Map Matching Performance under Various Similarity Metrics for Heterogeneous Robot Teams
Aerial and ground robots have various advantages of usage in different missions. Aerial robots can move quickly and get a different sight of view of the area, but those vehicles cannot carry heavy payloads. On the other hand, unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) are slow moving vehicles, since those can carry heavier payloads than unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). In this context, we investigate the performances of various Similarity Metrics to provide a common map for Heterogeneous Robot Team (HRT) in complex environments. Within the usage of Lidar Odometry and Octree Mapping technique, the local 3D maps of the environment are gathered. In order to obtain a common map for HRT, informative theoretic similarity metrics are exploited. All types of these similarity metrics gave adequate as allowable simulation time and accurate results that can be used in different types of applications. For the heterogeneous multi robot team, those methods can be used to match different types of maps.
Limit State of Heterogeneous Smart Structures under Unknown Cyclic Loading
This paper presents a numerical solution, namely limit and shakedown analysis, to predict the safety state of smart structures made of heterogeneous materials under unknown cyclic loadings, for instance, the flexure hinge in the micro-positioning stage driven by piezoelectric actuator. In combination of homogenization theory and finite-element method (FEM), the safety evaluation problem is converted to a large-scale nonlinear optimization programming for an acceptable bounded loading as the design reference. Furthermore, a general numerical scheme integrated with the FEM and interior-point-algorithm based optimization tool is developed, which makes the practical application possible.
Response of a Bridge Crane during an Earthquake
During an earthquake, a bridge crane may be
subjected to multiple impacts between crane wheels and rail. In order
to model such phenomena, a time-history dynamic analysis with a
multi-scale approach is performed. The high frequency aspect of the
impacts between wheels and rails is taken into account by a Lagrange
explicit event-capturing algorithm based on a velocity-impulse
formulation to resolve contacts and impacts. An implicit temporal
scheme is used for the rest of the structure. The numerical coupling
between the implicit and the explicit schemes is achieved with a
heterogeneous asynchronous time-integrator.
Reaction Kinetics of Biodiesel Production from Refined Cottonseed Oil Using Calcium Oxide
Power law approximation was used in this study to evaluate the reaction orders of calcium oxide, CaO catalyzed transesterification of refined cottonseed oil and methanol. The kinetics study was carried out at temperatures of 45, 55 and 65 oC. The kinetic parameters such as reaction order 2.02 and rate constant 2.8 hr-1g-1cat, obtained at the temperature of 65 oC best fitted the kinetic model. The activation energy, Ea obtained was 127.744 KJ/mol. The results indicate that the transesterification reaction of the refined cottonseed oil using calcium oxide catalyst is approximately second order reaction.
Preparation of Heterogeneous Ferrite Catalysts and Their Application for Fenton-Like Oxidation of Radioactive Organic Wastewater
Fenton oxidation technology is the general strategy for the treatment of organic compounds-contained wastewater. However, a considerable amount of ferric sludge was produced during the Fenton process as secondary wastes, which were needed to be further removed from the effluent and treated. In this study, heterogeneous catalysts based on ferrite oxide (Cu-Fe-Ce-O) were synthesized and characterized, and their application for Fenton-like oxidation of simulated and actual radioactive organic wastewater was investigated. The results of TOC decomposition efficiency around 54% ~ 99% were obtained when the catalyst loading, H2O2 loading, pH, temperature, and reaction time were controlled. In this case, no secondary wastes formed and the given catalysts were able to be separated by magnetic devices and reused again.
An Adaptive Opportunistic Transmission for Unlicensed Spectrum Sharing in Heterogeneous Networks
Efficient utilization of spectrum resources is a
fundamental issue of wireless communications due to its scarcity.
