Design of a Hand-Held, Clamp-on, Leakage Current Sensor for High Voltage Direct Current Insulators
Leakage current monitoring for high voltage transmission line insulators is of interest as a performance indicator. Presently, to the best of our knowledge, there is no commercially available, clamp-on type, non-intrusive device for measuring leakage current on energised high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line insulators. The South African power utility, Eskom, is investigating the development of such a hand-held sensor for two important applications; first, for continuous real-time condition monitoring of HVDC line insulators and, second, for use by live line workers to determine if it is safe to work on energised insulators. In this paper, a DC leakage current sensor based on magnetic field sensing techniques is developed. The magnetic field sensor used in the prototype can also detect alternating current up to 5 MHz. The DC leakage current prototype detects the magnetic field associated with the current flowing on the surface of the insulator. Preliminary HVDC leakage current measurements are performed on glass insulators. The results show that the prototype can accurately measure leakage current in the specified current range of 1-200 mA. The influence of external fields from the HVDC line itself on the leakage current measurements is mitigated through a differential magnetometer sensing technique. Thus, the developed sensor can perform measurements on in-service HVDC insulators. The research contributes to the body of knowledge by providing a sensor to measure leakage current on energised HVDC insulators non-intrusively. This sensor can also be used by live line workers to inform them whether or not it is safe to perform maintenance on energized insulators.
A Study of Structural Damage Detection for Spacecraft In-Orbit Based on Acoustic Sensor Array
With the increasing of human space activities, the number of space debris has increased dramatically, and the possibility that spacecrafts on orbit are impacted by space debris is growing. A method is of the vital significance to real-time detect and assess spacecraft damage, determine of gas leak accurately, guarantee the life safety of the astronaut effectively. In this paper, acoustic sensor array is used to detect the acoustic signal which emits from the damage of the spacecraft on orbit. Then, we apply the time difference of arrival and beam forming algorithm to locate the damage and leakage. Finally, the extent of the spacecraft damage is evaluated according to the nonlinear ultrasonic method. The result shows that this method can detect the debris impact and the structural damage, locate the damage position, and identify the damage degree effectively. This method can meet the needs of structural damage detection for the spacecraft in-orbit.
Development of a Remote Testing System for Performance of Gas Leakage Detectors
In this research, we designed a remote system to test parameters of gas detectors such as gas concentration and initial response time. This testing system is available to measure two gas instruments simultaneously. First of all, we assembled an experimental jig with a square structure. Those parts are included with a glass flask, two high-quality cameras, and two Ethernet modems for transmitting data. This remote gas detector testing system extracts numerals from videos with continually various gas concentrations while LCDs show photographs from cameras. Extracted numeral data are received to a laptop computer through Ethernet modem. And then, the numerical data with gas concentrations and the measured initial response speeds are recorded and graphed. Our remote testing system will be diversely applied on gas detector’s test and will be certificated in domestic and international countries.
Magnetic End Leakage Flux in a Spoke Type Rotor Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator
The spoke type rotor can be used to obtain magnetic
flux concentration in permanent magnet machines. This allows the
air gap magnetic flux density to exceed the remanent flux density
of the permanent magnets but gives problems with leakage fluxes
in the magnetic circuit. The end leakage flux of one spoke type
permanent magnet rotor design is studied through measurements and
finite element simulations. The measurements are performed in the
end regions of a 12 kW prototype generator for a vertical axis
wind turbine. The simulations are made using three dimensional
finite elements to calculate the magnetic field distribution in the
end regions of the machine. Also two dimensional finite element
simulations are performed and the impact of the two dimensional
approximation is studied. It is found that the magnetic leakage flux
in the end regions of the machine is equal to about 20% of the flux
in the permanent magnets. The overestimation of the performance by
the two dimensional approximation is quantified and a curve-fitted
expression for its behavior is suggested.
