Evaluation of Non-Staggered Body-Fitted Grid Based Solution Method in Application to Supercritical Fluid Flows
The efforts to understand the heat transfer behavior of supercritical water in supercritical water cooled reactor (SCWR) are ongoing worldwide to fulfill the future energy demand. The higher thermal efficiency of these reactors compared to a conventional nuclear reactor is one of the driving forces for attracting the attention of nuclear scientists. In this work, a solution procedure has been described for solving supercritical fluid flow problems in complex geometries. The solution procedure is based on non-staggered grid. All governing equations are discretized by finite volume method (FVM) in curvilinear coordinate system. Convective terms are discretized by first-order upwind scheme and central difference approximation has been used to discretize the diffusive parts. k-ε turbulence model with standard wall function has been employed. SIMPLE solution procedure has been implemented for the curvilinear coordinate system. Based on this solution method, 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code has been developed. In order to demonstrate the capability of this CFD code in supercritical fluid flows, heat transfer to supercritical water in circular tubes has been considered as a test problem. Results obtained by code have been compared with experimental results reported in literature.
Cost Effective Real-Time Image Processing Based Optical Mark Reader
In this modern era of automation, most of the academic
exams and competitive exams are Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ).
The responses of these MCQ based exams are recorded in the
Optical Mark Reader (OMR) sheet. Evaluation of the OMR sheet
requires separate specialized machines for scanning and marking.
The sheets used by these machines are special and costs more than a
normal sheet. Available process is non-economical and dependent on
paper thickness, scanning quality, paper orientation, special hardware
and customized software. This study tries to tackle the problem of
evaluating the OMR sheet without any special hardware and making
the whole process economical. We propose an image processing
based algorithm which can be used to read and evaluate the scanned
OMR sheets with no special hardware required. It will eliminate the
use of special OMR sheet. Responses recorded in normal sheet is
enough for evaluation. The proposed system takes care of color,
brightness, rotation, little imperfections in the OMR sheet images.
Research on Development and Accuracy Improvement of an Explosion Proof Combustible Gas Leak Detector Using an IR Sensor
In this paper, we presented not only development technology of an explosion proof type and portable combustible gas leak detector but also algorithm to improve accuracy for measuring gas concentrations. The presented techniques are to apply the flame-proof enclosure and intrinsic safe explosion proof to an infrared gas leak detector at first in Korea and to improve accuracy using linearization recursion equation and Lagrange interpolation polynomial. Together, we tested sensor characteristics and calibrated suitable input gases and output voltages. Then, we advanced the performances of combustible gaseous detectors through reflecting demands of gas safety management fields. To check performances of two company's detectors, we achieved the measurement tests with eight standard gases made by Korea Gas Safety Corporation. We demonstrated our instruments better in detecting accuracy other than detectors through experimental results.
Generating Arabic Fonts Using Rational Cubic Ball Functions
In this paper, we will discuss about the data interpolation by using the rational cubic Ball curve. To generate a curve with a better and satisfactory smoothness, the curve segments must be connected with a certain amount of continuity. The continuity that we will consider is of type G1 continuity. The conditions considered are known as the G1 Hermite condition. A simple application of the proposed method is to generate an Arabic font satisfying the required continuity.
Investigating Polynomial Interpolation Functions for Zooming Low Resolution Digital Medical Images
Medical digital images usually have low resolution because of nature of their acquisition. Therefore, this paper focuses on zooming these images to obtain better level of information, required for the purpose of medical diagnosis. For this purpose, a strategy for selecting pixels in zooming operation is proposed. It is based on the principle of analog clock and utilizes a combination of point and neighborhood image processing. In this approach, the hour hand of clock covers the portion of image to be processed. For alignment, the center of clock points at middle pixel of the selected portion of image. The minute hand is longer in length, and is used to gain information about pixels of the surrounding area. This area is called neighborhood pixels region. This information is used to zoom the selected portion of the image. The proposed algorithm is implemented and its performance is evaluated for many medical images obtained from various sources such as X-ray, Computerized Tomography (CT) scan and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). However, for illustration and simplicity, the results obtained from a CT scanned image of head is presented. The performance of algorithm is evaluated in comparison to various traditional algorithms in terms of Peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), maximum error, SSIM index, mutual information and processing time. From the results, the proposed algorithm is found to give better performance than traditional algorithms.
