Scholarly Research Excellence

Digital Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 30

Influence of Machining Process on Surface Integrity of Plasma Coating

For the required function of components with the thermal spray coating, it is necessary to perform additional machining of the coated surface. The paper deals with assessing the surface integrity of Metco 2042, a plasma sprayed coating, after its machining. The selected plasma sprayed coating serves as an abradable sealing coating in a jet engine. Therefore, the spray and its surface must meet high quality and functional requirements. Plasma sprayed coatings are characterized by lamellar structure, which requires a special approach to their machining. Therefore, the experimental part involves the set-up of special cutting tools and cutting parameters under which the applied coating was machined. For the assessment of suitably set machining parameters, selected parameters of surface integrity were measured and evaluated during the experiment. To determine the size of surface irregularities and the effect of the selected machining technology on the sprayed coating surface, the surface roughness parameters Ra and Rz were measured. Furthermore, the measurement of sprayed coating surface hardness by the HR 15 Y method before and after machining process was used to determine the surface strengthening. The changes of strengthening were detected after the machining. The impact of chosen cutting parameters on the surface roughness after the machining was not proven.

Non-Chronological Approach in Crane Girder and Composite Steel Beam Installation: Case Study

The time delay and the structural stability are major issues in big size projects due to several factors. Improper planning and poor coordination lead to delay in construction, which sometimes result in reworking or rebuilding. This definitely increases the cost and time of project. This situation stresses the structural engineers to plan out of the limits of contemporary technology utilizing non-chronological approach with creative ideas. One of the strategies to solve this issue is through structural integrity solutions in a cost-effective way. We have faced several problems in a project worth 470 million USD, and one such issue is crane girder installation with composite steel beams. We have applied structural integrity approach with the proper and revised planning schedule to solve the problem efficiently with minimal expenses.

Sustaining the Social Memory in a Historic Neighborhood: The Case Study of Uch Dukkan Neighborhood in Ardabil City in Azerbaijani Region of Iran

Conservation of historical urban patterns in the traditional neighborhoods is a part of creating integrated urban environments that are socially more sustainable. Urbanization reflects on life conditions and social, physical, economical characteristics of the society. In this regard, historical zones and traditional regions are affected by dramatic interventions on these characteristics. This article focuses on the Uch Dukkan neighborhood located in Ardabil City in Azarbaijani region of Iran, which has been up to such interventions that leaded its transformation from the past to the present. After introducing a brief inventory of the main elements of the historical zone and the neighborhood; this study explores the changes and transformations in different periods; and their impacts on the quality of the environment and its social sustainability. The survey conducted in the neighborhood as part of this research study revealed that the Uch Dukkan neighborhood and the unique architectural heritage that it possesses have become more inactive physically and functionally in a decade. This condition requires an exploration and comparison of the present and the expected transformations of the meaning of social space from the most private unit to the urban scale. From this token, it is argued that an architectural point of view that is based on space order; use and meaning of space as a social and cultural image, should not be ignored. Based on the interplay between social sustainability, collective memory, and the urban environment, study aims to make the invisible portion of ignorance clear, that ends up with a weakness in defining the collective meaning of the neighborhood as a historic urban district. It reveals that the spatial possessions of the neighborhood are valuable not only for their historical and physical characteristics, but also for their social memory that is to be remembered and constructed further.

Power Integrity Analysis of Power Delivery System in High Speed Digital FPGA Board

Power plane noise is the most significant source of signal integrity (SI) issues in a high-speed digital design. In this paper, power integrity (PI) analysis of multiple power planes in a power delivery system of a 12-layer high-speed FPGA board is presented. All 10 power planes of HSD board are analyzed separately by using 3D Electromagnetic based PI solver, then the transient simulation is performed on combined PI data of all planes along with voltage regulator modules (VRMs) and 70 current drawing chips to get the board level power noise coupling on different high-speed signals. De-coupling capacitors are placed between power planes and ground to reduce power noise coupling with signals.

