Scholarly Research Excellence

Digital Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 17

Effects of Water Content on Dielectric Properties of Mineral Transformer Oil
Mineral oil is commonly used for high voltage transformer insulation. The insulation quality of mineral oil is affecting the operation process of high voltage transformer. There are many contaminations which could decrease the insulation quality of mineral oil. One of them is water. This research talks about the effect of water content on dielectric properties, physic properties, and partial discharge pattern on mineral oil. Samples were varied with 10 varieties of water content value. And then all samples would be tested to measure the dielectric properties, physic properties, and partial discharge pattern. The result of this research showed that an increment of water content value would decrease the insulation quality of mineral oil.
Fast High Voltage Solid State Switch Using Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor for Discharge-Pumped Lasers

A novel method to produce a fast high voltage solid states switch using Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) is presented for discharge-pumped gas lasers. The IGBTs are connected in series to achieve a high voltage rating. An avalanche transistor is used as the gate driver. The fast pulse generated by the avalanche transistor quickly charges the large input capacitance of the IGBT, resulting in a switch out of a fast high-voltage pulse. The switching characteristic of fast-high voltage solid state switch has been estimated in the multi-stage series-connected IGBT with the applied voltage of several tens of kV. Electrical circuit diagram and the mythology of fast-high voltage solid state switch as well as experimental results obtained are presented.

Supergrid Modeling and Operation and Control of Multi Terminal DC Grids for the Deployment of a Meshed HVDC Grid in South Asia

The Indian subcontinent is facing a massive challenge with regards to energy security in its member countries; to provide reliable electricity to facilitate development across various sectors of the economy and consequently achieve the developmental targets. The instability of the current precarious situation is observable in the frequent system failures and blackouts.

The deployment of interconnected electricity ‘Supergrid’ designed to carry huge quanta of power across the Indian sub-continent is proposed in this paper. Not only enabling energy security in the subcontinent it will also provide a platform for Renewable Energy Sources (RES) integration. This paper assesses the need and conditions for a Supergrid deployment and consequently proposes a meshed topology based on Voltage Source High Voltage Direct Current (VSC- HVDC) converters for the Supergrid modeling. Various control schemes for the control of voltage and power are utilized for the regulation of the network parameters. A 3 terminal Multi Terminal Direct Current (MTDC) network is used for the simulations.

Optimization of a New Three-Phase High Voltage Power Supply for Industrial Microwaves Generators with N Magnetrons by Phase (Treated Case N=1)

Currently, the High voltage power supply for microwave generators with one magnetron uses a single-phase transformer with magnetic shunt. To contribute in the development of technological innovation in industry of manufacturing of power supplies of magnetrons for microwaves, ovens for domestic or industrial use, this original work treats the optimization of a new three-phase high voltage power supply for industrial microwaves generators with N magnetrons by phase (Treated case N=1), from its modeling with Matlab-Simulink. The design of this power supply uses three π quadruple models equivalents of new three-phase transformer with magnetic shunt of each phase. Every one supplies at its output a voltage doubler cell composed of a capacitor and a diode that in its output supplies only one magnetron.  In this work we will define a strategy that aims to reduce the volume of the transformer and the weight and cost of the entire system of the high voltage power supply, while respecting the conditions recommended by the manufacturer, concerning the current flowing in each magnetron: (Imax <1.2 A, IAv ≈ 300 mA).


A Novel Application of Network Equivalencing Method in Time Domain to Precise Calculation of Dead Time in Power Transmission Title

Various studies have showed that about 90% of single line to ground faults occurred on High voltage transmission lines have transient nature. This type of faults is cleared by temporary outage (by the single phase auto-reclosure). The interval between opening and reclosing of the faulted phase circuit breakers is named “Dead Time” that is varying about several hundred milliseconds. For adjustment of traditional single phase auto-reclosures that usually are not intelligent, it is necessary to calculate the dead time in the off-line condition precisely. If the dead time used in adjustment of single phase auto-reclosure is less than the real dead time, the reclosing of circuit breakers threats the power systems seriously. So in this paper a novel approach for precise calculation of dead time in power transmission lines based on the network equivalencing in time domain is presented. This approach has extremely higher precision in comparison with the traditional method based on Thevenin equivalent circuit. For comparison between the proposed approach in this paper and the traditional method, a comprehensive simulation by EMTP-ATP is performed on an extensive power network.