A Dynamic Equation for Downscaling Surface Air Temperature
In order to utilize results from global climate models,
dynamical and statistical downscaling techniques have been
developed. For dynamical downscaling, usually a limited area
numerical model is used, with associated high computational cost.
This research proposes dynamic equation for specific space-time
regional climate downscaling from the Educational Global Climate
Model (EdGCM) for Southeast Asia. The equation is for surface air
temperature. This equation provides downscaling values of surface
air temperature at any specific location and time without running a
regional climate model. In the proposed equations, surface air
temperature is approximated from ground temperature, sensible heat
flux and 2m wind speed. Results from the application of the equation
show that the errors from the proposed equations are less than the
errors for direct interpolation from EdGCM.
Interpolation Issue in PVNPG-14M Application for Technical Control of Artillery Fire
This paper focused on application support for technical control of artillery units – PVNPG-14M, especially on interpolation issue. Artillery units of the Army of the Czech Republic, reflecting the current global security neighborhood, can be used outside the Czech Republic. The paper presents principles, evolution and calculation in the process of complete preparation. The paper presents expertise using of application of current artillery communication and information system and suggests the perspective future system. The paper also presents problems in process of complete preparing of fire especially problems in permanently information (firing table) and calculated values. The paper presents problems of current artillery communication and information system and suggests requirements of the future system.
Line Heating Forming: Methodology and Application Using Kriging and Fifth Order Spline Formulations
In this article, a method is presented to effectively
estimate the deformed shape of a thick plate due to line heating. The
method uses a fifth order spline interpolation, with up to C3
continuity at specific points to compute the shape of the deformed
geometry. First and second order derivatives over a surface are the
resulting parameters of a given heating line on a plate. These
parameters are determined through experiments and/or finite element
simulations. Very accurate kriging models are fitted to real or virtual
surfaces to build-up a database of maps. Maps of first and second
order derivatives are then applied on numerical plate models to
evaluate their evolving shapes through a sequence of heating lines.
Adding an optimization process to this approach would allow
determining the trajectories of heating lines needed to shape complex
geometries, such as Francis turbine blades.
The Estimation Method of Stress Distribution for Beam Structures Using the Terrestrial Laser Scanning
This study suggests the estimation method of stress
distribution for the beam structures based on TLS (Terrestrial Laser
Scanning). The main components of method are the creation of the
lattices of raw data from TLS to satisfy the suitable condition and
application of CSSI (Cubic Smoothing Spline Interpolation) for
estimating stress distribution. Estimation of stress distribution for the
structural member or the whole structure is one of the important
factors for safety evaluation of the structure. Existing sensors which
include ESG (Electric strain gauge) and LVDT (Linear Variable
Differential Transformer) can be categorized as contact type sensor
which should be installed on the structural members and also there are
various limitations such as the need of separate space where the
network cables are installed and the difficulty of access for sensor
installation in real buildings. To overcome these problems inherent in
the contact type sensors, TLS system of LiDAR (light detection and
ranging), which can measure the displacement of a target in a long
range without the influence of surrounding environment and also get
the whole shape of the structure, has been applied to the field of
structural health monitoring. The important characteristic of TLS
measuring is a formation of point clouds which has many points
including the local coordinate. Point clouds are not linear distribution
but dispersed shape. Thus, to analyze point clouds, the interpolation is
needed vitally. Through formation of averaged lattices and CSSI for
the raw data, the method which can estimate the displacement of
simple beam was developed. Also, the developed method can be
extended to calculate the strain and finally applicable to estimate a
stress distribution of a structural member. To verify the validity of the
method, the loading test on a simple beam was conducted and TLS
measured it. Through a comparison of the estimated stress and
reference stress, the validity of the method is confirmed.