The Ethio-Eritrea Claims Commission on Use of Force: Issue of Self-Defense or Violation of Sovereignty
A decision that deals with international disputes, be it arbitral or judicial, has to properly reflect objectivity and coherence with existing rules of international law. This paper shows the decision of the Ethio-Eritrea Claims Commission on the jus ad bellum case is bereft of objectivity and coherence, which contributed a disservice to international law on many aspects. The Commission’s decision that holds Eritrea in contravention to Art 2(4) of the UN Charter based on Ethiopia’s contention is flawed. It fails to consider: the illegitimacy of an actual authority established over contested territory through hostile acts, the proper determination of effectivites under international law, the sanctity of colonially determined boundaries, Ethiopia’s prior firm political recognition and undergirds to respect colonial boundary, and Ethio-Eritrea Border Commission’s decision. The paper will also argue that the Commission confused Eritrea’s right of self-defense with the rule against the non-use of force to settle territorial disputes; wherefore its decision sanitizes or sterilizes unlawful change of territory resulted through unlawful use of force to the effect of advantaging aggressions. The paper likewise argues that the decision is so sacrilegious that it disregards the ossified legal finality of colonial boundaries. Moreover, its approach toward armed attack does not reflect the peculiarity of the jus ad bellum case rather it brings about definitional uncertainties and sustains the perception that the law on self-defense is unsettled.
Towards a Secure Storage in Cloud Computing
Cloud computing has emerged as a flexible computing paradigm that reshaped the Information Technology map. However, cloud computing brought about a number of security challenges as a result of the physical distribution of computational resources and the limited control that users have over the physical storage. This situation raises many security challenges for data integrity and confidentiality as well as authentication and access control. This work proposes a security mechanism for data integrity that allows a data owner to be aware of any modification that takes place to his data. The data integrity mechanism is integrated with an extended Kerberos authentication that ensures authorized access control. The proposed mechanism protects data confidentiality even if data are stored on an untrusted storage. The proposed mechanism has been evaluated against different types of attacks and proved its efficiency to protect cloud data storage from different malicious attacks.
Identifying Teachers’ Perception of Integrity in School-Based Assessment Practice: A Case Study

This case study aims to identify teachers’ perception as regards integrity in School-Ba sed Assessment (PBS) practice. This descriptive study involved 9 teachers from 4 secondary schools in 3 districts in the state of Perak. The respondents had undergone an integrity in PBS Practice interview using a focused group discussion method. The overall findings showed that the teachers believed that integrity in PBS practice could be achieved by adjusting the teaching methods align with learning objectives and the students’ characteristics. Many teachers, parents and student did not understand the best practice of PBS. This would affect the integrity in PBS practice. Teachers did not emphasis the principles and ethics. Their integrity as an innovative public servant may also be affected with the frequently changing assessment system, lack of training and no prior action research. The analysis of findings showed that the teachers viewed that organizational integrity involving the integrity of PBS was difficult to be implemented based on the expectations determined by Malaysia Ministry of Education (KPM). A few elements which assisted in the achievement of PBS integrity were the training, students’ understanding, the parents’ understanding of PBS, environment (involving human resources such as support and appreciation and non-human resources such as technology infrastructure readiness and media). The implications of this study show that teachers, as the PBS implementers, have a strong influence on the integrity of PBS. However, the transformation of behavior involving PBS integrity among teachers requires the stabilisation of support and infrastructure in order to enable the teachers to implement PBS in an ethical manner.

The Development of an Integrity Cultivating Module in School-Based Assessment among Malaysian Teachers: A Research Methodology

The competency and integrity required for better understanding and practice of School-based Assessment (PBS) comes not only from the process, but also in providing the support or ‘scaffolding’ for teachers to recognize the student as a learner, improve their self-assessment skills, understanding of the daily teaching plan and its constructive alignment of the curriculum, pedagogy and assessment. The cultivation of integrity in PBS among the teachers is geared towards encouraging them to become committed and dedicated in implementing assessments in a serious, efficient manner, thus moving away from the usual teacher-focused approach to the student-focused approach. The teachers show their integrity via their professional commitment, responsibility and actions. The module based on the cultivation of integrity in PBS among Malaysian teachers aims to broaden the guidance support for teachers (embedded in the training), which consists of various domains to enable better evaluation of complex assessment tasks and the construction of suitable instrument for measuring the relevant cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains to describe the students’ achievement. The instrument for integrity cultivation in PBS has been developed and validated for measuring the effectiveness of the module constructed. This module is targeted towards assisting the staff in the Education Ministry, especially the principal trainers, teachers, headmasters and education officers to acquire effective intervention for improving the PBS assessors’ integrity and competency.