Evaluation of Microleakage of a New Generation Nano-Ionomer in Class II Restoration of Primary Molars
Objective: This in vitro study was carried out to assess the microleakage properties of nano-filled glass ionomer in comparison to resin-reinforced glass ionomers. Material and Methods: 40 deciduous molar teeth were included in this study. Class-II cavity was prepared in a standard form for all the specimens. The teeth were randomly distributed into two groups (20 per group) according to the restorative material used either nano-glass ionomer or Photac Fill glass ionomer restoration. All specimens were thermocycled for 1000 cycles between 5 and 55 °C. After that, the teeth were immersed in 2% methylene blue dye then sectioned and evaluated under a stereomicroscope. Microleakage was assessed using linear dye penetration and on a scale from zero to five. Results: Two way ANOVA test revealed a statistically significant lower degree of microleakage in both occlusal and gingival restorations (0.4±0.2), (0.9±0.1) for nano-filled glass ionomer group in comparison to resin modified glass ionomer (2.3±0.7), (2.4±0.5). No statistical difference was found between gingival and occlusal leakage regarding the effect of the measured site. Conclusion: Nano-filled glass ionomer shows superior sealing ability which enables this type of restoration to be used in minimum invasive treatment.
Detection of Leaks in Water Mains Using Ground Penetrating Radar
Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is one of the most effective electromagnetic techniques for non-destructive non-invasive subsurface features investigation. Water leak from pipelines is the most common undesirable reason of potable water losses. Rapid detection of such losses is going to enhance the use of the Water Distribution Networks (WDN) and decrease threatens associated with water mains leaks. In this study, GPR approach was developed to detect leaks by implementing an appropriate imaging analyzing strategy based on image refinement, reflection polarity and reflection amplitude that would ease the process of interpreting the collected raw radargram image.
Research on Axial End Flux Leakage and Detent Force of Transverse Flux PM Linear Machine
According to 3D magnetic circuit of the transverse flux PM linear machine, distribution law is presented, and analytical expression of axial end flux leakage is derived using numerical method. Maxwell stress tensor is used to solve detent force of mover. A 3D finite element model of the transverse flux PM machine is built to analyze the flux distribution and detent force. Experimental results of the prototype verified the validity of axial end flux leakage and detent force theoretical derivation, the research on axial end flux leakage and detent force provides a valuable reference to other types of linear machine.
Practical Simulation Model of Floating-Gate MOS Transistor in Sub 100nm Technologies
As the Silicon oxide scaled down in MOSFET
technology to few nanometers, gate Direct Tunneling (DT) in
Floating gate (FGMOSFET) devices has become a major concern for
analog designers. FGMOSFET has been used in many low-voltage
and low-power applications, however, there is no accurate model that
account for DT gate leakage in nano-scale. This paper studied and
analyzed different simulation models for FGMOSFET using TSMC
90-nm technology. The simulation results for FGMOSFET cascade
current mirror shows the impact of DT on circuit performance in
terms of current and voltage without the need for fabrication. This
works shows the significance of using an accurate model for
FGMOSFET in nan-scale technologies.
Seasonal Based Pollution Performance of 11kV and 33kV Silicon Composite Insulators
This paper presents the experimental results of 11 kV
and 33 kV silicon composite insulators under artificial salt and urea
polluted conditions. The tests were carried out under different
seasons like summer, winter, and monsoon. The artificial pollution is
prepared by properly dissolving the salt and urea in the water. The
prepared salt and urea pollutions are sprayed on the insulators and
dried up for sufficiently large time. The process is continued until a
uniform layer is formed on the surface of insulator. For each insulator
rating, four samples were tested. The maximum leakage current and
breakdown voltage were measured. From experimental data,
performance of test specimen is evaluated by comparing breakdown
voltage and leakage current during different seasons when exposed to
salt and urea polluted conditions. From these results the performance
of the insulators can be predicted when they are installed in
industrial, agricultural, and coastal areas. The experimental tests were
carried out in the High Voltage laboratory using two stage cascade
transformer having the rating of 1000 kVA, 500 kV.
