One Dimensional Reactor Modeling for Methanol Steam Reforming to Hydrogen
One dimensional pseudo-homogenous modeling has been performed for methanol steam reforming reactor. The results show that the models can well predict the industrial data. The reactor had minimum temperature along axial because of endothermic reaction. Hydrogen productions and temperature profiles along axial were investigated regarding operation conditions such as inlet mass flow rate and mass fraction of methanol, inlet temperature of external thermal oil. Low inlet mass flow rate of methanol, low inlet temperature, and high mass fraction of methanol decreased minimum temperature along axial. Low inlet mass flow rate of methanol, high mass fraction of methanol, and high inlet temperature of thermal oil made cold point forward. Low mass fraction, high mass flow rate, and high inlet temperature of thermal oil increased hydrogen production. One dimensional models can be a guide for industrial operation.
Efficient Antenna Array Beamforming with Robustness against Random Steering Mismatch
This paper deals with the problem of using antenna sensors for adaptive beamforming in the presence of random steering mismatch. We present an efficient adaptive array beamformer with robustness to deal with the considered problem. The robustness of the proposed beamformer comes from the efficient designation of the steering vector. Using the received array data vector, we construct an appropriate correlation matrix associated with the received array data vector and a correlation matrix associated with signal sources. Then, the eigenvector associated with the largest eigenvalue of the constructed signal correlation matrix is designated as an appropriate estimate of the steering vector. Finally, the adaptive weight vector required for adaptive beamforming is obtained by using the estimated steering vector and the constructed correlation matrix of the array data vector. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method.
The Onset of Ironing during Casing Expansion
Shell has developed a mono-diameter well concept for oil and gas wells as opposed to the traditional telescopic well design. A Mono-diameter well design allows well to have a single inner diameter from the surface all the way down to reservoir to increase production capacity, reduce material cost and reduce environmental footprint. This is achieved by expansion of liners (casing string) concerned using an expansion tool (e.g. a cone). Since the well is drilled in stages and liners are inserted to support the borehole, overlap sections between consecutive liners exist which should be expanded. At overlap, the previously inserted casing which can be expanded or unexpanded is called the host casing and the newly inserted casing is called the expandable casing. When the cone enters the overlap section, an expandable casing is expanded against a host casing, a cured cement layer and formation. In overlap expansion, ironing or lengthening may appear instead of shortening in the expandable casing when the pressure exerted by the host casing, cured cement layer and formation exceeds a certain limit. This pressure is related to cement strength, thickness of cement layer, host casing material mechanical properties, host casing thickness, formation type and formation strength. Ironing can cause implications that hinder the deployment of the technology. Therefore, the understanding of ironing becomes essential. A physical model is built in-house to calculate expansion forces, stresses, strains and post expansion casing dimensions under different conditions. In this study, only free casing and overlap expansion of two casings are addressed while the cement and formation will be incorporated in future study. Since the axial strain can be predicted by the physical model, the onset of ironing can be confirmed. In addition, this model helps in understanding ironing and the parameters influencing it. Finally, the physical model is validated with Finite Element (FE) simulations and small-scale experiments. The results of the study confirm that high pressure leads to ironing when the casing is expanded in tension mode.
Experimental and Simulation Stress Strain Comparison of Hot Single Point Incremental Forming
Induction assisted single point incremental forming
(IASPIF) is a flexible method and can be simply utilized to
form a high strength alloys. Due to the interaction between the
mechanical and thermal properties during IASPIF an evaluation for
the process is necessary to be performed analytically. Therefore, a
numerical simulation was carried out in this paper. The numerical
analysis was operated at both room and elevated temperatures
then compared with experimental results. Fully coupled dynamic
temperature displacement explicit analysis was used to simulated the
hot single point incremental forming. The numerical analysis was
indicating that during hot single point incremental forming were a
combination between complicated compression, tension and shear
stresses. As a result, the equivalent plastic strain was increased
excessively by rising both the formed part depth and the heating
temperature during forming. Whereas, the forming forces were
decreased from 5 kN at room temperature to 0.95 kN at elevated
temperature. The simulation shows that the maximum true strain was
occurred in the stretching zone which was the same as in experiment.