Effect of Integrity of the Earthing System on the Rise of Earth Potential
This paper investigates the effects of breaks in bonds, breaks in the earthing system and breaks in earth wire on the rise of the earth potential (EPR) in a substation and at the transmission tower bases using various models of an L6 tower. Different approaches were adopted to examine the integrity of the earthing system and the terminal towers. These effects were investigated to see the associated difference in the EPR magnitudes with respect to a healthy system at various locations. Comparisons of the computed EPR magnitudes were then made between the healthy and unhealthy system to detect any difference. The studies were conducted at power frequency for a uniform soil with different soil resistivities. It was found that full breaks in the double bond of the terminal towers increase the EPR significantly at the fault location, while they reduce EPR at the terminal tower bases. A fault on the isolated section of the grid can result in EPR values up to 8 times of those on a healthy system at higher soil resistivities, provided that the extended earthing system stays connected to the grid.
Gonadotoxic and Cytotoxic Effect of Induced obesity via Monosodium Glutamate on Mus musculus Testis Cytoarchitecture and Sperm Parameter

Impaired fertility may be the result of indirect consumption of anti-fertility agents through food. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) has been widely used as food additive, flavour enhancer and included in vaccines. This study focuses in determining the gonadotoxic and cytotoxic effect of MSG on selected sperm parameters such as sperm viability, sperm membrane integrity and testes cytoarchitecture of male mice via histological examination to determine its effect on spermatogenesis. Twenty-four Mus musculus were randomly divided into 4 groups and given intraperitoneal injections (IP) daily for 14 days of different MSG concentrations at 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg MSG to body weight to induce obesity. Saline was given to control group. Mice were sacrificed and analysis revealed abnormalities in values for sperm parameters and damages to testes cytoarchitecture of male mice. The results recorded decreased viability (p<0.05) and integrity of sperm membrane (p>0.05) with degenerative structures in seminiferous tubule of testes. The results indicated various implications of MSG on male mice reproductive system which has consequences in fertility potential.

ED Machining of Particulate Reinforced MMC’s

This paper reports the optimal process conditions for machining of three different types of MMC’s 65vol%SiC/A356.2; 10vol%SiC-5vol%quartz/Al and 30vol%SiC/A359 using PMEDM process. MRR, TWR, SR and surface integrity were evaluated after each trial and contributing process parameters were identified. The four responses were then collectively optimized using TOPSIS and optimal process conditions were identified for each type of MMC. The density of reinforced particles shields the matrix material from spark energy hence the high MRR and SR was observed with lowest reinforced particle. TWR was highest with Cu-Gr electrode due to disintegration of the weakly bonded particles in the composite electrode. Each workpiece was examined for surface integrity and ranked as per severity of surface defects observed and their rankings were used for arriving at the most optimal process settings for each workpiece. 

A Novel GNSS Integrity Augmentation System for Civil and Military Aircraft

This paper presents a novel Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Avionics Based Integrity Augmentation (ABIA) system architecture suitable for civil and military air platforms, including Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). Taking the move from previous research on high-accuracy Differential GNSS (DGNSS) systems design, integration and experimental flight test activities conducted at the Italian Air Force Flight Test Centre (CSV-RSV), our research focused on the development of a novel approach to the problem of GNSS ABIA for mission- and safety-critical air vehicle applications and for multi-sensor avionics architectures based on GNSS. Detailed mathematical models were developed to describe the main causes of GNSS signal outages and degradation in flight, namely: antenna obscuration, multipath, fading due to adverse geometry and Doppler shift. Adopting these models in association with suitable integrity thresholds and guidance algorithms, the ABIA system is able to generate integrity cautions (predictive flags) and warnings (reactive flags), as well as providing steering information to the pilot and electronic commands to the aircraft/UAS flight control systems. These features allow real-time avoidance of safety-critical flight conditions and fast recovery of the required navigation performance in case of GNSS data losses. In other words, this novel ABIA system addresses all three cornerstones of GNSS integrity augmentation in mission- and safety-critical applications: prediction (caution flags), reaction (warning flags) and correction (alternate flight path computation).

Monte Carlo Analysis and Fuzzy Sets for Uncertainty Propagation in SIS Performance Assessment

The object of this work is the probabilistic performance evaluation of safety instrumented systems (SIS), i.e. the average probability of dangerous failure on demand (PFDavg) and the average frequency of failure (PFH), taking into account the uncertainties related to the different parameters that come into play: failure rate (λ), common cause failure proportion (β), diagnostic coverage (DC)... This leads to an accurate and safe assessment of the safety integrity level (SIL) inherent to the safety function performed by such systems. This aim is in keeping with the requirement of the IEC 61508 standard with respect to handling uncertainty. To do this, we propose an approach that combines (1) Monte Carlo simulation and (2) fuzzy sets. Indeed, the first method is appropriate where representative statistical data are available (using pdf of the relating parameters), while the latter applies in the case characterized by vague and subjective information (using membership function). The proposed approach is fully supported with a suitable computer code.