Soil Resistivity Data Computations; Single and Two - Layer Soil Resistivity Structure and Its Implication on Earthing Design
Performing High Voltage (HV) tasks with a multi craft work force create a special set of safety circumstances. This paper aims to present vital information relating to when it is acceptable to use a single or a two-layer soil structure. Also it discusses the implication of the high voltage infrastructure on the earth grid and the safety of this implication under a single or a two-layer soil structure. A multiple case study is investigated to show the importance of using the right soil resistivity structure during the earthing system design.
Soil Resistivity Structure and Its Implication on the Pole Grid Resistance for Transmission Lines
High Voltage (HV) transmission lines are widely spread around residential places. They take all forms of shapes: concrete, steel, and timber poles. Earth grid always form part of the HV transmission structure, whereat soil resistivity value is one of the main inputs when it comes to determining the earth grid requirements. In this paper, the soil structure and its implication on the electrode resistance of HV transmission poles will be explored. In Addition, this paper will present simulation for various soil structures using IEEE and Australian standards to verify the computation with CDEGS software. Furthermore, the split factor behavior under different soil resistivity structure will be presented using CDEGS simulations.
Transmission Mains Earthing Design: Under Ground to Over Head Pole Transition

The demand on High voltage (HV) infrastructures is growing due to the corresponding growth in industries and population. New or upgraded HV infrastructure has safety implications since Transmission mains usually occupy the same easement in the vicinity of neighbouring residents. Transmission mains consist of underground (UG) and overhead (OH) sections and the transition between the UG and OH section is known as the UGOH pole. The existence of two transmission mains in the same easement can dictate to resort to more complicated earthing design in order to mitigate the effect of AC interference, and in some cases it can also necessitates completing a Split Study of the system. This paper provides an overview of the AC interference, Split Study and the earthing of an underground feeder including the UGOH pole .In addition, this paper discusses the use of different link boxes on the UG feeder and presents a case study that represent a clear example of the Ac interference and Split factor. Finally, a few recommendations are provided to achieve a safety zone in the area beyond the boundary of the HV system.

Earth Potential Rise (EPR) Computation for a Fault on Transmission Mains Pole
The prologue of new High Voltage (HV) transmission mains into the community necessitates earthing design to ensure safety compliance of the system. Conductive structures such as steel or concrete poles are widely used in HV transmission mains. The earth potential rise (EPR) generated by a fault on these structures could result to an unsafe condition. This paper discusses information on the input impedance of the over head earth wire (OHEW) system for finite and infinite transmission mains. The definition of finite and infinite system is discussed, maximum EPR due to pole fault. The simplified equations for EPR assessments are introduced and discussed for the finite and infinite conditions. A case study is also shown.
Earth Grid Safety Consideration: Civil Upgrade Works for an Energised Substation

The demand on High voltage (HV) infrastructures is growing due to the corresponding growth in industries and population. Many areas are being developed and therefore require additional electrical power to comply with the demand. Substation upgrade is one of the rapid solutions to ensure the continuous supply of power to customers. This upgrade requires civil modifications to structures and fences. The civil work requires excavation and steel works that may create unsafe touch conditions. This paper presents a brief theoretical overview of the touch voltage inside and around substations and uses CDEGS software to simulate a case study.

Transmission Mains Earthing Design and Concrete Pole Deployments

The High Voltage (HV) transmission mains into the community necessitate earthing design to ensure safety compliance of the system. Concrete poles are widely used within HV transmission mains; which could have an impact on the earth grid impedance and input impedance of the system from the fault point of view. This paper provides information on concrete pole earthing to enhance the split factor of the system; further, it discusses the deployment of concrete structures in high soil resistivity area to reduce the earth grid system of the plant. This paper introduces the cut off soil resistivity SC ρ when replacing timber poles with concrete ones.