Non-Destructive Visual-Statistical Approach to Detect Leaks in Water Mains
In this paper, an effective non-destructive, noninvasive
approach for leak detection was proposed. The process relies
on analyzing thermal images collected by an IR viewer device that
captures thermo-grams. In this study a statistical analysis of the
collected thermal images of the ground surface along the expected
leak location followed by a visual inspection of the thermo-grams
was performed in order to locate the leak. In order to verify the
applicability of the proposed approach the predicted leak location
from the developed approach was compared with the real leak
location. The results showed that the expected leak location was
successfully identified with an accuracy of more than 95%.
Internal Leakage Analysis from Pd to Pc Port Direction in ECV Body Used in External Variable Type A/C Compressor
Solenoid operated electromagnetic control valve
(ECV) playing an important role for car’s air conditioning control
system. ECV is used in external variable displacement swash plate
type compressor and controls the entire air conditioning system by
means of a pulse width modulation (PWM) input signal supplying
from an external source (controller). Complete form of ECV contains
number of internal features like valve body, core, valve guide,
plunger, guide pin, plunger spring, bellows etc. While designing the
ECV; dimensions of different internal items must meet the standard
requirements as it is quite challenging. In this research paper,
especially the dimensioning of ECV body and its three pressure ports
through which the air/refrigerant passes are considered. Here internal
leakage test analysis of ECV body is being carried out from its
discharge port (Pd) to crankcase port (Pc) when the guide valve is
placed inside it. The experiments have made both in ordinary and
digital system using different assumptions and thereafter compare the
A Double PWM Source Inverter Technique with Reduced Leakage Current for Application on Standalone Systems
The photovoltaic (PV) panel with no galvanic
isolation system is well known technique in the world which is
effective and delivers power with enhanced efficiency. The PV
generation presented here is for stand-alone system installed in
remote areas when as the resulting power gets connected to electronic
load installation instead of being tied to the grid. Though very small,
even then transformer-less topology is shown to be with leakage in
pico-ampere range. By using PWM technique PWM, leakage current
in different situations is shown. The results shown in this paper show
how the pico-ampere current is reduced to femto-ampere through use
of inductors and capacitors of suitable values of inductor and
capacitors with the load.
Design and Analysis of Highly Efficient and Reliable Single-Phase Transformerless Inverter for PV Systems
Most of the PV systems are designed with transformer for safety purpose with galvanic isolation. However, the transformer is big, heavy and expensive. Also, it reduces the overall frequency of the conversion stage. Generally PV inverter with transformer is having efficiency around 92%–94% only. To overcome these problems, transformerless PV system is introduced. It is smaller, lighter, cheaper and higher in efficiency. However, dangerous leakage current will flow between PV array and the grid due to the stray capacitance. There are different types of configurations available for transformerless inverters like H5, H6, HERIC, oH5, and Dual paralleled buck inverter. But each configuration is suffering from its own disadvantages like high conduction losses, shoot-through issues of switches, dead-time requirements at zero crossing instants of grid voltage to avoid grid shoot-through faults and MOSFET reverse recovery issues. The main objective of the proposed transformerless inverter is to address two key issues: One key issue for a transformerless inverter is that it is necessary to achieve high efficiency compared to other existing inverter topologies. Another key issue is that the inverter configuration should not have any shoot-through issues for higher reliability.
Design and Analysis of an 8T Read Decoupled Dual Port SRAM Cell for Low Power High Speed Applications
Speed, power consumption and area, are some of the most important factors of concern in modern day memory design. As we move towards Deep Sub-Micron Technologies, the problems of leakage current, noise and cell stability due to physical parameter variation becomes more pronounced. In this paper we have designed an 8T Read Decoupled Dual Port SRAM Cell with Dual Threshold Voltage and characterized it in terms of read and write delay, read and write noise margins, Data Retention Voltage and Leakage Current. Read Decoupling improves the Read Noise Margin and static power dissipation is reduced by using Dual-Vt transistors. The results obtained are compared with existing 6T, 8T, 9T SRAM Cells, which shows the superiority of the proposed design. The Cell is designed and simulated in TSPICE using 90nm CMOS process.
