A Study on the Effect of Mg and Ag Additions and Age Hardening Treatment on the Properties of As-Cast Al-Cu-Mg-Ag Alloys
This study focuses on the effect of the addition of magnesium (Mg) and silver (Ag) on the mechanical properties of aluminum based alloys. The alloying elements will be added at different levels using the factorial design of experiments of 22; the two factors are Mg and Ag at two levels of concentration. The superior mechanical properties of the produced Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloys after aging will be resulted from a unique type of precipitation named as Ω-phase. The formed precipitate enhanced the tensile strength and thermal stability. This paper further investigated the microstructure and mechanical properties of as cast Al–Cu–Mg–Ag alloys after being complete homogenized treatment at 520 °C for 8 hours followed by isothermally age hardening process at 190 °C for different periods of time. The homogenization at 520 °C for 8 hours was selected based on homogenization study at various temperatures and times. The alloys’ microstructures were studied by using optical microscopy (OM). In addition to that, the fracture surface investigation was performed using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM). Studying the microstructure of aged Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloys reveal that the grains are equiaxed with an average grain size of about 50 µm. A detailed fractography study for fractured surface of the aged alloys exhibited a mixed fracture whereby the random fracture suggested crack propagation along the grain boundaries while the dimples indicated that the fracture was ductile. The present result has shown that alloy 5 has the highest hardness values and the best mechanical behaviors.
Inﬂuence of Sodium Acetate on Electroless Ni-P Deposits and Effect of Heat Treatment on Corrosion Behavior
The aim of our work is to develop an industrial bath of nickel alloy deposit on mild steel. The optimization of the operating parameters made it possible to obtain a stable Ni-P alloy deposition formulation. To understand the reaction mechanism of the deposition process, a kinetic study was performed by cyclic voltammetry and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The coatings obtained have a very high corrosion resistance in a very aggressive acid medium which increases with the heat treatment.
Cyclic Heating Effect on Hardness of Copper
Presented work discusses research results concerning the effect of the heat treatment process. Thermal fatigue which expresses repeated heating and cooling processes affect the ductility or the brittleness of the material. In this research, 70 specimens of copper (1.5 mm thickness, 85 mm length, 32 mm width) are subjected to thermal fatigue at different conditions. Heating temperatures Th are 100, 300 and 500 °C. Number of repeated cycles N is from 1 to 100. Heating time th =600 Sec, and Cooling time; tC= 900 Sec. Results are evaluated and then compared to each other and to that of specimens without subjected to thermal fatigue.
Cold Spray Deposition of SS316L Powders on Al5052 Substrates and Their Potential Using for Biomedical Applications
The corrosion behaviour of 316L stainless steel coatings obtained by cold spray method was investigated in this study. 316L powders were deposited onto Al5052 aluminum substrates. The coatings were produced using nitrogen (N2) process gas. In order to further improve the corrosion and mechanical properties of the coatings, heat treatment was applied at 250 and 750 °C. The corrosion performances of the coatings were compared using the potentiodynamic scanning (PDS) technique under in-vitro conditions (in Ringer’s solution at 37 °C). In addition, the hardness and porosity tests were carried out on the coatings. Microstructural characterization of the coatings was carried out by using scanning electron microscopy attached with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. It was found that clean surfaces and a good adhesion were achieved for particle/substrate bonding. The heat treatment process provided both elimination of the anisotropy in the coating and resulting in healing-up of the incomplete interfaces between the deposited particles. It was found that the corrosion potential of the annealed coatings at 750 °C was higher than that of commercially 316 L stainless steel. Moreover, the microstructural investigations after the corrosion tests revealed that corrosion preferentially starts at inter-splat boundaries.
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Mg-Zn Alloys
Effect of Zn addition on the microstructure and
mechanical properties of Mg-Zn alloys with Zn contents from 6 to 10
weight percent was investigated in this study. Through calculation of
phase equilibria of Mg-Zn alloys, carried out by using FactSage® and
FTLite database, solution treatment temperature was decided as
temperatures from 300 to 400oC, where supersaturated solid solution
can be obtained. Solid solution treatment of Mg-Zn alloys was
successfully conducted at 380oC and supersaturated microstructure
with all beta phase resolved into matrix was obtained. After solution
treatment, hot rolling was successfully conducted by reduction of
60%. Compression and tension tests were carried out at room
temperature on the samples as-cast, solution treated, hot-rolled and
recrystallized after rolling. After solid solution treatment, each alloy
was annealed at temperatures of 180 and 200oC for time intervals from
1 min to 48 hrs and hardness of each condition was measured by
micro-Vickers method. Peak aging conditions were deduced as at the
temperature of 200oC for 10 hrs. By addition of Zn by 10 weight
percent, hardness and strength were enhanced.
