Longitudinal Vibration of a Micro-Beam in a Micro-Scale Fluid Media
In this paper, longitudinal vibration of a micro-beam in micro-scale fluid media has been investigated. The proposed mathematical model for this study is made up of a micro-beam and a micro-plate at its free end. An AC voltage is applied to the pair of piezoelectric layers on the upper and lower surfaces of the micro-beam in order to actuate it longitudinally. The whole structure is bounded between two fixed plates on its upper and lower surfaces. The micro-gap between the structure and the fixed plates is filled with fluid. Fluids behave differently in micro-scale than macro, so the fluid field in the gap has been modeled based on micro-polar theory. The coupled governing equations of motion of the micro-beam and the micro-scale fluid field have been derived. Due to having non-homogenous boundary conditions, derived equations have been transformed to an enhanced form with homogenous boundary conditions. Using Galerkin-based reduced order model, the enhanced equations have been discretized over the beam and fluid domains and solve simultaneously in order to obtain force response of the micro-beam. Effects of micro-polar parameters of the fluid as characteristic length scale, coupling parameter and surface parameter on the response of the micro-beam have been studied.
Numerical Investigation of Multiphase Flow in Pipelines
We present and analyze reliable numerical techniques
for simulating complex flow and transport phenomena related to
natural gas transportation in pipelines. Such kind of problems
are of high interest in the field of petroleum and environmental
engineering. Modeling and understanding natural gas flow and
transformation processes during transportation is important for the
sake of physical realism and the design and operation of pipeline
systems. In our approach a two fluid flow model based on a system
of coupled hyperbolic conservation laws is considered for describing
natural gas flow undergoing hydratization. The accurate numerical
approximation of two-phase gas flow remains subject of strong
interest in the scientific community. Such hyperbolic problems are
characterized by solutions with steep gradients or discontinuities, and
their approximation by standard finite element techniques typically
gives rise to spurious oscillations and numerical artefacts. Recently,
stabilized and discontinuous Galerkin finite element techniques
have attracted researchers’ interest. They are highly adapted to the
hyperbolic nature of our two-phase flow model. In the presentation
a streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin approach and a discontinuous
Galerkin finite element method for the numerical approximation of
our flow model of two coupled systems of Euler equations are
presented. Then the efficiency and reliability of stabilized continuous
and discontinous finite element methods for the approximation is
carefully analyzed and the potential of the either classes of numerical
schemes is investigated. In particular, standard benchmark problems
of two-phase flow like the shock tube problem are used for the
comparative numerical study.
Super Harmonic Nonlinear Lateral Vibration of an Axially Moving Beam with Rotating Prismatic Joint
The motion of an axially moving beam with rotating prismatic joint with a tip mass on the end is analyzed to investigate the nonlinear vibration and dynamic stability of the beam. The beam is moving with a harmonic axially and rotating velocity about a constant mean velocity. A time-dependent partial differential equation and boundary conditions with the aid of the Hamilton principle are derived to describe the beam lateral deflection. After the partial differential equation is discretized by the Galerkin method, the method of multiple scales is applied to obtain analytical solutions. Frequency response curves are plotted for the super harmonic resonances of the first and the second modes. The effects of non-linear term and mean velocity are investigated on the steady state response of the axially moving beam. The results are validated with numerical simulations.
On the Strong Solutions of the Nonlinear Viscous Rotating Stratified Fluid
A nonlinear model of the mathematical fluid dynamics which describes the motion of an incompressible viscous rotating fluid in a homogeneous gravitational field is considered. The model is a generalization of the known Navier-Stokes system with the addition of the Coriolis parameter and the equations for changeable density. An explicit algorithm for the solution is constructed, and the proof of the existence and uniqueness theorems for the strong solution of the nonlinear problem is given. For the linear case, the localization and the structure of the spectrum of inner waves are also investigated.
Nonlinear Structural Behavior of Micro- and Nano-Actuators Using the Galerkin Discretization Technique
In this paper, the influence of van der Waals, as well as electrostatic forces on the structural behavior of MEMS and NEMS actuators, has been investigated using of a Euler-Bernoulli beam continuous model. In the proposed nonlinear model, the electrostatic fringing-fields and the mid-plane stretching (geometric nonlinearity) effects have been considered. The nonlinear integro-differential equation governing the static structural behavior of the actuator has been derived. An original Galerkin-based reduced-order model has been developed to avoid problems arising from the nonlinearities in the differential equation. The obtained reduced-order model equations have been solved numerically using the Newton-Raphson method. The basic design parameters such as the pull-in parameters (voltage and deflection at pull-in), as well as the detachment length due to the van der Waals force of some investigated micro- and nano-actuators have been calculated. The obtained numerical results have been compared with some other existing methods (finite-elements method and finite-difference method) and the comparison showed good agreement among all assumed numerical techniques.