To improve the efficiency of spectrum utilization, the spectrum
sharing for unlicensed bands is being regarded as one of key
technologies in the next generation wireless networks. A number
of schemes such as Listen-Before-Talk(LBT) and carrier sensor
adaptive transmission (CSAT) have been suggested from this aspect,
but more efficient sharing schemes are required for improving
spectrum utilization efficiency. This work considers an opportunistic
transmission approach and a dynamic Contention Window (CW)
adjustment scheme for LTE-U users sharing the unlicensed spectrum
with Wi-Fi, in order to enhance the overall system throughput. The
decision criteria for the dynamic adjustment of CW are based on
the collision evaluation, derived from the collision probability of the
system. The overall performance can be improved due to the adaptive
adjustment of the CW. Simulation results show that our proposed
scheme outperforms the Distributed Coordination Function (DCF)
mechanism of IEEE 802.11 MAC.
Performance Analysis of Heterogeneous Cellular Networks with Multiple Connectivity
Future mobile networks following 5th generation will
be characterized by one thousand times higher gains in capacity;
connections for at least one hundred billion devices; user experience
capable of extremely low latency and response times. To be close to
the capacity requirements and higher reliability, advanced
technologies have been studied, such as multiple connectivity, small
cell enhancement, heterogeneous networking, and advanced
interference and mobility management. This paper is focused on the
multiple connectivity in heterogeneous cellular networks. We
investigate the performance of coverage and user throughput in several
deployment scenarios. Using the stochastic geometry approach, the
SINR distributions and the coverage probabilities are derived in case
of dual connection. Also, to compare the user throughput enhancement
among the deployment scenarios, we calculate the spectral efficiency
and discuss our results.
An Improved Scheduling Strategy in Cloud Using Trust Based Mechanism
Cloud Computing refers to applications delivered as
services over the internet, and the datacenters that provide those
services with hardware and systems software. These were earlier
referred to as Software as a Service (SaaS). Scheduling is justified by
job components (called tasks), lack of information. In fact, in a large
fraction of jobs from machine learning, bio-computing, and image
processing domains, it is possible to estimate the maximum time
required for a task in the job. This study focuses on Trust based
scheduling to improve cloud security by modifying Heterogeneous
Earliest Finish Time (HEFT) algorithm. It also proposes TR-HEFT
(Trust Reputation HEFT) which is then compared to Dynamic Load
Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis: Teachings of the Thermal Energy and Power Engineering Course
It is usually difficult for students to understand some
basic theories in learning thermal energy and power engineering
course. A new teaching method was proposed that we should introduce
the comparison research method of those theories to help them being
understood. “Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis” teaching is
analyzed as an example by comparison research method.
Heuristic for Accelerating Run-Time Task Mapping in NoC-Based Heterogeneous MPSoCs
In this paper, we propose a new packing strategy to
find a free resource for run-time mapping of application tasks to
NoC-based Heterogeneous MPSoC. The proposed strategy minimizes
the task mapping time in addition to placing the communicating tasks
close to each other. To evaluate our approach, a comparative study is
carried out for a platform containing single task supported PEs.
Experiments show that our strategy provides better results when
compared to latest dynamic mapping strategies reported in the
Optimal Grid Scheduling Using Improved Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm
Job Scheduling plays an important role for efficient
utilization of grid resources available across different domains and
geographical zones. Scheduling of jobs is challenging and NPcomplete.
Evolutionary / Swarm Intelligence algorithms have been
extensively used to address the NP problem in grid scheduling.
Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) has been proposed for optimization
problems based on foraging behaviour of bees. This work proposes a
modified ABC algorithm, Cluster Heterogeneous Earliest First Min-
Min Artificial Bee Colony (CHMM-ABC), to optimally schedule
jobs for the available resources. The proposed model utilizes a novel
Heterogeneous Earliest Finish Time (HEFT) Heuristic Algorithm
along with Min-Min algorithm to identify the initial food source.
Simulation results show the performance improvement of the
proposed algorithm over other swarm intelligence techniques.