Separation of Hazardous Brominated Plastics from Waste Plastics by Froth Flotation after Surface Modification with Mild Heat-Treatment
This study evaluated to facilitate separation of ABS
plastics from other waste plastics by froth flotation after surface
hydrophilization of ABS with heat treatment. The mild heat treatment
at 100oC for 60s could selectively increase the hydrophilicity of the
ABS plastics surface (i.e., ABS contact angle decreased from 79o to
65.8o) among other plastics mixture. The SEM and XPS results of
plastic samples sufficiently supported the increase in hydrophilic
functional groups and decrease contact angle on ABS surface, after
heat treatment. As a result of the froth flotation (at mixing speed 150
rpm and airflow rate 0.3 L/min) after heat treatment, about 85% of
ABS was selectively separated from other heavy plastics with 100%
of purity. The effect of optimum treatment condition and detailed
mechanism onto separation efficiency in the froth floatation was also
investigated. This research is successful in giving a simple, effective,
and inexpensive method for ABS separation from waste plastics.
Effect of T6 and Re-Aging Heat Treatment on Mechanical Properties of 7055 Aluminum Alloy
Heat treatable aluminum alloys such as 7075 and
7055, because of high strength and low density, are used widely in
aircraft industry. For best mechanical properties, T6 heat treatment
has recommended for this regards, but this temper treatment is
sensitive to corrosion induced and Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC)
damage. For improving this property, the over-aging treatment (T7)
applies to this alloy, but it decreases the mechanical properties up to
30 percent. Hence, to increase the mechanical properties, without any
remarkable decrease in SCC resistant, Retrogression and Re-Aging
(RRA) heat treatment is used. This treatment performs in a relatively
short time. In this paper, the RRA heat treatment was applied to 7055
aluminum alloy and then effect of RRA time on the mechanical
properties of 7055 has been investigated. The results show that the
40-minute time is suitable time for retrogression of 7055 aluminum
alloy and ultimate strength increases up to 625MPa.
Effect of Alloying Elements and Hot Forging/Rolling Reduction Ratio on Hardness and Impact Toughness of Heat Treated Low Alloy Steels
The present study was carried out to investigate the
effect of alloying elements and thermo-mechanical treatment (TMT)
i.e. hot rolling and forging with different reduction ratios on the
hardness (HV) and impact toughness (J) of heat-treated low alloy
steels. An understanding of the combined effect of TMT and alloying
elements and by measuring hardness, impact toughness, resulting
from different heat treatment following TMT of the low alloy steels,
it is possible to determine which conditions yielded optimum
mechanical properties and high strength to weight ratio.
Experimental Correlations between hot work reduction ratio,
hardness and impact toughness for thermo-mechanically heat treated
low alloy steels are analyzed quantitatively, and both regression and
mathematical hardness and impact toughness models are developed.
Influence of Post Weld Heat Treatment on Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of TIG Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints
Aluminium and its alloys have excellent corrosion
resistant properties, ease of fabrication and high specific strength to
weight ratio. In this investigation an attempt has been made to study
the effect of different post weld heat treatment methods on the
mechanical and metallurgical properties of TIG welded joints of the
commercial aluminium alloy. Three different methods of post weld
heat treatments are solution heat treatment, artificial ageing and
combination of solution heat treatment and artificial aging are given
to TIG welded aluminium joints. Mechanical and metallurgical
properties of As welded joints of the aluminium alloys and post weld
heat treated joints of the aluminium alloys were examined.
Chromium Adsorption by Modified Wood
Chromium is one of the most common heavy metals which exist in very high concentrations in wastewater. The removal is very expensive due to the high cost of normal adsorbents. Lignocellulosic materials and mainly treated materials have proven to be a good solution for this problem.
Adsorption tests were performed at different pH, different times and with varying concentrations.
Results show that is at pH 3 that treated wood absorbs more chromium ranging from 70% (2h treatment) to almost 100% (12 h treatment) much more than untreated wood with less than 40%. Most of the adsorption is made in the first 2-3 hours for untreated and heat treated wood. Modified wood adsorbs more chromium throughout the time. For all the samples, adsorption fitted relatively well the Langmuir model with correlation coefficient ranging from 0.85 to 0.97.
The results show that heat treated wood is a good adsorbent ant that this might be a good utilization for sawdust from treating companies.
