomogeneous medium. Also the effect of temperature-dependent electric conductivity on maximum temperature and lesion size is observed. Results show that the presence of an inhomogeneous medium around the RF electrode has a valuable effect on the temperature distribution and lesion size. The dependency of electric conductivity on tissue temperature increased lesion size.
Reduction of Rotor-Bearing-Support Finite Element Model through Substructuring
Due to simplicity and low cost, rotordynamic system is often modeled by using lumped parameters. Recently, finite elements have been used to model rotordynamic system as it offers higher accuracy. However, it involves high degrees of freedom. In some applications such as control design, this requires higher cost. For this reason, various model reduction methods have been proposed. This work demonstrates the quality of model reduction of rotor-bearing-support system through substructuring. The quality of the model reduction is evaluated by comparing some first natural frequencies, modal damping ratio, critical speeds, and response of both the full system and the reduced system. The simulation shows that the substructuring is proven adequate to reduce finite element rotor model in the frequency range of interest as long as the number and the location of master nodes are determined appropriately. However, the reduction is less accurate in an unstable or nearly-unstable system.
Strain Based Evaluation of Dents in Pressurized Pipes
A dent is a gross distortion of the pipe cross-section.
Dent depth is defined as the maximum reduction in the diameter of
the pipe compared to the original diameter. Pipeline dent finite
element (FE) simulation and theoretical analysis are conducted in this
paper to develop an understanding of the geometric characteristics
and strain distribution in the pressurized dented pipe. Based on the
results, the magnitude of the denting force increases significantly
with increasing the internal pressure, and the maximum
circumferential and longitudinal strains increase by increasing the
internal pressure and the dent depth. The results can be used for
characterizing dents and ranking their risks to the integrity of a
Backcalculation of HMA Stiffness Based On Finite Element Model
Stiffness of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) in flexible pavement is largely dependent of temperature, mode of testing and age of pavement. Accurate measurement of HMA stiffness is thus quite challenging. This study determines HMA stiffness based on Finite Element Model (FEM) and validates the results using field data. As a first step, stiffnesses of different layers of a pavement section on Interstate 40 (I-40) in New Mexico were determined by Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) test. Pavement temperature was not measured at that time due to lack of temperature probe. Secondly, a FE model is developed in ABAQUS. Stiffness of the base, subbase and subgrade were taken from the FWD test output obtained from the first step. As HMA stiffness largely varies with temperature it was assigned trial and error approach. Thirdly, horizontal strain and vertical stress at the bottom of the HMA and temperature at different depths of the pavement were measured with installed sensors on the whole day on December 25th, 2012. Fourthly, outputs of FEM were correlated with measured stress-strain responses. After a number of trials a relationship was developed between the trial stiffness of HMA and measured mid-depth HMA temperature. At last, the obtained relationship between stiffness and temperature is verified by further FWD test when pavement temperature was recorded. A promising agreement between them is observed. Therefore, conclusion can be drawn that linear elastic FEM can accurately predict the stiffness and the structural response of flexible pavement.
Predicting Crack Initiation Due to Ratchetting in Rail Heads Using Critical Element Analysis
This paper presents a strategy to predict the lifetime of rails subjected to large rolling contact loads that induce ratchetting strains in the rail head. A critical element concept is used to calculate the number of loading cycles needed for crack initiation to occur in the rail head surface. In this technique the finite element method (FEM) is used to determine the maximum equivalent ratchetting strain per load cycle, which is calculated by combining longitudinal and shear stains in the critical element. This technique builds on a previously developed critical plane concept that has been used to calculate the number of cycles to crack initiation in rolling contact fatigue under ratchetting failure conditions. The critical element concept simplifies the analytical difficulties of critical plane analysis. Finite element analysis (FEA) is used to identify the critical element in the mesh, and then the strain values of the critical element are used to calculate the ratchetting rate analytically. Finally, a ratchetting criterion is used to calculate the number of cycles to crack initiation from the ratchetting rate calculated.