Analysis of Combined Heat Transfer through the Core Materials of VIPs with Various Scattering Properties
Vacuum Insulation Panel (VIP) can achieve very low
thermal conductivity by evacuating its inner space. Heat transfer in the
core materials of highly-evacuated VIP occurs by conduction through
the solid structure and radiation through the pore. The effect of various
scattering modes in combined conduction-radiation in VIP is
investigated through numerical analysis. The discrete ordinates
interpolation method (DOIM) incorporated with the commercial code
FLUENT® is employed. It is found that backward scattering is more
effective in reducing the total heat transfer while isotropic scattering is
almost identical with pure absorbing/emitting case of the same optical
thickness. For a purely scattering medium, the results agrees well with
additive solution with diffusion approximation, while a modified term
is added in the effect of optical thickness to backward scattering is
employed. For other scattering phase functions, it is also confirmed
that backwardly scattering phase function gives a lower effective
thermal conductivity. Thus the materials with backward scattering
properties, with radiation shields are desirable to lower the thermal
conductivity of VIPs.
Transformations between Bivariate Polynomial Bases
It is well known, that any interpolating polynomial
p (x, y) on the vector space Pn,m of two-variable polynomials with
degree less than n in terms of x and less than m in terms of y, has
various representations that depends on the basis of Pn,m that we
select i.e. monomial, Newton and Lagrange basis e.t.c.. The aim of
this short note is twofold : a) to present transformations between the
coordinates of the polynomial p (x, y) in the aforementioned basis
and b) to present transformations between these bases.
Complex Wavelet Transform Based Image Denoising and Zooming Under the LMMSE Framework
This paper proposes a dual tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT) based directional interpolation scheme for noisy images. The problems of denoising and interpolation are modelled as to estimate the noiseless and missing samples under the same framework of optimal estimation. Initially, DT-CWT is used to decompose an input low-resolution noisy image into low and high frequency subbands. The high-frequency subband images are interpolated by linear minimum mean square estimation (LMMSE) based interpolation, which preserves the edges of the interpolated images. For each noisy LR image sample, we compute multiple estimates of it along different directions and then fuse those directional estimates for a more accurate denoised LR image. The estimation parameters calculated in the denoising processing can be readily used to interpolate the missing samples. The inverse DT-CWT is applied on the denoised input and interpolated high frequency subband images to obtain the high resolution image. Compared with the conventional schemes that perform denoising and interpolation in tandem, the proposed DT-CWT based noisy image interpolation method can reduce many noise-caused interpolation artifacts and preserve well the image edge structures. The visual and quantitative results show that the proposed technique outperforms many of the existing denoising and interpolation methods.
Constant Order Predictor Corrector Method for the Solution of Modeled Problems of First Order IVPs of ODEs
This paper examines the development of one step, five hybrid point method for the solution of first order initial value problems. We adopted the method of collocation and interpolation of power series approximate solution to generate a continuous linear multistep method. The continuous linear multistep method was evaluated at selected grid points to give the discrete linear multistep method. The method was implemented using a constant order predictor of order seven over an overlapping interval. The basic properties of the derived corrector was investigated and found to be zero stable, consistent and convergent. The region of absolute stability was also investigated. The method was tested on some numerical experiments and found to compete favorably with the existing methods.
Design of Compliant Mechanism Based Microgripper with Three Finger Using Topology Optimization
High precision in motion is required to manipulate the
micro objects in precision industries for micro assembly, cell
manipulation etc. Precision manipulation is achieved based on the
appropriate mechanism design of micro devices such as
microgrippers. Design of a compliant based mechanism is the better
option to achieve a highly precised and controlled motion. This
research article highlights the method of designing a compliant based
three fingered microgripper suitable for holding asymmetric objects.