Effect of Aging Condition on Semisolid Cast 2024 Aluminum Alloy
2024 Aluminum alloy was squeezed cast by the Gas Induced Semi Solid (GISS) process. Effect of artificial aging on microstructure and mechanical properties of this alloy was studied in the present work. The solutionized specimens were aged hardened at temperatures of 175°C, 200°C, and 225°C under various time durations. The highest hardness of about 77.7 HRE was attained from specimen aged at the temperature of 175°C for 36h. Upon investigation the microstructure by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the S’ phase was mainly attributed to the strengthening effect in the aged alloy. The apparent activation energy for precipitation hardening of the alloy was calculated as 133,805 J/mol.
Combined Effect of Cold Rolling and Heat Treatment on the Mechanical Properties of Al-Ti Alloy
This study investigated the combined effect of cold rolling and heat treatment on the mechanical properties of Al-Ti alloy. Samples of the alloy are cast in metal mould to obtain 0.94-2.19wt% mixes of titanium. These samples are grouped into untreated (as-cast) and those that are cold rolled to fifty percent reduction, homogenized at 5000C and soaked for one hour. The cold rolled and heat treated samples are normalized (RTn) and quench-tempered (RTq-t) at 1000C. All these samples are subjected to tensile, micro-hardness and microstructural evaluation. Results show remarkable improvement in the mechanical properties of the cold rolled and heat treated samples compared to the as-cast. In particular, the RTq-t samples containing titanium in the range of 1.7-2.2% demonstrates improve tensile strength by 24.7%, yield strength, 28%, elastic modulus, 38.3% and micro-hardness, 20.5%. The Al3Ti phase being the most stable precipitate in the α-Al matrix appears to have been responsible for the significant improvement in the alloy’s mechanical properties. It is concluded that quench and temper heat treatment is an effective method of improving the strength-strain ratio of cold rolled Al-.0.9-2.2%Ti alloy.
RBS Characteristic of Cd1−xZnxS Thin Film Fabricated by Vacuum Deposition Method
Cd1−xZnxS thins films have been fabricated from ZnS/CdS/ZnS multilayer thin film systems, by using the vacuum deposition method; the Rutherford backscattering (RBS) technique have been applied in order to determine the: structure, composition, depth profile, and stoichiometric of these films. The influence of the chemical and heat treatments on the produced films also have been investigated; the RBS spectra of the films showed that homogenous Cd1−xZnxS can be synthesized with x=0.45.
Fatigue Crack Initiation of Al-Alloys “Effect of Heat Treatment Condition”
In this investigation an empirical study was made on fatigue crack initiation on 7075 T6 and 7075 T71 Al-alloys under constant amplitude loading. In initiation stage, local strain approach at the notch was applied. Single Edge Notch Tensile specimen with semi circular notch is used. Based on experimental results, effect of mean stress, is highlights on fatigue initiation life. Results show that fatigue life initiation is affected by notch geometry and mean stress.
Heat Treatment of Aluminum Alloy 7449
Aluminum alloy has an extensive range of industrial application due to its consistent mechanical properties and structural integrity. The heat treatment by precipitation technique affected the Magnesium, Silicon Manganese and copper crystals dissolved in the Aluminum alloy. The crystals dislocated to precipitate on the crystal’s boundaries of the Aluminum alloy when given a thermal energy increased its hardness. In this project various times and temperature were varied to find out the best combination of these variables to increase the precipitation of the metals on the Aluminum crystal’s boundaries which will lead to get the highest hardness. These specimens are then tested for their hardness and tensile strength. It is noticed that when the temperature increases, the precipitation increases and consequently the hardness increases. A threshold temperature value (264C0) of Aluminum alloy should not be reached due to the occurrence of recrystalization which causes the crystal to grow. This recrystalization process affected the ductility of the alloy and decrease hardness. In addition, and while increasing the temperature the alloy’s mechanical properties will decrease. The mechanical properties, namely tensile and hardness properties are investigated according to standard procedures. In this research, different temperature and time have been applied to increase hardening.The highest hardness at 100°c in 6 hours equals to 207.31 HBR, while at the same temperature and time the lowest elongation equals to 146.5.
Optimization of Heat Treatment Due to Austenising Temperature, Time and Quenching Solution in Hadfield Steels
Manganese steel (Hadfield) is one of the important
alloys in industry due to its special properties. High work hardening
ability with appropriate toughness and ductility are the properties that
caused this alloy to be used in wear resistance parts and in high
strength condition. Heat treatment is the main process through which
the desired mechanical properties and microstructures are obtained in
Hadfield steel. In this study various heat treatment cycles, differing in
austenising temperature, time and quenching solution are applied. For
this purpose, the same samples of manganese steel was heat treated in
9 different cycles, and then the mechanical properties and
microstructures were investigated. Based on the results of the study,
the optimum heat treatment cycle was obtained.