Study of the Vertical Handoff in Heterogeneous Networks and Implement Based On Opnet
In this document we studied more in detail the Performances of the vertical handover in the networks WLAN, WiMAX, UMTS before studying of it the Procedure of Handoff Vertical, the whole buckled by simulations putting forward the performances of the handover in the heterogeneous networks. The goal of Vertical Handover is to carry out several accesses in real-time in the heterogeneous networks. This makes it possible a user to use several networks (such as WLAN UMTS andWiMAX) in parallel, and the system to commutate automatically at another basic station, without disconnecting itself, as if there were no cut and with little loss of data as possible.
Heterogeneous Artifacts Construction for Software Evolution Control
The software evolution control requires a deep
understanding of the changes and their impact on different system
heterogeneous artifacts. And an understanding of descriptive
knowledge of the developed software artifacts is a prerequisite
condition for the success of the evolutionary process.
The implementation of an evolutionary process is to make changes
more or less important to many heterogeneous software artifacts such
as source code, analysis and design models, unit testing, XML
deployment descriptors, user guides, and others. These changes can
be a source of degradation in functional, qualitative or behavioral
terms of modified software. Hence the need for a unified approach
for extraction and representation of different heterogeneous artifacts
in order to ensure a unified and detailed description of heterogeneous
software artifacts, exploitable by several software tools and allowing
to responsible for the evolution of carry out the reasoning change
Searching k-Nearest Neighbors to be Appropriate under Gamming Environments
In general, algorithms to find continuous k-nearest neighbors have been researched on the location based services, monitoring periodically the moving objects such as vehicles and mobile phone. Those researches assume the environment that the number of query points is much less than that of moving objects and the query points are not moved but fixed. In gaming environments, this problem is when computing the next movement considering the neighbors such as flocking, crowd and robot simulations. In this case, every moving object becomes a query point so that the number of query point is same to that of moving objects and the query points are also moving. In this paper, we analyze the performance of the existing algorithms focused on location based services how they operate under gaming environments.
Complex Dynamics of Bertrand Duopoly Games with Bounded Rationality
A dynamic of Bertrand duopoly game is analyzed, where players use different production methods and choose their prices with bounded rationality. The equilibriums of the corresponding discrete dynamical systems are investigated. The stability conditions of Nash equilibrium under a local adjustment process are studied. The stability conditions of Nash equilibrium under a local adjustment process are studied. The stability of Nash equilibrium, as some parameters of the model are varied, gives rise to complex dynamics such as cycles of higher order and chaos. On this basis, we discover that an increase of adjustment speed of bounded rational player can make Bertrand market sink into the chaotic state. Finally, the complex dynamics, bifurcations and chaos are displayed by numerical simulation.
Performance of Heterogeneous Autoregressive Models of Realized Volatility: Evidence from U.S. Stock Market
This paper deals with heterogeneous autoregressive
models of realized volatility (HAR-RV models) on high-frequency
data of stock indices in the USA. Its aim is to capture the behavior of
three groups of market participants trading on a daily, weekly and
monthly basis and assess their role in predicting the daily realized
volatility. The benefits of this work lies mainly in the application of
heterogeneous autoregressive models of realized volatility on stock
indices in the USA with a special aim to analyze an impact of the
global financial crisis on applied models forecasting performance.
We use three data sets, the first one from the period before the global
financial crisis occurred in the years 2006-2007, the second one from
the period when the global financial crisis fully hit the U.S. financial
market in 2008-2009 years, and the last period was defined over
2010-2011 years. The model output indicates that estimated realized
volatility in the market is very much determined by daily traders and
in some cases excludes the impact of those market participants who
trade on monthly basis.