Produced Gas Conversion of Microwave Carbon Receptor Reforming
Carbon dioxide and methane, the major components of biomass pyrolysis/gasification gas and biogas, top the list of substances that cause climate change, but they are also among the most important renewable energy sources in modern society. The purpose of this study is to convert carbon dioxide and methane into high-quality energy using char and commercial activated carbon obtained from biomass pyrolysis as a microwave receptor. The methane reforming process produces hydrogen and carbon. This carbon is deposited in the pores of the microwave receptor and lowers catalytic activity, thereby reducing the methane conversion rate. The deposited carbon was removed by carbon gasification due to the supply of carbon dioxide, which solved the problem of microwave receptor inactivity. In particular, the conversion rate remained stable at over 90% when the ratio of carbon dioxide to methane was 1:1. When the reforming results of carbon dioxide and methane were compared after fabricating nickel and iron catalysts using commercial activated carbon as a carrier, the conversion rate was higher in the iron catalyst than in the nickel catalyst and when no catalyst was used.
Factors of Non-Conformity Behavior and the Emergence of a Ponzi Game in the Riba-Free (Interest-Free) Banking System of Iran
In the interest-free banking system of Iran, the savings of society are in the form of bank deposits, and banks using the Islamic contracts, allocate the resources to applicants for obtaining facilities and credit. In the meantime, the central bank, with the aim of introducing monetary policy, determines the maximum interest rate on bank deposits in terms of macroeconomic requirements. But in recent years, the country's economic constraints with the stagflation and the consequence of the institutional weaknesses of the financial market of Iran have resulted in massive disturbances in the balance sheet of the banking system, resulting in a period of mismatch maturity in the banks' assets and liabilities and the implementation of a Ponzi game. This issue caused determination of the interest rate in long-term bank deposit contracts to be associated with non-observance of the maximum rate set by the central bank. The result of this condition was in the allocation of new sources of equipment to meet past commitments towards the old depositors and, as a result, a significant part of the supply of equipment was leaked out of the facilitating cycle and credit crunch emerged. The purpose of this study is to identify the most important factors affecting the occurrence of non-confirmatory financial banking behavior using data from 19 public and private banks of Iran. For this purpose, the causes of this non-confirmatory behavior of banks have been investigated using the panel vector autoregression method (PVAR) for the period of 2007-2015. Granger's causality test results suggest that the return of parallel markets for bank deposits, non-performing loans and the high share of the ratio of facilities to banks' deposits are all a cause of the formation of non-confirmatory behavior. Also, according to the results of impulse response functions and variance decomposition, NPL and the ratio of facilities to deposits have the highest long-term effect and also have a high contribution to explaining the changes in banks' non-confirmatory behavior in determining the interest rate on deposits.
Resistive Switching Characteristics of Resistive Random Access Memory Devices after Furnace Annealing Processes
In this study, the RRAM devices with the TiN/Ti/HfOx/TiN structure were fabricated, then the electrical characteristics of the devices without annealing and after 400 °C and 500 °C of the furnace annealing (FA) temperature processes were compared. The RRAM devices after the FA’s 400 °C showed the lower forming, set and reset voltages than the other devices without annealing. However, the RRAM devices after the FA’s 500 °C did not show any electrical characteristics because the TiN/Ti/HfOx/TiN device was oxidized, as shown in the XPS analysis. From these results, the RRAM devices after the FA’s 400 °C showed the best electrical characteristics.
Experimental Study on Thermomechanical Properties of New-Generation ODS Alloys
By using a combination of new technologies together with an unconventional use of different types of materials, specific mechanical properties and structures of the material can be achieved. Some possibilities are enabled by a combination of powder metallurgy in the preparation of a metal matrix with dispersed stable particles achieved by mechanical alloying and hot consolidation. This paper explains the thermomechanical properties of new generation of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened alloys (ODS) within three ranges of temperature with specified deformation profiles. The results show that the mechanical properties of new ODS alloys are significantly affected by the thermomechanical treatment.
0.13-µm Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Vector Modulator for Beamforming System
This paper presents a 0.13-µm Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) vector modulator for beamforming system. The vector modulator features a 360° phase and gain range of -10 dB to 10 dB with a root mean square phase and amplitude error of only 2.2° and 0.45 dB, respectively. These features make it a suitable for wireless backhaul system in the 5 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) bands. It draws a current of 20.4 mA from a 1.2 V supply. The total chip size is 1.87x1.34 mm².