Evaluation Process for the Hardware Safety Integrity Level
Safety instrumented systems (SISs) are becoming increasingly complex and the proportion of programmable electronic parts is growing. The IEC 61508 global standard was established to ensure the functional safety of SISs, but it was expressed in highly macroscopic terms. This study introduces an evaluation process for hardware safety integrity levels through failure modes, effects, and diagnostic analysis (FMEDA).FMEDA is widely used to evaluate safety levels, and it provides the information on failure rates and failure mode distributions necessary to calculate a diagnostic coverage factor for a given component. In our evaluation process, the components of the SIS subsystem are first defined in terms of failure modes and effects. Then, the failure rate and failure mechanism distribution are assigned to each component. The safety mode and detectability of each failure mode are determined for each component. Finally, the hardware safety integrity level is evaluated based on the calculated results.
Trust and Reliability for Public Sector Data
The public sector holds large amounts of data of various areas such as social affairs, economy, or tourism. Various initiatives such as Open Government Data or the EU Directive on public sector information aim to make these data available for public and private service providers. Requirements for the provision of public sector data are defined by legal and organizational frameworks. Surprisingly, the defined requirements hardly cover security aspects such as integrity or authenticity. In this paper we discuss the importance of these missing requirements and present a concept to assure the integrity and authenticity of provided data based on electronic signatures. We show that our concept is perfectly suitable for the provisioning of unaltered data. We also show that our concept can also be extended to data that needs to be anonymized before provisioning by incorporating redactable signatures. Our proposed concept enhances trust and reliability of provided public sector data.
Media and Information Literacy (MIL) for Thai Youths

The objectives of this study are to determine the role of media that influence the values, attitudes and behaviors of Thai youths. Analytical qualitative research techniques were used for this purpose. Data collection based techniques was used which were individual interviews and focus group discussions with journalists, sample of high school and university students, and parents. The results show that “Social Media" is still the most popular media for Thai youths. It is also still in the hands of the marketing business and it can motivate Thai youths to do so many things. The main reasons of media exposure are to find quality information that they want quickly, get satisfaction and can use social media to get more exciting and to build communities. They believe that the need for media and information literacy skills is defined as making judgments, personal integrity, training of family and the behavior of close friends.