Flocking Behaviors for Multiple Groups with Heterogeneous Agents
Most of researches for conventional simulations were
studied focusing on flocks with a single species. While there exist the
flocking behaviors with a single species in nature, the flocking
behaviors are frequently observed with multi-species. This paper
studies on the flocking simulation for heterogeneous agents. In order
to simulate the flocks for heterogeneous agents, the conventional
method uses the identifier of flock, while the proposed method defines
the feature vector of agent and uses the similarity between agents by
comparing with those feature vectors. Based on the similarity, the
paper proposed the attractive force and repulsive force and then
executed the simulation by applying two forces. The results of
simulation showed that flock formation with heterogeneous agents is
very natural in both cases. In addition, it showed that unlike the
existing method, the proposed method can not only control the density
of the flocks, but also be possible for two different groups of agents to
flock close to each other if they have a high similarity.
Biodiesel Production from Palm Oil using Heterogeneous Base Catalyst
In this study, the transesterification of palm oil with methanol for biodiesel production was studied by using CaO–ZnO as a heterogeneous base catalyst prepared by incipient-wetness impregnation (IWI) and co-precipitation (CP) methods. The reaction parameters considered were molar ratio of methanol to oil, amount of catalyst, reaction temperature, and reaction time. The optimum conditions–15:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil, a catalyst amount of 6 wt%, reaction temperature of 60 °C, and reaction time of 8 h–were observed. The effects of Ca loading, calcination temperature, and catalyst preparation on the catalytic performance were studied. The fresh and spent catalysts were characterized by several techniques, including XRD, TPR, and XRF.
A Comparison between Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Gas Flow Model in Slurry Bubble Column Reactor for Direct Synthesis of DME
In the present study, a heterogeneous and
homogeneous gas flow dispersion model for simulation and
optimisation of a large-scale catalytic slurry reactor for the direct
synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas and CO2, using a
churn-turbulent regime was developed. In the heterogeneous gas flow
model the gas phase was distributed into two bubble phases: small
and large, however in the homogeneous one, the gas phase was
distributed into only one large bubble phase. The results indicated
that the heterogeneous gas flow model was in more agreement with
experimental pilot plant data than the homogeneous one.
Centralized Resource Management for Network Infrastructure Including Ip Telephony by Integrating a Mediator Between the Heterogeneous Data Sources
Over the past decade, mobile has experienced a
revolution that will ultimately change the way we communicate.All
these technologies have a common denominator exploitation of
computer information systems, but their operation can be tedious
because of problems with heterogeneous data sources.To overcome
the problems of heterogeneous data sources, we propose to use a
technique of adding an extra layer interfacing applications of
management or supervision at the different data sources.This layer
will be materialized by the implementation of a mediator between
different host applications and information systems frequently used
hierarchical and relational manner such that the heterogeneity is
completely transparent to the VoIP platform.
Photodegradation of Phenol Red in the Presence of ZnO Nanoparticles
In our recent study, we have used ZnO nanoparticles assisted with UV light irradiation to investigate the photocatalytic degradation of Phenol Red (PR). The ZnO photocatalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), specific surface area analysis (BET) and UVvisible spectroscopy. X-ray diffractometry result for the ZnO nanoparticles exhibit normal crystalline phase features. All observed peaks can be indexed to the pure hexagonal wurtzite crystal structures, with the space group of P63mc. There are no other impurities in the diffraction peak. In addition, TEM measurement shows that most of the nanoparticles are rod-like and spherical in shape and fairly monodispersed. A significant degradation of the PR was observed when the catalyst was added into the solution even without the UV light exposure. In addition, the photodegradation increases with the photocatalyst loading. The surface area of the ZnO nanomaterials from the BET measurement was 11.9 m2/g. Besides the photocatalyst loading, the effect of some parameters on the photodegradation efficiency such as initial PR concentration and pH were also studied.
Likelihood Estimation for Stochastic Epidemics with Heterogeneous Mixing Populations
We consider a heterogeneously mixing SIR stochastic
epidemic process in populations described by a general graph.
Likelihood theory is developed to facilitate statistic inference for the
parameters of the model under complete observation. We show that
these estimators are asymptotically Gaussian unbiased estimates by
using a martingale central limit theorem.