Numerical Simulation of Electric and Hydrodynamic Fields Distribution in a Dielectric Liquids Electrofilter Cell
In this paper a numerical simulation of electric and hydrodynamic fields distribution in an electrofilter for dielectric liquids cell is made. The simulation is made with the purpose to determine the trajectory of particles that moves under the action of external force in an electric and hydrodynamic field created inside of an electrofilter for dielectric liquids. Particle trajectory is analyzed for a dielectric liquid-solid particles suspension.
The Influence of Electrode Heating On the Force Generated On a High Voltage Capacitor with Asymmetrical Electrodes
When a high DC voltage is applied to a capacitor with strongly asymmetrical electrodes, it generates a mechanical force that affects the whole capacitor. This is caused by the motion of ions generated around the smaller of the two electrodes and their subsequent interaction with the surrounding medium. If one of the electrodes is heated, it changes the conditions around the capacitor and influences the process of ionisation, thus changing the value of the generated force. This paper describes these changes and gives reasons behind them. Further the experimental results are given as proof of the ionic mechanism of the phenomenon.
Temporal Analysis of Magnetic Nerve Stimulation–Towards Enhanced Systems via Virtualisation

The triumph of inductive neuro-stimulation since its rediscovery in the 1980s has been quite spectacular. In lots of branches ranging from clinical applications to basic research this system is absolutely indispensable. Nevertheless, the basic knowledge about the processes underlying the stimulation effect is still very rough and rarely refined in a quantitative way. This seems to be not only an inexcusable blank spot in biophysics and for stimulation prediction, but also a fundamental hindrance for technological progress. The already very sophisticated devices have reached a stage where further optimization requires better strategies than provided by simple linear membrane models of integrate-and-fire style. Addressing this problem for the first time, we suggest in the following text a way for virtual quantitative analysis of a stimulation system. Concomitantly, this ansatz seems to provide a route towards a better understanding by using nonlinear signal processing and taking the nerve as a filter that is adapted for neuronal magnetic stimulation. The model is compact and easy to adjust. The whole setup behaved very robustly during all performed tests. Exemplarily a recent innovative stimulator design known as cTMS is analyzed and dimensioned with this approach in the following. The results show hitherto unforeseen potentials.

An Analysis of the Optimization Condition of Plasma Generator for Air Conditioner System

This research aimed to develop plasma system used in air conditioners. This developed plasma system could be installed in the air conditioners - all split type. The quality of air could be improved to be equal to present plasma system. Development processes were as follows: 1) to study the plasma system used in the air conditioners, 2) to design a plasma generator, 3) to develop the plasma generator, and 4) to test its performance in many types of the air conditioners. This plasma system was developed by AC high voltage – 14 kv with a frequency of 50 kHz. Carbon was a conductor to generate arc in air purifier system. The research was tested by installing the plasma generator in the air conditioners - wall type. Whereas, there were 3 types of installations: air flow out, air flow in, and room center. The result of the plasma generator installed in the air conditioners, split type, revealed that the air flow out installation provided the highest average of o-zone at 223 mg/h. This type of installation provided the highest efficiency of air quality improvement. Moreover, the air flow in installation and the room center installation provided the average of the o-zone at 163 mg/h and 64 mg/h, respectively.

Understanding Charge Dynamics in Elastomers Adopting Pulsed Electro Acoustic (PEA) Technique
In the present work, Pulsed Electro Acoustic (PEA) technique was adopted to understand the space charge dynamics in elastomeric material. It is observed that the polarity of the applied DC voltage voltage and its magnitude alters the space charge dynamics in insulation structure. It is also noticed that any addition of compound to the base material/processing technique have characteristic variation in the space charge injection process. It could be concluded based on the present work that the plasticizer could inject heterocharges into the insulation medium. Also it is realized that space charge magnitude is less with the addition of plasticizer. In the PEA studies, it is observed that local electric field in the insulating material can be much more than applied electric field due to space charge formation. One of the important conclusions arrived at based on PEA technique is that one could understand the safe operating electric field of an insulation material and the charge trap sites.
Effect of Non Uniformity Factors and Assignment Factors on Errors in Charge Simulation Method with Point Charge Model

Charge Simulation Method (CSM) is one of the very widely used numerical field computation technique in High Voltage (HV) engineering. The high voltage fields of varying non uniformities are encountered in practice. CSM programs being case specific, the simulation accuracies heavily depend on the user (programmers) experience. Here is an effort to understand CSM errors and evolve some guidelines to setup accurate CSM models, relating non uniformities with assignment factors. The results are for the six-point-charge model of sphere-plane gap geometry. Using genetic algorithm (GA) as tool, optimum assignment factors at different non uniformity factors for this model have been evaluated and analyzed. It is shown that the symmetrically placed six-point-charge models can be good enough to set up CSM programs with potential errors less than 0.1% when the field non uniformity factor is greater than 2.64 (field utilization factor less than 52.76%).

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