Piping Fragility Composed of Different Materials by Using OpenSees Software
A failure of the non-structural component can cause significant damages in critical facilities such as nuclear power plants and hospitals. Historically, it was reported that the damage from the leakage of sprinkler systems, resulted in the shutdown of hospitals for several weeks by the 1971 San Fernando and 1994 North Ridge earthquakes. In most cases, water leakages were observed at the cross joints, sprinkler heads, and T-joint connections in piping systems during and after the seismic events. Hence, the primary objective of this study was to understand the seismic performance of T-joint connections and to develop an analytical Finite Element (FE) model for the T-joint systems of 2-inch fire protection piping system in hospitals subjected to seismic ground motions. In order to evaluate the FE models of the piping systems using OpenSees, two types of materials were used: 1) Steel02 materials and 2) Pinching4 materials. Results of the current study revealed that the nonlinear moment-rotation FE models for the threaded T-joint reconciled well with the experimental results in both FE material models. However, the system-level fragility determined from multiple nonlinear time history analyses at the threaded T-joint was slightly different. The system-level fragility at the T-joint, determined by Pinching4 material was more conservative than that of using Steel02 material in the piping system.
Low Leakage MUX/XOR Functions Using Symmetric and Asymmetric FinFETs
In this paper, FinFET devices are analyzed with
emphasis on sub-threshold leakage current control. This is achieved
through proper biasing of the back gate, and through the use of
asymmetric work functions for the four terminal FinFET devices. We
are also examining different configurations of multiplexers and XOR
gates using transistors of symmetric and asymmetric work functions.
Based on extensive characterization data for MUX circuits, our
proposed configuration using symmetric devices lead to leakage
current and delay improvements of 65% and 47% respectively
compared to results in the literature. For XOR gates, a 90%
improvement in the average leakage current is achieved by using
asymmetric devices. All simulations are based on a 25nm FinFET
technology using the University of Florida UFDG model.
Leakage Reduction ONOFIC Approach for Deep Submicron VLSI Circuits Design
Minimizations of power dissipation, chip area with higher circuit performance are the necessary and key parameters in deep submicron regime. The leakage current increases sharply in deep submicron regime and directly affected the power dissipation of the logic circuits. In deep submicron region the power dissipation as well as high performance is the crucial concern since increasing importance of portable systems. Number of leakage reduction techniques employed to reduce the leakage current in deep submicron region but they have some trade-off to control the leakage current. ONOFIC approach gives an excellent agreement between power dissipation and propagation delay for designing the efficient CMOS logic circuits. In this article ONOFIC approach is compared with LECTOR technique and output results show that ONOFIC approach significantly reduces the power dissipation and enhance the speed of the logic circuits. The lower power delay product is the big outcome of this approach and makes it an influential leakage reduction technique.
Performance Analysis of Wavelet Based Multiuser MIMO OFDM
Wavelet analysis has some strong advantages over Fourier analysis, as it allows a time-frequency domain analysis, allowing optimal resolution and flexibility. As a result, they have been satisfactorily applied in almost all the fields of communication systems including OFDM which is a strong candidate for next generation of wireless technology. In this paper, the performances of wavelet based Multiuser Multiple Input and Multiple Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MU-MIMO OFDM) systems are analyzed in terms of BER. It has been shown that the wavelet based systems outperform the classical FFT based systems. This analysis also unfolds an interesting result, where wavelet based OFDM system will have a constant error performance using Regularized Channel Inversion (RCI) beamforming for any number of users, and outperforms in all possible scenario in a multiuser environment. An extensive computer simulations show that a PAPR reduction of up to 6.8dB can be obtained with M=64.
Surface Roughness of Flange Contact to the 25A-size Metal Gasket by using FEM Simulation
The previous study of new metal gasket that contact
width and contact stress an important design parameter for optimizing
metal gasket performance. The optimum design based on an elastic
and plastic contact stress was founded. However, the influence of
flange surface roughness had not been investigated thoroughly. The
flange has many kinds of surface roughness. In this study, we
conducted a gasket model include a flange surface roughness effect. A
finite element method was employed to develop simulation solution. A
uniform quadratic mesh used for meshing the gasket material and a
gradually quadrilateral mesh used for meshing the flange. The gasket
model was simulated by using two simulation stages which is forming
and tightening simulation. A simulation result shows that a smoother
of surface roughness has higher slope for force per unit length. This
mean a squeezed against between flange and gasket will be strong. The
slope of force per unit length for gasket 400-MPa mode was higher
than the gasket 0-MPa mode.
