Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 6

6
10008797
Computational Study of Blood Flow Analysis for Coronary Artery Disease
Abstract:

The aim of this study is to estimate the effect of blood flow through the coronary artery in human heart so as to assess the coronary artery disease.Velocity, wall shear stress (WSS), strain rate and wall pressure distribution are some of the important hemodynamic parameters that are non-invasively assessed with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). These parameters are used to identify the mechanical factors responsible for the plaque progression and/or rupture in left coronary arteries (LCA) in coronary arteries.The initial step for CFD simulations was the construction of a geometrical model of the LCA. Patient specific artery model is constructed using computed tomography (CT) scan data with the help of MIMICS Research 19.0. For CFD analysis ANSYS FLUENT-14.5 is used.Hemodynamic parameters were quantified and flow patterns were visualized both in the absence and presence of coronary plaques. The wall pressure continuously decreased towards distal segments and showed pressure drops in stenotic segments. Areas of high WSS and high flow velocities were found adjacent to plaques deposition.

5
10006367
Warning about the Risk of Blood Flow Stagnation after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation
Abstract:

In this work, the hemodynamics in the sinuses of Valsalva after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation is numerically examined. We focus on the physical results in the two-dimensional case. We use a finite element methodology based on a Lagrange multiplier technique that enables to couple the dynamics of blood flow and the leaflets’ movement. A massively parallel implementation of a monolithic and fully implicit solver allows more accuracy and significant computational savings. The elastic properties of the aortic valve are disregarded, and the numerical computations are performed under physiologically correct pressure loads. Computational results depict that blood flow may be subject to stagnation in the lower domain of the sinuses of Valsalva after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

4
17132
Hemodynamic Characteristics in the Human Carotid Artery Model Induced by Blood-Arterial Wall Interactions
Authors:
Abstract:

The characteristics of physiological blood flow in human carotid arterial bifurcation model have been numerically studied using a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis. This computational model with the fluid-structure interaction is constructed to investigate the flow characteristics and wall shear stress in the carotid artery. As the flow begins to decelerate after the peak flow, a large recirculation zone develops at the non-divider wall of both internal carotid artery (ICA) and external carotid artery (ECA) in FSI model due to the elastic energy stored in the expanding compliant wall. The calculated difference in wall shear stress (WSS) in both Non-FSI and FSI models is a range of between 5 and 11% at the mean WSS. The low WSS corresponds to regions of carotid artery that are more susceptible to atherosclerosis.

3
8757
Effect of Secondary Curvature on Mixing Characteristic within Constant Circular Tubes
Abstract:
In this study, numerical simulations on laminar flow in sinusoidal wavy shaped tubes were conducted for mean Reynolds number of 250, which is in the range of physiological flow-rate and investigated flow structures, pressure distribution and particle trajectories both in steady and periodic inflow conditions. For extensive comparisons, various wave lengths and amplitudes of sine function for geometry of tube models were employed. The results showed that small amplitude secondary curvature has significant influence on the nature of flow patterns and particle mixing mechanism. This implies that characterizing accurate geometry is essential in accurate predicting of in vivo hemodynamics and may motivate further study on any possibility of reflection of secondary flow on vascular remodeling and pathophysiology.
2
6571
Computational Study on Cardiac-Coronary Interaction in Terms of Coronary Flow-Pressure Waveforms in Presence of Drugs: Comparison Between Simulated and In Vivo Data
Abstract:
Cardiovascular human simulator can be a useful tool in understanding complex physiopathological process in cardiocirculatory system. It can also be a useful tool in order to investigate the effects of different drugs on hemodynamic parameters. The aim of this work is to test the potentiality of our cardiovascular numerical simulator CARDIOSIM© in reproducing flow/pressure coronary waveforms in presence of two different drugs: Amlodipine (AMLO) and Adenosine (ADO). In particular a time-varying intramyocardial compression, assumed to be proportional to the left ventricular pressure, was related to the venous coronary compliances in order to study its effects on the coronary blood flow and the flow/pressure loop. Considering that coronary circulation dynamics is strongly interrelated with the mechanics of the left ventricular contraction, relaxation, and filling, the numerical model allowed to analyze the effects induced by the left ventricular pressure on the coronary flow.
1
1214
Computational Analysis of Hemodynamic Effects on Aneurysm Coil Bundle
Abstract:
Recurrence of aneurysm rupture can be attributed to coil migration and compaction. In order to verify the effects of hemodynamics on coil compaction and migration, we analyze the forces and displacements on the coil bundle using a computational method. Lateral aneurysms partially filled coils are modeled, and blood flow fields and coil deformations are simulated considering fluid and solid interaction. Effects of aneurysm neck size and parent vessel geometry are also investigated. The results showed that coil deformation was larger in the aneurysms with a wider neck. Parent vessel geometry and aneurysm neck size also affected mean pressure force profiles on the coil surface. Pressure forces were higher in wide neck models with curved parent vessel geometry. Simulation results showed that coils in the wide neck aneurysm with a curved parent vessel may be displaced and compacted more easily.
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