Topological optimization technique, a systematic method is
implemented in this research work to arrive a topologically optimized
design of the mechanism needed to perform the required micro
motion of the gripper. Optimization technique has a drawback of
generating senseless regions such as node to node connectivity and
staircase effect at the boundaries. Hence, it is required to have post
processing of the design to make it manufacturable. To reduce the
effect of post processing stage and to preserve the edges of the image,
a cubic spline interpolation technique is introduced in the MATLAB
program. Structural performance of the topologically developed
mechanism design is tested using finite element method (FEM)
software. Further the microgripper structure is examined to find its
fatigue life and vibration characteristics.
Numerical Solution of Hammerstein Integral Equations by Using Quasi-Interpolation
In this paper first, a numerical method based on quasiinterpolation for solving nonlinear Fredholm integral equations of the Hammerstein-type is presented. Then, we approximate the solution of Hammerstein integral equations by Nystrom’s method. Also, we compare the methods with some numerical examples.
An Efficient 3D Animation Data Reduction Using Frame Removal
Existing methods in which the animation data of all frames are stored and reproduced as with vertex animation cannot be used in mobile device environments because these methods use large amounts of the memory. So 3D animation data reduction methods aimed at solving this problem have been extensively studied thus far and we propose a new method as follows. First, we find and remove frames in which motion changes are small out of all animation frames and store only the animation data of remaining frames (involving large motion changes). When playing the animation, the removed frame areas are reconstructed using the interpolation of the remaining frames. Our key contribution is to calculate the accelerations of the joints of individual frames and the standard deviations of the accelerations using the information of joint locations in the relevant 3D model in order to find and delete frames in which motion changes are small. Our methods can reduce data sizes by approximately 50% or more while providing quality which is not much lower compared to original animations. Therefore, our method is expected to be usefully used in mobile device environments or other environments in which memory sizes are limited.
Efficient CT Image Volume Rendering for Diagnosis
Volume rendering is widely used in medical CT image
visualization. Applying 3D image visualization to diagnosis
application can require accurate volume rendering with high
resolution. Interpolation is important in medical image processing
applications such as image compression or volume resampling.
However, it can distort the original image data because of edge
blurring or blocking effects when image enhancement procedures
were applied. In this paper, we proposed adaptive tension control
method exploiting gradient information to achieve high resolution
medical image enhancement in volume visualization, where restored
images are similar to original images as much as possible. The
experimental results show that the proposed method can improve
image quality associated with the adaptive tension control efficacy.
Visualization of Sediment Thickness Variation for Sea Bed Logging using Spline Interpolation
This paper discusses on the use of Spline Interpolation
and Mean Square Error (MSE) as tools to process data acquired from
the developed simulator that shall replicate sea bed logging environment.
Sea bed logging (SBL) is a new technique that uses marine
controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) sounding technique and is
proven to be very successful in detecting and characterizing hydrocarbon
reservoirs in deep water area by using resistivity contrasts. It uses
very low frequency of 0.1Hz to 10 Hz to obtain greater wavelength.
In this work the in house built simulator was used and was provided
with predefined parameters and the transmitted frequency was varied
for sediment thickness of 1000m to 4000m for environment with and
without hydrocarbon. From series of simulations, synthetics data were
generated. These data were interpolated using Spline interpolation
technique (degree of three) and mean square error (MSE) were
calculated between original data and interpolated data. Comparisons
were made by studying the trends and relationship between frequency
and sediment thickness based on the MSE calculated. It was found
that the MSE was on increasing trends in the set up that has the
presence of hydrocarbon in the setting than the one without. The MSE
was also on decreasing trends as sediment thickness was increased
and with higher transmitted frequency.