An Investigation into Turbine Blade Tip Leakage Flows at High Speeds
The effect of the blade tip geometry of a high pressure
gas turbine is studied experimentally and computationally for high
speed leakage flows. For this purpose two simplified models are
constructed, one models a flat tip of the blade and the second models
a cavity tip of the blade. Experimental results are obtained from a
transonic wind tunnel to show the static pressure distribution along
the tip wall and provide flow visualization. RANS computations
were carried to provide further insight into the mean flow behavior
and to calculate the discharge coefficient which is a measure of the
flow leaking over the tip. It is shown that in both geometries of tip
the flow separates over the tip to form a separation bubble. The
bubble is higher for the cavity tip while a complete shock wave
system of oblique waves ending with a normal wave can be seen for
the flat tip. The discharge coefficient for the flat tip shows less
dependence on the pressure ratio over the blade tip than the cavity
tip. However, the discharge coefficient for the cavity tip is lower than
that of the flat tip, showing a better ability to reduce the leakage flow
and thus increase the turbine efficiency.
The Influence of Biofuels on the Permeability of Sand-Bentonite Liners
Liners are made to protect the groundwater table from
the infiltration of leachate which normally carries different kinds of
toxic materials from landfills. Although these liners are engineered to
last for long period of time; unfortunately these liners fail; therefore,
toxic materials pass to groundwater. This paper focuses on the
changes of the hydraulic conductivity of a sand-bentonite liner due to
the infiltration of biofuel and ethanol fuel. Series of laboratory tests
were conducted in 20-cm-high PVC columns. Several compositions
of sand-bentonite liners were tested: 95% sand: 5% bentonite; 90%
sand: 10% bentonite; and 100% sand (passed mesh #40). The
columns were subjected to extreme pressures of 40 kPa, and 100 kPa
to evaluate the transport of alternative fuels (biofuel and ethanol
fuel). For comparative studies, similar tests were carried out using
water. Results showed that hydraulic conductivity increased due to
the infiltration of alternative fuels through the liners. Accordingly,
the increase in the hydraulic conductivity showed significant
dependency on the type of liner mixture and the characteristics of the
liquid. The hydraulic conductivity of a liner (subjected to biofuel
infiltration) consisting of 5% bentonite: 95% sand under pressure of
40 kPa and 100 kPa had increased by one fold. In addition, the
hydraulic conductivity of a liner consisting of 10% bentonite: 90%
sand under pressure of 40 kPa and 100 kPa and infiltrated by biofuel
had increased by three folds. On the other hand, the results obtained
by water infiltration under 40 kPa showed lower hydraulic
conductivities of 1.50×10-5 and 1.37×10-9 cm/s for 5% bentonite:
95% sand, and 10% bentonite: 90% sand, respectively. Similarly,
under 100 kPa, the hydraulic conductivities were 2.30×10-5 and
1.90×10-9 cm/s for 5% bentonite: 95% sand, and 10% bentonite: 90%
A Robust Extrapolation Method for Curtailed Aperture Reconstruction in Acoustic Imaging
Acoustic Imaging based sound localization using microphone
array is a challenging task in digital-signal processing.
Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) based near-field acoustical holography
(NAH) is an important acoustical technique for sound source
localization and provide an efficient solution to the ill-posed problem.
However, in practice, due to the usage of small curtailed aperture
and its consequence of significant spectral leakage, the DFT could
not reconstruct the active-region-of-sound (AROS) effectively, especially
near the edges of aperture. In this paper, we emphasize the
fundamental problems of DFT-based NAH, provide a solution to
spectral leakage effect by the extrapolation based on linear predictive
coding and 2D Tukey windowing. This approach has been tested to
localize the single and multi-point sound sources. We observe that
incorporating extrapolation technique increases the spatial resolution,
localization accuracy and reduces spectral leakage when small curtail
aperture with a lower number of sensors accounts.