Modal Analysis of Machine Tool Column Using Finite Element Method
The performance of a machine tool is eventually assessed by its ability to produce a component of the required geometry in minimum time and at small operating cost. It is customary to base the structural design of any machine tool primarily upon the requirements of static rigidity and minimum natural frequency of vibration. The operating properties of machines like cutting speed, feed and depth of cut as well as the size of the work piece also have to be kept in mind by a machine tool structural designer. This paper presents a novel approach to the design of machine tool column for static and dynamic rigidity requirement. Model evaluation is done effectively through use of General Finite Element Analysis software ANSYS. Studies on machine tool column are used to illustrate finite element based concept evaluation technique. This paper also presents results obtained from the computations of thin walled box type columns that are subjected to torsional and bending loads in case of static analysis and also results from modal analysis. The columns analyzed are square and rectangle based tapered open column, column with cover plate, horizontal partitions and with apertures. For the analysis purpose a total of 70 columns were analyzed for bending, torsional and modal analysis. In this study it is observed that the orientation and aspect ratio of apertures have no significant effect on the static and dynamic rigidity of the machine tool structure.
Finite Element Modeling to Predict the Effect of Nose Radius on the Equivalent Strain (PEEQ) for Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)
In present work, prediction the effect of nose radius, rz (mm) on the equivalent strain (PEEQ) and surface finish during the machining of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) through orthogonal cutting process. The results were performed at several of the nose radiuses, rz (mm) while the cutting speed, vc (m/min), feed rate, f (mm/tooth) and depth of cut, d (mm) were remained constant. The equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ) was estimated by using finite element modeling (FEM) and applied through ABAQUS/EXPLICIT software. The simulation results led to conclude that the equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ) was increased and surface roughness (Ra) decreased when increasing nose radius, rz (mm) during the machining of titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) in dry cutting conditions.
Evaluation of the FWD Moduli of a Flexible Pavement Using Finite Element Model
This study evaluates the back calculation of stiffness of a pavement section on Interstate 40 (I-40)in New Mexico through numerical analysis. Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) test has been conducted on a section on I-40. Layer stiffness of the pavement has been backcalculated by a backcalculation software, ELMOD, using the FWD test data. Commercial finite element software, ABAQUS, has been used to develop the Finite Element Model (FEM) of this pavement section. Geometry and layer thickness are collected from field coring. Input parameters i.e. stiffnesses of different layers of the pavement are used as the backcalculated ones. Resulting surface deflections at different radial distances from the FEM analysis are compared with field FWD deflection values. It shows close agreement between the FEM and FWD outputs. Therefore, the FWD test method can be considered to be a reliable test procedure for evaluating the in situ stiffness of pavement material.
Finite Element Prediction of Hip Fracture during a Sideways Fall
Finite element method was applied to model damage
development in the femoral neck during a sideways fall. The femoral
failure was simulated using the maximum principal strain criterion.
The evolution of damage was consistent with previous studies. It was
initiated by compressive failure at the junction of the superior aspect
of the femoral neck and the greater trochanter. It was followed by
tensile failure that occurred at the inferior aspect of the femoral neck
before a complete transcervical fracture was observed. The estimated
failure line was less than 50° from the horizontal plane (Pauwels type
Analysis of Endovascular Graft Features Affecting Endotension Following Endovascular Aneurysm Repair
Endovascular aneurysm repair is a new and minimally invasive repair for patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). This method has potential advantages that are incomparable with other repair methods. However, the enlargement of aneurysm in the absence of endoleak, which is known as endotension, may occur as one of post-operative compliances of this method. Typically, endotension is mainly as a result of pressure transmitted to aneurysm sac by endovascular installed graft. After installation of graft the aneurysm sac reduces significantly but remains non-zero. There are some factors which affect this pressure transmitted. In this study, the geometry features of installed vascular graft have been considered. It is inferred that graft neck angle and iliac bifurcation angle are two factors which can affect the drag force on graft and consequently the pressure transmitted to aneurysm.