Performance Evaluation of Refinement Method for Wideband Two-Beams Formation
This paper presents the refinement method for two beams formation of wideband smart antenna. The refinement method for weighting coefficients is based on Fully Spatial Signal Processing by taking Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT), and its simulation results are presented using MATLAB. The radiation pattern is created by multiplying the incoming signal with real weights and then summing them together. These real weighting coefficients are computed by IDFT method; however, the range of weight values is relatively wide. Therefore, for reducing this range, the refinement method is used. The radiation pattern concerns with five input parameters to control. These parameters are maximum weighting coefficient, wideband signal, direction of mainbeam, beamwidth, and maximum of minor lobe level. Comparison of the obtained simulation results between using refinement method and taking only IDFT shows that the refinement method works well for wideband two beams formation.
H2 Permeation Properties of a Catalytic Membrane Reactor in Methane Steam Reforming Reaction
Cylindrical alumina microfiltration membrane (GMITM Corporation, inside diameter=9 mm, outside diameter=13 mm, length= 50 mm) with an average pore size of 0.5 micrometer and porosity of about 0.35 was used as the support for membrane reactor. This support was soaked in boehmite sols, and the mean particle size was adjusted in the range of 50 to 500 nm by carefully controlling hydrolysis time, and calcined at 650 °C for two hours. This process was repeated with different boehmite solutions in order to achieve an intermediate layer with an average pore size of about 50 nm. The resulting substrate was then coated with a thin and dense layer of silica by counter current chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method. A boehmite sol with 10 wt.% of nickel which was prepared by a standard procedure was used to make the catalytic layer. BET, SEM, and XRD analysis were used to characterize this layer. The catalytic membrane reactor was placed in an experimental setup to evaluate the permeation and hydrogen separation performance for a steam reforming reaction. The setup consisted of a tubular module in which the membrane was fixed, and the reforming reaction occurred at the inner side of the membrane. Methane stream, diluted with nitrogen, and deionized water with a steam to carbon (S/C) ratio of 3.0 entered the reactor after the reactor was heated up to 500 °C with a specified rate of 2 °C/ min and the catalytic layer was reduced at presence of hydrogen for 2.5 hours. Nitrogen flow was used as sweep gas through the outer side of the reactor. Any liquid produced was trapped and separated at reactor exit by a cold trap, and the produced gases were analyzed by an on-line gas chromatograph (Agilent 7890A) to measure total CH4 conversion and H2 permeation. BET analysis indicated uniform size distribution for catalyst with average pore size of 280 nm and average surface area of 275 m2.g-1. Single-component permeation tests were carried out for hydrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide at temperature range of 500-800 °C, and the results showed almost the same permeance and hydrogen selectivity values for hydrogen as the composite membrane without catalytic layer. Performance of the catalytic membrane was evaluated by applying membranes as a membrane reactor for methane steam reforming reaction at gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 10,000 h−1 and 2 bar. CH4 conversion increased from 50% to 85% with increasing reaction temperature from 600 °C to 750 °C, which is sufficiently above equilibrium curve at reaction conditions, but slightly lower than membrane reactor with packed nickel catalytic bed because of its higher surface area compared to the catalytic layer.
Investigation of a Hybrid Process: Multipoint Incremental Forming
Multi-point forming (MPF) and asymmetric incremental forming (ISF) are two flexible processes for sheet metal manufacturing. To take advantages of these two techniques, a hybrid process has been developed: The Multipoint Incremental Forming (MPIF). This process accumulates at once the advantages of each of these last mentioned forming techniques, which makes it a very interesting and particularly an efficient process for single, small, and medium series production. In this paper, an experimental and a numerical investigation of this technique are presented. To highlight the flexibility of this process and its capacity to manufacture standard and complex shapes, several pieces were produced by using MPIF. The forming experiments are performed on a 3-axis CNC machine. Moreover, a numerical model of the MPIF process has been implemented in ABAQUS and the analysis showed a good agreement with experimental results in terms of deformed shape. Furthermore, the use of an elastomeric interpolator allows avoiding classical local defaults like dimples, which are generally caused by the asymmetric contact and also improves the distribution of residual strain. Future works will apply this approach to other alloys used in aeronautic or automotive applications.
On Quasi Conformally Flat LP-Sasakian Manifolds with a Coefficient α
The aim of the present paper is to study properties of
Quasi conformally flat LP-Sasakian manifolds with a coefficient α.
In this paper, we prove that a Quasi conformally flat LP-Sasakian
manifold M (n > 3) with a constant coefficient α is an η−Einstein
and in a quasi conformally flat LP-Sasakian manifold M (n > 3)
with a constant coefficient α if the scalar curvature tensor is constant
then M is of constant curvature.