Correlation between Heat Treatment, Microstructure and Properties of Trip-Assisted Steels
In the present study, two TRIP-assisted steels were designated as A (having no Cr and Cu content) and B (having higher Ni, Cr and Cu content) heat treated under different conditions, and the correlation between its heat treatment, microstructure and properties were investigated. Micro structural examination was carried out by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope after electrolytic etching. Non-destructive electrochemical and ultrasonic testing on two TRIP-assisted steels was used to find out corrosion and mechanical properties of different alter microstructure phase’s steels. Furthermore, micro structural studies accompanied by the evaluation of mechanical properties revealed that steels having martensite phases with higher corrosive and hardness value were less sound velocity and also steel’s microstructure having finer grains that was more grain boundary was less corrosion resistance. Steel containing more Cu, Ni and Cr was less corrosive compared to other steels having same processing or microstructure.
Influence of Microstructural Features on Wear Resistance of Biomedical Titanium Materials
The field of biomedical materials plays an imperative
requisite and a critical role in manufacturing a variety of biological
artificial replacements in a modern world. Recently, titanium (Ti)
materials are being used as biomaterials because of their superior
corrosion resistance and tremendous specific strength, free- allergic
problems and the greatest biocompatibility compared to other
competing biomaterials such as stainless steel, Co-Cr alloys,
ceramics, polymers, and composite materials. However, regardless of
these excellent performance properties, Implantable Ti materials have
poor shear strength and wear resistance which limited their
applications as biomaterials. Even though the wear properties of Ti
alloys has revealed some improvements, the crucial effectiveness of
biomedical Ti alloys as wear components requires a comprehensive
deep understanding of the wear reasons, mechanisms, and techniques
that can be used to improve wear behavior. This review examines
current information on the effect of thermal and thermomechanical
processing of implantable Ti materials on the long-term prosthetic
requirement which related with wear behavior. This paper focuses
mainly on the evolution, evaluation and development of effective
microstructural features that can improve wear properties of bio
grade Ti materials using thermal and thermomechanical treatments.
Effect of Heat Treatment on the Phase Formation of La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-α
Powder of La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-α (LSCO) was synthesized
by a combined citrate-EDTA method. The as-synthesized LSCO
powder was calcined, respectively at temperatures of 800, 900 and
1000 °C with different heating/cooling rates which are 2, 5, 10 and
15 °C min-1. The effects of heat treatments on the phase formation of
perovskite phase of LSCO were investigated by powder X-ray
diffraction (XRD). The XRD patterns revealed that the rate of
5 °C min-1 is the optimum heating/cooling rate to obtain a single
perovskite phase of LSCO with calcination temperature of 800 °C.
This result was confirmed by a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) as
it showed a complete decomposition of intermediate compounds to
form oxide material was also observed at 800 °C.
The Effect of Chemical Treatment on TL Glow Curves of CdS/ZnS Thin Films Deposited by Vacuum Deposition Method
The effect of chemical treatment in CdCl2 and thermal
annealing in 400°C, on the defect structures of potentially useful
ZnS\CdS solar cell thin films deposited onto quartz substrate and
prepared by vacuum deposition method was studied using the
Thermoluminesence (TL) techniques. A series of electron and hole
traps are found in the various deposited samples studied. After
annealing, however, it was observed that the intensity and activation
energy of TL signal increases with loss of the low temperature
Effect of Heat Treatment on the Portevin-Le Chatelier Effect of Al-2.5%Mg Alloy
An experimental study is presented on the effect
of microstructural change on the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect
behaviour of Al-2.5%Mg alloy. Tensile tests are performed on
the as received and heat treated (at 400 ºC for 16 hours)
samples for a wide range of strain rates. The serrations
observed in the stress-time curve are investigated from
statistical analysis point of view. Microstructures of the
samples are characterized by optical metallography and X-ray
diffraction. It is found that the excess vacancy generated due
to heat treatment leads to decrease in the strain rate sensitivity
and the increase in the number of stress drop occurrences per
unit time during the PLC effect. The microstructural
parameters like domain size, dislocation density have no
appreciable effect on the PLC effect as far as the statistical
behavior of the serrations is considered.