An Anatomically-Based Model of the Nerves in the Human Foot
Sensory nerves in the foot play an important part in the diagnosis of various neuropathydisorders, especially in diabetes mellitus.However, a detailed description of the anatomical distribution of the nerves is currently lacking. A computationalmodel of the afferent nerves inthe foot may bea useful tool for the study of diabetic neuropathy. In this study, we present the development of an anatomically-based model of various major sensory nerves of the sole and dorsal sidesof the foot. In addition, we presentan algorithm for generating synthetic somatosensory nerve networks in the big-toe region of a right foot model. The algorithm was based on a modified version of the Monte Carlo algorithm, with the capability of being able to vary the intra-epidermal nerve fiber density in differentregionsof the foot model. Preliminary results from the combinedmodel show the realistic anatomical structure of the major nerves as well as the smaller somatosensory nerves of the foot. The model may now be developed to investigate the functional outcomes of structural neuropathyindiabetic patients.
Analysis of Tool-Chip Interface Temperature with FEM and Empirical Verification
Reliable information about tool temperature
distribution is of central importance in metal cutting. In this study,
tool-chip interface temperature was determined in cutting of ST37
steel workpiece by applying HSS as the cutting tool in dry turning.
Two different approaches were implemented for temperature
measuring: an embedded thermocouple (RTD) in to the cutting tool
and infrared (IR) camera. Comparisons are made between
experimental data and results of MSC.SuperForm and FLUENT
An investigation of heat generation in cutting tool was performed
by varying cutting parameters at the stable cutting tool geometry and
results were saved in a computer; then the diagrams of tool
temperature vs. various cutting parameters were obtained. The
experimental results reveal that the main factors of the increasing
cutting temperature are cutting speed (V ), feed rate ( S ) and depth
of cut ( h ), respectively. It was also determined that simultaneously
change in cutting speed and feed rate has the maximum effect on
increasing cutting temperature.
Nugget Formation during Resistance Spot Welding using Finite Element Model
Resistance spot welding process comprises of electric,
thermal and mechanical phenomenon, which makes this process
complex and highly non-linear and thus, it becomes difficult to model
it. In order to obtain good weld nugget during spot welding, hit and
trial welds are usually done which is very costly. Therefore the
numerical simulation research has been conducted to understand the
whole process. In this paper three different cases were analyzed by
varying the tip contact area and it was observed that, with the
variation of tip contact area the nugget formation at the faying
surface is affected. The tip contact area of the welding electrode
becomes large with long welding cycles. Therefore in order to
maintain consistency of nugget formation during the welding process,
the current compensation in control feedback is required. If the
contact area of the welding electrode tip is reduced, a large amount of
current flows through the faying surface, as a result of which
Comparative Study of Tensile Properties of Cortical Bone Using Sub-size Specimens and Finite Element Simulation
Bone material is treated as heterogeneous and hierarchical in nature therefore appropriate size of bone specimen is required to analyze its tensile properties at a particular hierarchical level. Tensile properties of cortical bone are important to investigate the effect of drug treatment, disease and aging as well as for development of computational and analytical models. In the present study tensile properties of buffalo as well as goat femoral and tibiae cortical bone are analyzed using sub-size tensile specimens. Femoral cortical bone was found to be stronger in tension as compared to the tibiae cortical bone and the tensile properties obtained using sub-size specimens show close resemblance with the tensile properties of full-size cortical specimens. A two dimensional finite element (FE) modal was also applied to simulate the tensile behavior of sub-size specimens. Good agreement between experimental and FE model was obtained for sub-size tensile specimens of cortical bone.
Intact and ACL-Deficient Knee MODEL Evaluation
The human knee joint has a three dimensional
geometry with multiple body articulations that produce complex
mechanical responses under loads that occur in everyday life and
sports activities. To produce the necessary joint compliance and
stability for optimal daily function various menisci and ligaments are
present while muscle forces are used to this effect. Therefore,
knowledge of the complex mechanical interactions of these load
bearing structures is necessary when treatment of relevant diseases is
evaluated and assisting devices are designed.
Numerical tools such as finite element analysis are suitable for
modeling such joints in order to understand their physics. They have
been used in the current study to develop an accurate human knee
joint and model its mechanical behavior. To evaluate the efficacy of
this articulated model, static load cases were used for comparison
purposes with previous experimentally verified modeling works
drawn from literature.