Recovering the Boundary Data in the Two Dimensional Inverse Heat Conduction Problem Using the Ritz-Galerkin Method
This article presents a numerical method to find the
heat flux in an inhomogeneous inverse heat conduction problem with
linear boundary conditions and an extra specification at the terminal.
The method is based upon applying the satisfier function along with
the Ritz-Galerkin technique to reduce the approximate solution of the
inverse problem to the solution of a system of algebraic equations.
The instability of the problem is resolved by taking advantage of
the Landweber’s iterations as an admissible regularization strategy.
In computations, we find the stable and low-cost results which
demonstrate the efficiency of the technique.
New Insight into Fluid Mechanics of Lorenz Equations
New physical insights into the nonlinear Lorenz
equations related to flow resistance is discussed in this work. The
chaotic dynamics related to Lorenz equations has been studied in
many papers, which is due to the sensitivity of Lorenz equations to
initial conditions and parameter uncertainties. However, the physical
implication arising from Lorenz equations about convectional motion
attracts little attention in the relevant literature. Therefore, as a first
step to understand the related fluid mechanics of convectional motion,
this paper derives the Lorenz equations again with different forced
conditions in the model. Simulation work of the modified Lorenz
equations without the viscosity or buoyancy force is discussed. The
time-domain simulation results may imply that the states of the
Lorenz equations are related to certain flow speed and flow resistance.
The flow speed of the underlying fluid system increases as the flow
resistance reduces. This observation would be helpful to analyze the
coupling effects of different fluid parameters in a convectional model
in future work.
Coupled Galerkin-DQ Approach for the Transient Analysis of Dam-Reservoir Interaction
In this paper, a numerical algorithm using a coupled Galerkin-Differential Quadrature (DQ) method is proposed for the solution of dam-reservoir interaction problem. The governing differential equation of motion of the dam structure is discretized by the Galerkin method and the DQM is used to discretize the fluid domain. The resulting systems of ordinary differential equations are then solved by the Newmark time integration scheme. The mixed scheme combines the simplicity of the Galerkin method and high accuracy and efficiency of the DQ method. Its accuracy and efficiency are demonstrated by comparing the calculated results with those of the existing literature. It is shown that highly accurate results can be obtained using a small number of Galerkin terms and DQM sampling points. The technique presented in this investigation is general and can be used to solve various fluid-structure interaction problems.
High Order Accurate Runge Kutta Nodal Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Numerical Solution of Linear Convection Equation
This paper deals with a high-order accurate Runge
Kutta Discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) method for the numerical
solution of the wave equation, which is one of the simple case of a
linear hyperbolic partial differential equation. Nodal DG method is
used for a finite element space discretization in 'x' by discontinuous
approximations. This method combines mainly two key ideas which
are based on the finite volume and finite element methods. The
physics of wave propagation being accounted for by means of
Riemann problems and accuracy is obtained by means of high-order
polynomial approximations within the elements. High order accurate
Low Storage Explicit Runge Kutta (LSERK) method is used for
temporal discretization in 't' that allows the method to be nonlinearly
stable regardless of its accuracy. The resulting RKDG
methods are stable and high-order accurate. The L1 ,L2 and L∞ error
norm analysis shows that the scheme is highly accurate and effective.
Hence, the method is well suited to achieve high order accurate
solution for the scalar wave equation and other hyperbolic equations.
Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Total Variation Minimization on Inpainting Problem
This paper is concerned with the numerical minimization
of energy functionals in BV (
) (the space of bounded variation
functions) involving total variation for gray-scale 1-dimensional inpainting
problem. Applications are shown by finite element method
and discontinuous Galerkin method for total variation minimization.
We include the numerical examples which show the different recovery
image by these two methods.
Numerical Solution of Infinite Boundary Integral Equation by Using Galerkin Method with Laguerre Polynomials
In this paper the exact solution of infinite boundary integral equation (IBIE) of the second kind with degenerate kernel is presented. Moreover Galerkin method with Laguerre polynomial is applied to get the approximate solution of IBIE. Numerical examples are given to show the validity of the method presented.