Collaborative Mobile Device based Data Collection and Dissemination using MIH for Effective Emergency Management
The importance of our country-s communication
system is noticeable when a disaster occurs. The communication
system in our country includes wired and wireless telephone
networks, radio, satellite system and more increasingly internet. Even
though our communication system is most extensive and dependable,
extreme conditions can put a strain on them. Interoperability between
heterogeneous wireless networks can be used to provide efficient
communication for emergency first response. IEEE 802.21 specifies
Media Independent Handover (MIH) services to enhance the mobile
user experience by optimizing handovers between heterogeneous
access networks. This paper presents an algorithm to improve
congestion control in MIH framework. It is analytically shown that
by including time factor in network selection we can optimize
congestion in the network.
Performance Evaluation of TCP Vegas versus Different TCP Variants in Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Wired Networks
A study on the performance of TCP Vegas versus
different TCP variants in homogeneous and heterogeneous wired
networks are performed via simulation experiment using network
simulator (ns-2). This performance evaluation prepared a comparison
medium for the performance evaluation of enhanced-TCP Vegas in
wired network and for wireless network. In homogeneous network,
the performance of TCP Tahoe, TCP Reno, TCP NewReno, TCP
Vegas and TCP SACK are analyzed. In heterogeneous network, the
performances of TCP Vegas against TCP variants are analyzed. TCP
Vegas outperforms other TCP variants in homogeneous wired
network. However, TCP Vegas achieves unfair throughput in
heterogeneous wired network.
Kinetic Modeling of the Fischer-Tropsch Reactions and Modeling Steady State Heterogeneous Reactor
The rate of production of main products of the Fischer-Tropsch reactions over Fe/HZSM5 bifunctional catalyst in a fixed bed reactor is investigated at a broad range of temperature, pressure, space velocity, H2/CO feed molar ratio and CO2, CH4 and water flow rates. Model discrimination and parameter estimation were performed according to the integral method of kinetic analysis. Due to lack of mechanism development for Fisher – Tropsch Synthesis on bifunctional catalysts, 26 different models were tested and the best model is selected. Comprehensive one and two dimensional heterogeneous reactor models are developed to simulate the performance of fixed-bed Fischer – Tropsch reactors. To reduce computational time for optimization purposes, an Artificial Feed Forward Neural Network (AFFNN) has been used to describe intra particle mass and heat transfer diffusion in the catalyst pellet. It is seen that products' reaction rates have direct relation with H2 partial pressure and reverse relation with CO partial pressure. The results show that the hybrid model has good agreement with rigorous mechanistic model, favoring that the hybrid model is about 25-30 times faster.
A Comprehensive Survey on RAT Selection Algorithms for Heterogeneous Networks
Due to the coexistence of different Radio Access
Technologies (RATs), Next Generation Wireless Networks (NGWN)
are predicted to be heterogeneous in nature. The coexistence of
different RATs requires a need for Common Radio Resource
Management (CRRM) to support the provision of Quality of Service
(QoS) and the efficient utilization of radio resources. RAT selection
algorithms are part of the CRRM algorithms. Simply, their role is to
verify if an incoming call will be suitable to fit into a heterogeneous
wireless network, and to decide which of the available RATs is most
suitable to fit the need of the incoming call and admit it.
Guaranteeing the requirements of QoS for all accepted calls and at
the same time being able to provide the most efficient utilization of
the available radio resources is the goal of RAT selection algorithm.
The normal call admission control algorithms are designed for
homogeneous wireless networks and they do not provide a solution
to fit a heterogeneous wireless network which represents the NGWN.
Therefore, there is a need to develop RAT selection algorithm for
heterogeneous wireless network. In this paper, we propose an
approach for RAT selection which includes receiving different
criteria, assessing and making decisions, then selecting the most
suitable RAT for incoming calls. A comprehensive survey of
different RAT selection algorithms for a heterogeneous wireless
network is studied.