Nonlinear Modeling and Analysis of AAC infilled Sandwich Panels for out of Plane Loads
Sandwich panels are widely used in the construction
industry for their ease of assembly, light weight and efficient thermal
performance. They are composed of two RC thin outer layers
separated by an insulating inner layer. In this research the inner
insulating layer is made of lightweight Autoclaved Aerated Concrete
(AAC) blocks which has good thermal insulation properties and yet
possess reasonable mechanical strength. The shear strength of the
AAC infill is relied upon to replace the traditionally used insulating
foam and to provide the shear capacity of the panel. A
comprehensive experimental program was conducted on full scale
sandwich panels subjected to bending. In this paper, detailed
numerical modeling of the tested sandwich panels is reported. Nonlinear
3-D finite element modeling of the composite action of the
sandwich panel is developed using ANSYS. Solid elements with
different crashing and cracking capabilities and different constitutive
laws were selected for the concrete and the AAC. Contact interface
elements are used in this research to adequately model the shear
transfer at the interface between the different layers. The numerical
results showed good correlation with the experimental ones
indicating the adequacy of the model in estimating the loading
capacity of panels.
Tension Stiffening Parameter in Composite Concrete Reinforced with Inoxydable Steel: Laboratory and Finite Element Analysis
In the present work, behavior of inoxydable steel as
reinforcement bar in composite concrete is being investigated. The
bar-concrete adherence in reinforced concrete (RC) beam is studied
and focus is made on the tension stiffening parameter. This study
highlighted an approach to observe this interaction behavior in
bending test instead of direct tension as per reported in many
references. The approach resembles actual loading condition of the
structural RC beam. The tension stiffening properties are then
applied to numerical finite element analysis (FEA) to verify their
correlation with laboratory results. Comparison with laboratory
shows a good correlation between the two. The experimental settings
is able to determine tension stiffening parameters in RC beam and
the modeling strategies made in ABAQUS can closely represent the
actual condition. Tension stiffening model used can represent the
interaction properties between inoxydable steel and concrete.
Modeling of Normal and Atherosclerotic Blood Vessels using Finite Element Methods and Artificial Neural Networks
Analysis of blood vessel mechanics in normal and
diseased conditions is essential for disease research, medical device
design and treatment planning. In this work, 3D finite element
models of normal vessel and atherosclerotic vessel with 50% plaque
deposition were developed. The developed models were meshed
using finite number of tetrahedral elements. The developed models
were simulated using actual blood pressure signals. Based on the
transient analysis performed on the developed models, the parameters
such as total displacement, strain energy density and entropy per unit
volume were obtained. Further, the obtained parameters were used to
develop artificial neural network models for analyzing normal and
atherosclerotic blood vessels. In this paper, the objectives of the
study, methodology and significant observations are presented.
Using FEM for Prediction of Thermal Post-Buckling Behavior of Thin Plates During Welding Process
Arc welding is an important joining process widely used in many industrial applications including production of automobile, ships structures and metal tanks. In welding process, the moving electrode causes highly non-uniform temperature distribution that leads to residual stresses and different deviations, especially buckling distortions in thin plates. In order to control the deviations and increase the quality of welded plates, a fixture can be used as a practical and low cost method with high efficiency. In this study, a coupled thermo-mechanical finite element model is coded in the software ANSYS to simulate the behavior of thin plates located by a 3-2-1 positioning system during the welding process. Computational results are compared with recent similar works to validate the finite element models. The agreement between the result of proposed model and other reported data proves that finite element modeling can accurately predict the behavior of welded thin plates.
An Approach for Transient Response Calculation of large Nonproportionally Damped Structures using Component Mode Synthesis
A minimal complexity version of component mode
synthesis is presented that requires simplified computer
programming, but still provides adequate accuracy for modeling
lower eigenproperties of large structures and their transient
responses. The novelty is that a structural separation into components
is done along a plane/surface that exhibits rigid-like behavior, thus
only normal modes of each component is sufficient to use, without
computing any constraint, attachment, or residual-attachment modes.
The approach requires only such input information as a few (lower)
natural frequencies and corresponding undamped normal modes of
each component. A novel technique is shown for formulation of
equations of motion, where a double transformation to generalized
coordinates is employed and formulation of nonproportional damping
matrix in generalized coordinates is shown.