Enhance Image Transmission Based on DWT with Pixel Interleaver
The recent growth of using multimedia transmission
over wireless communication systems, have challenges to protect the
data from lost due to wireless channel effect. Images are corrupted
due to the noise and fading when transmitted over wireless channel,
in wireless channel the image is transmitted block by block, Due to
severe fading, entire image blocks can be damaged. The aim of this
paper comes out from need to enhance the digital images at the
wireless receiver side. Proposed Boundary Interpolation (BI)
Algorithm using wavelet, have been adapted here used to
reconstruction the lost block in the image at the receiver depend on
the correlation between the lost block and its neighbors. New
Proposed technique by using Boundary Interpolation (BI) Algorithm
using wavelet with Pixel interleaver has been implemented. Pixel
interleaver work on distribute the pixel to new pixel position of
original image before transmitting the image. The block lost through
wireless channel is only effects individual pixel. The lost pixels at the
receiver side can be recovered by using Boundary Interpolation (BI)
Algorithm using wavelet. The results showed that the New proposed
algorithm boundary interpolation (BI) using wavelet with pixel
interleaver is better in term of MSE and PSNR.
A Novel Interpolation Scheme and Apparatus to Extend DAC Usable Spectrum over Nyquist Frequency
A novel interpolation scheme to extend usable spectrum
and upconvert in high performance D/A converters is addressed in this
paper. By adjusting the pulse width of cycle and the production circuit
of code, the expansion code is a null code or complementary code that
is interpolation process. What the times and codes of interpolation
decide DAC works in one of a normal mode or multi-mixer mode
so that convert the input digital data signal into normal signal or a
mixed analog signal having a mixer frequency that is higher than the
data frequency. Simulation results show that the novel scheme and
apparatus most extend the usable frequency spectrum into fifth to
sixth Nyquist zone beyond conventional DACs.
CT Reconstruction from a Limited Number of X-Ray Projections
Most CT reconstruction system x-ray computed
tomography (CT) is a well established visualization technique in
medicine and nondestructive testing. However, since CT scanning
requires sampling of radiographic projections from different viewing
angles, common CT systems with mechanically moving parts are too
slow for dynamic imaging, for instance of multiphase flows or live
animals. A large number of X-ray projections are needed to
reconstruct CT images, so the collection and calculation of the
projection data consume too much time and harmful for patient. For
the purpose of solving the problem, in this study, we proposed a
method for tomographic reconstruction of a sample from a limited
number of x-ray projections by using linear interpolation method. In
simulation, we presented reconstruction from an experimental x-ray
CT scan of a Aluminum phantom that follows to two steps: X-ray
projections will be interpolated using linear interpolation method and
using it for CT reconstruction based upon Ordered Subsets
Expectation Maximization (OSEM) method.
Method of Finding Aerodynamic Characteristic Equations of Missile for Trajectory Simulation
This paper present a new way to find the aerodynamic characteristic equation of missile for the numerical trajectories prediction more accurate. The goal is to obtain the polynomial equation based on two missile characteristic parameters, angle of attack (α ) and flight speed (╬¢ ). First, the understudied missile is modeled and used for flow computational model to compute aerodynamic force and moment. Assume that performance range of understudied missile where range -10< α <10 and 0< ╬¢ <200. After completely obtained results of all cases, the data are fit by polynomial interpolation to create equation of each case and then combine all equations to form aerodynamic characteristic equation, which will be used for trajectories simulation.
Low Resolution Face Recognition Using Mixture of Experts
Human activity is a major concern in a wide variety of
applications, such as video surveillance, human computer interface
and face image database management. Detecting and recognizing
faces is a crucial step in these applications. Furthermore, major
advancements and initiatives in security applications in the past years
have propelled face recognition technology into the spotlight. The
performance of existing face recognition systems declines significantly
if the resolution of the face image falls below a certain level.
This is especially critical in surveillance imagery where often, due to
many reasons, only low-resolution video of faces is available. If these
low-resolution images are passed to a face recognition system, the
performance is usually unacceptable. Hence, resolution plays a key
role in face recognition systems. In this paper we introduce a new
low resolution face recognition system based on mixture of expert
neural networks. In order to produce the low resolution input images
we down-sampled the 48 × 48 ORL images to 12 × 12 ones using
the nearest neighbor interpolation method and after that applying
the bicubic interpolation method yields enhanced images which is
given to the Principal Component Analysis feature extractor system.