The Effect of Development of Two-Phase Flow Regimes on the Stability of Gas Lift Systems
Flow instability during gas lift operation is caused by three major phenomena – the density wave oscillation, the casing heading pressure and the flow perturbation within the two-phase flow region. This paper focuses on the causes and the effect of flow instability during gas lift operation and suggests ways to control it in order to maximise productivity during gas lift operations. A laboratory-scale two-phase flow system to study the effects of flow perturbation was designed and built. The apparatus is comprised of a 2 m long by 66 mm ID transparent PVC pipe with air injection point situated at 0.1 m above the base of the pipe. This is the point where stabilised bubbles were visibly clear after injection. Air is injected into the water filled transparent pipe at different flow rates and pressures. The behavior of the different sizes of the bubbles generated within the two-phase region was captured using a digital camera and the images were analysed using the advanced image processing package. It was observed that the average maximum bubbles sizes increased with the increase in the length of the vertical pipe column from 29.72 to 47 mm. The increase in air injection pressure from 0.5 to 3 bars increased the bubble sizes from 29.72 mm to 44.17 mm and then decreasing when the pressure reaches 4 bars. It was observed that at higher bubble velocity of 6.7 m/s, larger diameter bubbles coalesce and burst due to high agitation and collision with each other. This collapse of the bubbles causes pressure drop and reverse flow within two phase flow and is the main cause of the flow instability phenomena.
Recent Advances and Challenges in the Catalytic Combustion at Micro-Scales
The high energy density of hydrocarbon fuels creates a great opportunity to develop catalytic combustion based micro-power generation systems to meet increasing demands for micro-scale devices. In this work, the recent technological development progress in fundamental understanding of the catalytic combustion at micro-scales are reviewed. The underlying fundamental mechanisms, flame stability, hetero-homogeneous interaction, catalytic ignition, and catalytic reforming are reviewed in catalytic micro-scale combustion systems. Catalytic combustion and its design, diagnosis, and modeling operation are highlighted for micro-combustion application purpose; these fundamental aspects are reviewed. Finally, an overview of future studies is made. The primary objective of this review is to present an overview of the development of micro-power generators by focusing more on the advances and challenges in the fundamental understanding of the catalytic combustion at micro-scales.
Out-of-Plane Bending Properties of Out-of-Autoclave Thermosetting Prepregs during Forming Processes
In order to predict and model wrinkling which is caused by out of plane deformation due to compressive loading in the plane of the material during composite prepregs forming, it is necessary to quantitatively understand the relative magnitude of the bending stiffness. This study aims to examine the bending properties of out-of-autoclave (OOA) thermosetting prepreg under vertical cantilever test condition. A direct method for characterizing the bending behavior of composite prepregs was developed. The results from direct measurement were compared with results derived from an image-processing procedure that analyses the captured image during the vertical bending test. A numerical simulation was performed using ABAQUS to confirm the bending stiffness value.
Multi-Objective Optimization Contingent on Subcarrier-Wise Beamforming for Multiuser MIMO-OFDM Interference Channels
We address the problem of interference over all the channels in multiuser MIMO-OFDM systems. This paper contributes three beamforming strategies designed for multiuser multiple-input and multiple-output by way of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, in which the transmit and receive beamformers are acquired repetitious by secure-form stages. In the principal case, the transmit (TX) beamformers remain fixed then the receive (RX) beamformers are computed. This eradicates one interference span for every user by means of extruding the transmit beamformers into a null space of relevant channels. Formerly, by gratifying the orthogonality condition to exclude the residual interferences in RX beamformer for every user is done by maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The second case comprises mutually optimizing the TX and RX beamformers from controlled SNR maximization. The outcomes of first case is used here. The third case also includes combined optimization of TX-RX beamformers; however, uses the both controlled SNR and signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio maximization (SINR). By the standardized channel model for IEEE 802.11n, the proposed simulation experiments offer rapid beamforming and enhanced error performance.