Thermal Treatments and Characteristics Study On Unalloyed Structural (AISI 1140) Steel
The main emphasis of metallurgists has been to process the materials to obtain the balanced mechanical properties for the given application. One of the processing routes to alter the properties is heat treatment. Nearly 90% of the structural applications are related to the medium carbon an alloyed steels and hence are regarded as structural steels. The major requirement in the conventional steel is to improve workability, toughness, hardness and grain refinement. In this view, it is proposed to study the mechanical and tribological properties of unalloyed structural (AISI 1140) steel with different thermal (heat) treatments like annealing, normalizing, tempering and hardening and compared with as brought (cold worked) specimen. All heat treatments are carried out in atmospheric condition. Hardening treatment improves hardness of the material, a marginal decrease in hardness value with improved ductility is observed in tempering. Annealing and normalizing improve ductility of the specimen. Normalized specimen shows ultimate ductility. Hardened specimen shows highest wear resistance in the initial period of slide wear where as above 25KM of sliding distance, as brought steel dominates the hardened specimen. Both mild and severe wear regions are observed. Microstructural analysis shows the existence of pearlitic structure in normalized specimen, lath martensitic structure in hardened, pearlitic, ferritic structure in annealed specimen.
Development of All-male Fingerlings by Heat Treatment and the Genetic Mechanism of Heat Induced Sex Determination in Nile Tilapia(Oreochromis niloticus L.)
Juvenile Nile tilapia subjected to heat treatment at
temperatures ranging from 260C to 370C showed positive correlation
Improvement in Mechanical Behavior of Expulsion with Heat treated Thermite Welded Rail Steel
Thermite welding is mainly used in world. The
reasons why the thermite welding method is widely used are
that the equipment has good mobility and total working time
of that is shorter than that of the enclosed arc welding method
on site. Moreover, the operating skill, which required for
thermite welding, is less than that of for enclosed arc welding.
In the present research work, heat treatment and combined
'expulsion and heat treatment' techniques were used improve
the mechanical properties and weldment structure. The
specimens were cut in the transverse direction from expulsion
with Heat treated and heat treated Thermite Welded rails.
Specimens were prepared according to AWS standard and
subjected to tensile test, Impact test and hardness and their
results were tabulated. Microstructural analysis was carried
out with the help of SEM. Then analyze to effect of heat
treated and 'expulsion with heat treated' with the properties of
their thermite welded rails. Compare the mechanical and
microstructural properties of thermite welded rails between
heat expulsion with heat treated and heat treated. Mechanical
and microstructural response expulsion with heat treated
thermite welded rail is higher value as compared to heat
The Effect of Ageing Treatment of Aluminum Alloys for Fuselage Structure-Light Aircraft
As the material used for fuselage structure must
possess low density, high strength to weight ratio, the selection of
appropriate materials for fuselage structure is one of the most
important tasks. Aluminum metal itself is soft and low in strength. It
can be made stronger by giving proper combination of suitable alloy
addition, mechanical treatment and thermal treatment. The usual
thermal treatment given to aluminum alloys is called age-hardening
or precipitation hardening. In this paper, the studies are carried out on
7075 aluminum alloy which is how to improve strength level for
fuselage structure. The marked effect of the strength on the ternary
alloy is clearly demonstrated at several ageing times and
temperatures. It is concluded that aluminum-zinc-magnesium alloy
can get the highest strength level in natural ageing.
Heat Treatment and Rest-Inserted Exercise Enhances EMG Activity of the Lower Limb
Prolonged immobilization leads to significant
weakness and atrophy of the skeletal muscle and can also impair the
recovery of muscle strength following injury. Therefore, it is
important to minimize the period under immobilization and accelerate
the return to normal activity. This study examined the effects of heat
treatment and rest-inserted exercise on the muscle activity of the lower
limb during knee flexion/extension. Twelve healthy subjects were
assigned to 4 groups that included: (1) heat treatment + rest-inserted
exercise; (2) heat + continuous exercise; (3) no heat + rest-inserted
exercise; and (4) no heat + continuous exercise. Heat treatment was
applied for 15 mins prior to exercise. Continuous exercise groups
performed knee flexion/extension at 0.5 Hz for 300 cycles without rest
whereas rest-inserted exercise groups performed the same exercise but
with 2 mins rest inserted every 60 cycles of continuous exercise.
Changes in the rectus femoris and hamstring muscle activities were
assessed at 0, 1, and 2 weeks of treatment by measuring the
electromyography signals of isokinetic maximum voluntary
contraction. Significant increases in both the rectus femoris and
hamstring muscles were observed after 2 weeks of treatment only
when both heat treatment and rest-inserted exercise were performed.
These results suggest that combination of various treatment techniques,
such as heat treatment and rest-inserted exercise, may expedite the
recovery of muscle strength following immobilization.