A Markov Chain Model for Load-Balancing Based and Service Based RAT Selection Algorithms in Heterogeneous Networks
Next Generation Wireless Network (NGWN) is
expected to be a heterogeneous network which integrates all different
Radio Access Technologies (RATs) through a common platform. A
major challenge is how to allocate users to the most suitable RAT for
them. An optimized solution can lead to maximize the efficient use
of radio resources, achieve better performance for service providers
and provide Quality of Service (QoS) with low costs to users.
Currently, Radio Resource Management (RRM) is implemented
efficiently for the RAT that it was developed. However, it is not
suitable for a heterogeneous network. Common RRM (CRRM) was
proposed to manage radio resource utilization in the heterogeneous
network. This paper presents a user level Markov model for a three
co-located RAT networks. The load-balancing based and service
based CRRM algorithms have been studied using the presented
Markov model. A comparison for the performance of load-balancing
based and service based CRRM algorithms is studied in terms of
traffic distribution, new call blocking probability, vertical handover
(VHO) call dropping probability and throughput.
Influence of Heterogeneous Traffic on the Roadside Fine (PM2.5 and PM1) and Coarse(PM10) Particulate Matter Concentrations in Chennai City, India
In this paper the influence of heterogeneous traffic on
the temporal variation of ambient PM10, PM2.5 and PM1
concentrations at a busy arterial route (Sardar Patel Road) in the
Chennai city has been analyzed. The hourly PM concentration, traffic
counts and average speed of the vehicles have been monitored at the
study site for one week (19th-25th January 2009). Results indicated
that the concentrations of coarse (PM10) and fine PM (PM2.5 and
PM1) concentrations at SP road are having similar trend during peak
and non-peak hours, irrespective of the days. The PM concentrations
showed daily two peaks corresponding to morning (8 to 10 am) and
evening (7 to 9 pm) peak hour traffic flow. The PM10 concentration is
dominated by fine particles (53% of PM2.5 and 45% of PM1). The
high PM2.5/PM10 ratio indicates that the majority of PM10 particles
originate from re-suspension of road dust. The analysis of traffic flow
at the study site showed that 2W, 3W and 4W are having similar
diurnal trend as PM concentrations. This confirms that the 2W, 3W
and 4W are the main emission source contributing to ambient PM
concentration at SP road. The speed measurement at SP road showed
that the average speed of 2W, 3W, 4W, LCV and HCV are 38, 40,
38, 40 and 38 km/hr and 43, 41, 42, 40 and 41 km/hr respectively for
the weekdays and weekdays.
Performance Analysis of List Scheduling in Heterogeneous Computing Systems
Given a parallel program to be executed on a heterogeneous
computing system, the overall execution time of the program
is determined by a schedule. In this paper, we analyze the worst-case
performance of the list scheduling algorithm for scheduling tasks
of a parallel program in a mixed-machine heterogeneous computing
system such that the total execution time of the program is minimized.
We prove tight lower and upper bounds for the worst-case
performance ratio of the list scheduling algorithm. We also examine
the average-case performance of the list scheduling algorithm. Our
experimental data reveal that the average-case performance of the list
scheduling algorithm is much better than the worst-case performance
and is very close to optimal, except for large systems with large
heterogeneity. Thus, the list scheduling algorithm is very useful in
Data Placement in Heterogeneous Storage of Short Videos
The overall service performance of I/O intensive
system depends mainly on workload on its storage system. In
heterogeneous storage environment where storage elements from
different vendors with different capacity and performance are put
together, workload should be distributed according to storage
capability. This paper addresses data placement issue in short video
sharing website. Workload contributed by a video is estimated by the
number of views and life time span of existing videos in same
category. Experiment was conducted on 42,000 video titles in six
weeks. Result showed that the proposed algorithm distributed
workload and maintained balance better than round robin and random