Construction of Strain Distribution Profiles of EDD Steel at Elevated Temperatures
In the present work, forming limit diagrams and strain
distribution profile diagrams for extra deep drawing steel at room and
elevated temperatures have been determined experimentally by
conducting stretch forming experiments by using designed and
fabricated warm stretchforming tooling setup. With the help of
forming Limit Diagrams (FLDs) and strain, distribution profile
diagrams the formability of Extra Deep Drawing steel has been
analyzed and co-related with mechanical properties like strain
hardening COEFFICIENT (n) and normal anisotropy (r−). Mechanical
properties of EDD steel from room temperature to 4500C were
determined and discussed the impact of temperature on the properties
like work hardening exponent (n) anisotropy (r-) and strength
coefficient of the material. In addition, the fractured surfaces after
stretching have undergone the some metallurgical investigations and
attempt has been made to co-relate with the formability of EDD steel
sheets. They are co-related and good agreement with FLDs at various
A Study on Manufacturing of Head-Part of Pipes Using a Rotating Manufacturing Process
A large variety of pipe flange is required in marine
and construction industry. Pipe flanges are usually welded or screwed
to the pipe end and are connected with bolts. This approach is very
simple and widely used for a long time; however, it results in high
development cost and low productivity, and the productions made by
this approach usually have safety problem at the welding area. In this
research, a new approach of forming pipe flange based on cold
forging and floating die concept is presented. This innovative
approach increases the effectiveness of the material usage and save
the time cost compared with conventional welding method. To ensure the dimensional accuracy of the final product, the finite
element analysis (FEA) was carried out to simulate the process of
cold forging, and the orthogonal experiment methods were used to
investigate the influence of four manufacturing factors (pin die angle,
pipe flange angle, rpm, pin die distance from clamp jig) and predicted
the best combination of them. The manufacturing factors were
obtained by numerical and experimental studies and it shows that the
approach is very useful and effective for the forming of pipe flange,
and can be widely used later.
Forming Limit Analysis of DP600-800 Steels
In this work, the plastic behaviour of cold-rolled zinc
coated dual-phase steel sheets DP600 and DP800 grades is firstly
investigated with the help of uniaxial, hydraulic bulge and Forming
Limit Curve (FLC) tests. The uniaxial tensile tests were performed in
three angular orientations with respect to the rolling direction to
evaluate the strain-hardening and plastic anisotropy. True stressstrain
curves at large strains were determined from hydraulic bulge
testing and fitted to a work-hardening equation. The limit strains are
defined at both localized necking and fracture conditions according to
Nakajima’s hemispherical punch procedure. Also, an elasto-plastic
localization model is proposed in order to predict strain and stress
based forming limit curves. The investigated dual-phase sheets
showed a good formability in the biaxial stretching and drawing FLC
regions. For both DP600 and DP800 sheets, the corresponding
numerical predictions overestimated and underestimated the
experimental limit strains in the biaxial stretching and drawing FLC
regions, respectively. This can be attributed to the restricted failure
necking condition adopted in the numerical model, which is not
suitable to describe the tensile and shear fracture mechanisms in
advanced high strength steels under equibiaxial and biaxial stretching
Line Heating Forming: Methodology and Application Using Kriging and Fifth Order Spline Formulations
In this article, a method is presented to effectively
estimate the deformed shape of a thick plate due to line heating. The
method uses a fifth order spline interpolation, with up to C3
continuity at specific points to compute the shape of the deformed
geometry. First and second order derivatives over a surface are the
resulting parameters of a given heating line on a plate. These
parameters are determined through experiments and/or finite element
simulations. Very accurate kriging models are fitted to real or virtual
surfaces to build-up a database of maps. Maps of first and second
order derivatives are then applied on numerical plate models to
evaluate their evolving shapes through a sequence of heating lines.
Adding an optimization process to this approach would allow
determining the trajectories of heating lines needed to shape complex
geometries, such as Francis turbine blades.
Comparative Study of Bending Angle in Laser Forming Process Using Artificial Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic System
Laser Forming process as a non-contact thermal forming process is widely used to forming and bending of metallic and non-metallic sheets. In this process, according to laser irradiation along a specific path, sheet is bent. One of the most important output parameters in laser forming is bending angle that depends on process parameters such as physical and mechanical properties of materials, laser power, laser travel speed and the number of scan passes. In this paper, Artificial Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic System were used to predict of bending angle in laser forming process. Inputs to these models were laser travel speed and laser power. The comparison between artificial neural network and fuzzy logic models with experimental results has been shown both of these models have high ability to prediction of bending angles with minimum errors.
Determination of Recrystallization Temperature of Varying Degrees Formed Aluminium, by DMTA Technique
This study is about the structural transformations of
aluminium examining with the Dynamic Mechanical Thermal
Analyzer (DMTA). It is a faster and simpler measuring method to
make consequence about the metal’s structural transformations. The
device measures the changing of the mechanical characteristics
depending on the heating rate, and concludes certain transformations.
This measuring method fast and shows clean-cut results comparing
the conventional ways.
Applying polymer measuring devices for metal investigations is
not widespread method. One of the adaptable ways is shown in this
study. The article compares the results of the small specimen test and
the DMTA method, considering the temperature and the forming
dependence of recrystallization temperature.