An Approach to Improvement of Information Integrity in Key Areas of Portfolio Management
At a time of growing market turbulence and a strong shifts towards increasingly complex risk models and more stringent audit requirements, it is more critical than ever to maintain the highest quality of financial and credit information. IFC implemented an approach that helps increase data integrity and quality significantly. This approach is called “Screening". Screening is based on linking information from different sources to identify potential inconsistencies in key financial and credit data. That, in turn, can help to ease the trials of portfolio supervision, and improve overall company global reporting and assessment systems. IFC experience showed that when used regularly, Screening led to improved information.
CNet Module Design of IMCS
IMCS is Integrated Monitoring and Control System for thermal power plant. This system consists of mainly two parts; controllers and OIS (Operator Interface System). These two parts are connected by Ethernet-based communication. The controller side of communication is managed by CNet module and OIS side is managed by data server of OIS. CNet module sends the data of controller to data server and receives commend data from data server. To minimizes or balance the load of data server, this module buffers data created by controller at every cycle and send buffered data to data server on request of data server. For multiple data server, this module manages the connection line with each data server and response for each request from multiple data server. CNet module is included in each controller of redundant system. When controller fail-over happens on redundant system, this module can provide data of controller to data sever without loss. This paper presents three main features – separation of get task, usage of ring buffer and monitoring communication status –of CNet module to carry out these functions.
Inspection of Geometrical Integrity of Work Piece and Measurement of Tool Wear by the Use of Photo Digitizing Method
Considering complexity of products, new geometrical design and investment tolerances that are necessary, measuring and dimensional controlling involve modern and more precise methods. Photo digitizing method using two cameras to record pictures and utilization of conventional method named “cloud points" and data analysis by the use of ATOUS software, is known as modern and efficient in mentioned context. In this paper, benefits of photo digitizing method in evaluating sampling of machining processes have been put forward. For example, assessment of geometrical integrity surface in 5-axis milling process and measurement of carbide tool wear in turning process, can be can be brought forward. Advantages of this method comparing to conventional methods have been expressed.
Security Architecture for At-Home Medical Care Using Sensor Network
This paper proposes a novel architecture for At- Home medical care which enables senior citizens, patients with chronic ailments and patients requiring post- operative care to be remotely monitored in the comfort of their homes. This architecture is implemented using sensors and wireless networking for transmitting patient data to the hospitals, health- care centers for monitoring by medical professionals. Patients are equipped with sensors to measure their physiological parameters, like blood pressure, pulse rate etc. and a Wearable Data Acquisition Unit is used to transmit the patient sensor data. Medical professionals can be alerted to any abnormal variations in these values for diagnosis and suitable treatment. Security threats and challenges inherent to wireless communication and sensor network have been discussed and a security mechanism to ensure data confidentiality and source authentication has been proposed. Symmetric key algorithm AES has been used for encrypting the data and a patent-free, two-pass block cipher mode CCFB has been used for implementing semantic security.
Performance Evaluation of Popular Hash Functions
This paper describes the results of an extensive study and comparison of popular hash functions SHA-1, SHA-256, RIPEMD-160 and RIPEMD-320 with JERIM-320, a 320-bit hash function. The compression functions of hash functions like SHA-1 and SHA-256 are designed using serial successive iteration whereas those like RIPEMD-160 and RIPEMD-320 are designed using two parallel lines of message processing. JERIM-320 uses four parallel lines of message processing resulting in higher level of security than other hash functions at comparable speed and memory requirement. The performance evaluation of these methods has been done by using practical implementation and also by using step computation methods. JERIM-320 proves to be secure and ensures the integrity of messages at a higher degree. The focus of this work is to establish JERIM-320 as an alternative of the present day hash functions for the fast growing internet applications.
UB-Tree Indexing for Semantic Query Optimization of Range Queries
Semantic query optimization consists in restricting the search space in order to reduce the set of objects of interest for a query. This paper presents an indexing method based on UB-trees and a static analysis of the constraints associated to the views of the database and to any constraint expressed on attributes. The result of the static analysis is a partitioning of the object space into disjoint blocks. Through Space Filling Curve (SFC) techniques, each fragment (block) of the partition is assigned a unique identifier, enabling the efficient indexing of fragments by UB-trees. The search space corresponding to a range query is restricted to a subset of the blocks of the partition. This approach has been developed in the context of a KB-DBMS but it can be applied to any relational system.
Structural Integrity Management for Fixed Offshore Platforms in Malaysia
Structural Integrity Management (SIM) is important for the protection of offshore crew, environment, business assets and company and industry reputation. API RP 2A contained guidelines for assessment of existing platforms mostly for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). ISO 19902 SIM framework also does not specifically cater for Malaysia. There are about 200 platforms in Malaysia with 90 exceeding their design life. The Petronas Carigali Sdn Bhd (PCSB) uses the Asset Integrity Management System and the very subjective Risk based Inspection Program for these platforms. Petronas currently doesn-t have a standalone Petronas Technical Standard PTS-SIM. This study proposes a recommended practice for the SIM process for offshore structures in Malaysia, including studies by API and ISO and local elements such as the number of platforms, types of facilities, age and risk ranking. Case study on SMG-A platform in Sabah shows missing or scattered platform data and a gap in inspection history. It is to undergo a level 3 underwater inspection in year 2015.
Influence of High Speed Parameters on the Quality of Machined Surface

The contribution is dealing with the influence of high speed parameters on the quality of machined surface. In general the principle of high speed cutting lies in achieving faster machine times with concurrent increase in accuracy and quality of the machined areas in largely irregular, mathematically hard to define shapes. High speed machining is a highly effective method of machining with the following goals: increasing of machining productivity, increasing of quality of the machined surface, improving of machining economy, improving of ecological aspects of machining. This article is based on an experiment performed by the Department of Machining and Assembly of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of VŠBTechnical University of Ostrava.