Comparison with some of the most related methods indicates that
the proposed novel model yields excellent recognition rate in low
resolution face recognition that is the recognition rate of 100% for
the training set and 96.5% for the test set.
A New Quadrature Rule Derived from Spline Interpolation with Error Analysis
We present a new quadrature rule based on the spline
interpolation along with the error analysis. Moreover, some error
estimates for the reminder when the integrand is either a Lipschitzian
function, a function of bounded variation or a function whose
derivative belongs to Lp are given. We also give some examples
to show that, practically, the spline rule is better than the trapezoidal
Solving One-dimensional Hyperbolic Telegraph Equation Using Cubic B-spline Quasi-interpolation
In this paper, the telegraph equation is solved numerically by cubic B-spline quasi-interpolation .We obtain the numerical scheme, by using the derivative of the quasi-interpolation to approximate the spatial derivative of the dependent variable and a low order forward difference to approximate the temporal derivative of the dependent variable. The advantage of the resulting scheme is that the algorithm is very simple so it is very easy to implement. The results of numerical experiments are presented, and are compared with analytical solutions by calculating errors L2 and L∞ norms to confirm the good accuracy of the presented scheme.
Implicit Two Step Continuous Hybrid Block Methods with Four Off-Steps Points for Solving Stiff Ordinary Differential Equation
In this paper, a self starting two step continuous block
hybrid formulae (CBHF) with four Off-step points is developed using
collocation and interpolation procedures. The CBHF is then used to
produce multiple numerical integrators which are of uniform order
and are assembled into a single block matrix equation. These
equations are simultaneously applied to provide the approximate
solution for the stiff ordinary differential equations. The order of
accuracy and stability of the block method is discussed and its
accuracy is established numerically.
Quasilinearization–Barycentric Approach for Numerical Investigation of the Boundary Value Fin Problem
In this paper we improve the quasilinearization method by barycentric Lagrange interpolation because of its numerical stability and computation speed to achieve a stable semi analytical solution. Then we applied the improved method for solving the Fin problem which is a nonlinear equation that occurs in the heat transferring. In the quasilinearization approach the nonlinear differential equation is treated by approximating the nonlinear terms by a sequence of linear expressions. The modified QLM is iterative but not perturbative and gives stable semi analytical solutions to nonlinear problems without depending on the existence of a smallness parameter. Comparison with some numerical solutions shows that the present solution is applicable.
Supercompression for Full-HD and 4k-3D (8k)Digital TV Systems
In this work, we developed the concept of
supercompression, i.e., compression above the compression standard
used. In this context, both compression rates are multiplied. In fact,
supercompression is based on super-resolution. That is to say,
supercompression is a data compression technique that superpose
spatial image compression on top of bit-per-pixel compression to
achieve very high compression ratios. If the compression ratio is very
high, then we use a convolutive mask inside decoder that restores the
edges, eliminating the blur. Finally, both, the encoder and the
complete decoder are implemented on General-Purpose computation
on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU) cards. Specifically, the
mentio-ned mask is coded inside texture memory of a GPGPU.
Neuro-Fuzzy Networks for Identification of Mathematical Model Parameters of Geofield
The new technology of fuzzy neural networks for identification of parameters for mathematical models of geofields is proposed and checked. The effectiveness of that soft computing technology is demonstrated, especially in the early stage of modeling, when the information is uncertain and limited.
Cubic Trigonometric B-Spline Applied to Linear Two-Point Boundary Value Problems of Order Two
Linear two-point boundary value problems of order
two are solved using cubic trigonometric B-spline interpolation
method (CTBIM). Cubic trigonometric B-spline is a piecewise
function consisting of trigonometric equations. This method is tested
on some problems and the results are compared with cubic B-spline
interpolation method (CBIM) from the literature. CTBIM is found to
approximate the solution slightly more accurately than CBIM if the
problems are trigonometric.