Coordinated Multi-Point Scheme Based On Channel State Information in MIMO-OFDM System
Recently, increasing the quality of experience (QoE) is
an important issue. Since performance degradation at cell edge
extremely reduces the QoE, several techniques are defined at
LTE/LTE-A standard to remove inter-cell interference (ICI). However,
the conventional techniques have disadvantage because there is a
trade-off between resource allocation and reliable communication.
The proposed scheme reduces the ICI more efficiently by using
channel state information (CSI) smartly. It is shown that the proposed
scheme can reduce the ICI with fewer resources.
A Comparison of Single Point Incremental Forming Formability between Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel
In sheet metal forming process, raw material
mechanical properties are important parameters. This paper is to
compare the wall’s incline angle or formability of SS 400 steel and
SUS 304 stainless steel in single point incremental forming. The two
materials are ferrous base alloyed, which have the different unit cell,
mechanical property and chemical composition. They were forming
into cone shape specimens having 100 mm diameter with different
wall’s incline angle: 90o, 75o and 60o. The investigation was
continued until the specimens formed surface facture. The
experimental result showed that the smaller the wall incline angle
higher the formability with the both materials. The formability limit
of the ferrous base alloy was approx. 60o wall’s incline angle. By
nature, SS 400 has higher formability than SUS 304. This result can
be used as the initial data in designing the single point incremental
Single-Crystal Kerfless 2D Array Transducer for Volumetric Medical Imaging: Theoretical Study
The aim of this work is to present a theoretical analysis of a 2D ultrasound transducer comprised of crossed arrays of metal strips placed on both sides of thin piezoelectric layer (a). Such a structure is capable of electronic beam-steering of generated wavebeam both in elevation and azimuth. In this paper a semi-analytical model of the considered transducer is developed. It is based on generalization of the well-known BIS-expansion method. Specifically, applying the electrostatic approximation, the electric field components on the surface of the layer are expanded into fast converging series of double periodic spatial harmonics with corresponding amplitudes represented by the properly chosen Legendre polynomials. The problem is reduced to numerical solving of certain system of linear equations for unknown expansion coefficients.
An Improvement of Flow Forming Process for Pressure Vessels by Four Rollers Machine
Flow forming is widely used in many industries, especially in defence technology industries. Pressure vessels requirements are high precision, light weight, seamless and optimum strength. For large pressure vessels, flow forming by 3 rollers machine were used. In case of long range rocket motor case flow forming and welding of pressure vessels have been used for manufacturing. Due to complication of welding process, researchers had developed 4 meters length pressure vessels without weldment by 4 rollers flow forming machine. Design and preparation of preform work pieces are performed. The optimization of flow forming parameter such as feed rate, spindle speed and depth of cut will be discussed. The experimental result shown relation of flow forming parameters to quality of flow formed tube and prototype pressure vessels have been made.
Forming Simulation of Thermoplastic Pre-Impregnated Textile Composite
The process of thermoforming a carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRTP) has increased its presence in the automotive industry for its wide applicability to the mass production car. A non-isothermal forming for CFRTP can shorten its cycle time to less than 1 minute. In this paper, the textile reinforcement FE model which the authors proposed in a previous work is extended to the CFRTP model for non-isothermal forming simulation. The effect of thermoplastic is given by adding shell elements which consider thermal effect to the textile reinforcement model. By applying Reuss model to the stress calculation of thermoplastic, the proposed model can accurately predict in-plane shear behavior, which is the key deformation mode during forming, in the range of the process temperature. Using the proposed model, thermoforming simulation was conducted and the results are in good agreement with the experimental results.
Experimental Study on Ultrasonic Shot Peening Forming and Surface Properties of AALY12
Ultrasonic shot peening (USP) on AALY12 sheet was studied. Several parameters (arc heights, surface roughness, surface topography and micro hardness) with different USP process parameters were measured. The research proposes that radius of curvature of shot peened sheet increases with time and electric current decreasing, while increases with pin diameter increasing, and radius of curvature reaches a saturation level after a specific processing time and electric current. An empirical model of the relationship between radius of curvature and pin diameter, electric current, time was also obtained. The research shows that the increment of surface and vertical micro hardness of material is more obvious with longer time and higher value of electric current, which can be up to 20% and 28% respectively.
Selection Standards for National Teams: Theory and Practice
This article deals with selection standards for national sport teams. The author examines the legal framework for selection criteria and suggests using the most honest criteria.