A Multipurpose Audio Watermarking Algorithm Based on Vector Quantization in DCT Domain
In this paper, a novel multipurpose audio watermarking algorithm is proposed based on Vector Quantization (VQ) in Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain using the codeword labeling and index-bit constrained method. By using this algorithm, it can fulfill the requirements of both the copyright protection and content integrity authentication at the same time for the multimedia artworks. The robust watermark is embedded in the middle frequency coefficients of the DCT transform during the labeled codeword vector quantization procedure. The fragile watermark is embedded into the indices of the high frequency coefficients of the DCT transform by using the constrained index vector quantization method for the purpose of integrity authentication of the original audio signals. Both the robust and the fragile watermarks can be extracted without the original audio signals, and the simulation results show that our algorithm is effective with regard to the transparency, robustness and the authentication requirements
A New Approach for Mobile Agent Security
A mobile agent is a software which performs an action autonomously and independently as a person or an organizations assistance. Mobile agents are used for searching information, retrieval information, filtering, intruder recognition in networks, and so on. One of the important issues of mobile agent is their security. It must consider different security issues in effective and secured usage of mobile agent. One of those issues is the integrity-s protection of mobile agents. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of each method, after reviewing the existing methods, is examined. Regarding to this matter that each method has its own advantage or disadvantage, it seems that by combining these methods, one can reach to a better method for protecting the integrity of mobile agents. Therefore, this method is provided in this paper and then is evaluated in terms of existing method. Finally, this method is simulated and its results are the sign of improving the possibility of integrity-s protection of mobile agents.
Use of Novel Algorithms MAJE4 and MACJER-320 for Achieving Confidentiality and Message Authentication in SSL and TLS
Extensive use of the Internet coupled with the marvelous growth in e-commerce and m-commerce has created a huge demand for information security. The Secure Socket Layer (SSL) protocol is the most widely used security protocol in the Internet which meets this demand. It provides protection against eaves droppings, tampering and forgery. The cryptographic algorithms RC4 and HMAC have been in use for achieving security services like confidentiality and authentication in the SSL. But recent attacks against RC4 and HMAC have raised questions in the confidence on these algorithms. Hence two novel cryptographic algorithms MAJE4 and MACJER-320 have been proposed as substitutes for them. The focus of this work is to demonstrate the performance of these new algorithms and suggest them as dependable alternatives to satisfy the need of security services in SSL. The performance evaluation has been done by using practical implementation method.
Intrusion Detection System Based On The Integrity of TCP Packet

A common way to elude the signature-based Network Intrusion Detection System is based upon changing a recognizable attack to an unrecognizable one via the IDS. For example, in order to evade sign accommodation with intrusion detection system markers, a hacker spilt the payload packet into many small pieces or hides them within messages. In this paper we try to model the main fragmentation attack and create a new module in the intrusion detection architecture system which recognizes the main fragmentation attacks through verification of integrity checking of TCP packet in order to prevent elusion of the system and also to announce the necessary alert to the system administrator.

Implementation of TinyHash based on Hash Algorithm for Sensor Network
In recent years, it has been proposed security architecture for sensor network.[2][4]. One of these, TinySec by Chris Kalof, Naveen Sastry, David Wagner had proposed Link layer security architecture, considering some problems of sensor network. (i.e : energy, bandwidth, computation capability,etc). The TinySec employs CBC_mode of encryption and CBC-MAC for authentication based on SkipJack Block Cipher. Currently, This TinySec is incorporated in the TinyOS for sensor network security. This paper introduces TinyHash based on general hash algorithm. TinyHash is the module in order to replace parts of authentication and integrity in the TinySec. it implies that apply hash algorithm on TinySec architecture. For compatibility about TinySec, Components in TinyHash is constructed as similar structure of TinySec. And TinyHash implements the HMAC component for authentication and the Digest component for integrity of messages. Additionally, we define the some interfaces for service associated with hash algorithm.
A Lossless Watermarking Based Authentication System For Medical Images
In this paper we investigate the watermarking authentication when applied to medical imagery field. We first give an overview of watermarking technology by paying attention to fragile watermarking since it is the usual scheme for authentication.We then analyze the requirements for image authentication and integrity in medical imagery, and we show finally that invertible schemes are the best suited for this particular field. A well known authentication method is studied. This technique is then adapted here for interleaving patient information and message authentication code with medical images in a reversible manner, that is using lossless compression. The resulting scheme enables on a side the exact recovery of the original image that can be unambiguously authenticated, and on the other side, the patient information to be saved or transmitted in a confidential way. To ensure greater security the patient information is encrypted before being embedded into images.
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