Convection through Light Weight Timber Constructions with Mineral Wool
The major part of light weight timber constructions
consists of insulation. Mineral wool is the most commonly used
insulation due to its cost efficiency and easy handling. The fiber
orientation and porosity of this insulation material enables flowthrough.
The air flow resistance is low. If leakage occurs in the
insulated bay section, the convective flow may cause energy losses
and infiltration of the exterior wall with moisture and particles. In
particular the infiltrated moisture may lead to thermal bridges and
growth of health endangering mould and mildew. In order to prevent
this problem, different numerical calculation models have been
developed. All models developed so far have a potential for
completion. The implementation of the flow-through properties of
mineral wool insulation may help to improve the existing models.
Assuming that the real pressure difference between interior and
exterior surface is larger than the prescribed pressure difference in the
standard test procedure for mineral wool ISO 9053 / EN 29053,
measurements were performed using the measurement setup for
research on convective moisture transfer “MSRCMT".
These measurements show, that structural inhomogeneities of
mineral wool effect the permeability only at higher pressure
differences, as applied in MSRCMT. Additional microscopic
investigations show, that the location of a leak within the
construction has a crucial influence on the air flow-through and the
infiltration rate. The results clearly indicate that the empirical values
for the acoustic resistance of mineral wool should not be used for the
calculation of convective transfer mechanisms.
Improved Neutron Leakage Treatment on Nodal Expansion Method for PWR Reactors
For a quick and accurate calculation of spatial neutron
distribution in nuclear power reactors 3D nodal codes are usually
used aiming at solving the neutron diffusion equation for a given
reactor core geometry and material composition. These codes use a
second order polynomial to represent the transverse leakage term. In
this work, a nodal method based on the well known nodal expansion
method (NEM), developed at COPPE, making use of this polynomial
expansion was modified to treat the transverse leakage term for the
external surfaces of peripheral reflector nodes.
The proposed method was implemented into a computational
system which, besides solving the diffusion equation, also solves the
burnup equations governing the gradual changes in material
compositions of the core due to fuel depletion. Results confirm the
effectiveness of this modified treatment of peripheral nodes for
practical purposes in PWR reactors.
Off-State Leakage Power Reduction by Automatic Monitoring and Control System
This paper propose a new circuit design which
monitor total leakage current during standby mode and generates the
optimal reverse body bias voltage, by using the adaptive body bias
(ABB) technique to compensate die-to-die parameter variations.
Design details of power monitor are examined using simulation
framework in 65nm and 32nm BTPM model CMOS process.
Experimental results show the overhead of proposed circuit in terms
of its power consumption is about 10 μW for 32nm technology and
about 12 μW for 65nm technology at the same power supply voltage
as the core power supply. Moreover the results show that our
proposed circuit design is not far sensitive to the temperature
variations and also process variations. Besides, uses the simple
blocks which offer good sensitivity, high speed, the continuously
A Prototype of Augmented Reality for Visualising Large Sensors’ Datasets
In this paper we discuss the development of an Augmented Reality (AR) - based scientific visualization system prototype that supports identification, localisation, and 3D visualisation of oil leakages sensors datasets. Sensors generates significant amount of multivariate datasets during normal and leak situations. Therefore we have developed a data model to effectively manage such data and enhance the computational support needed for the effective data explorations. A challenge of this approach is to reduce the data inefficiency powered by the disparate, repeated, inconsistent and missing attributes of most available sensors datasets. To handle this challenge, this paper aim to develop an AR-based scientific visualization interface which automatically identifies, localise and visualizes all necessary data relevant to a particularly selected region of interest (ROI) along the virtual pipeline network. Necessary system architectural supports needed as well as the interface requirements for such visualizations are also discussed in this paper.
An Experimental Study of Tip Vortex Cavitation Inception in an Axial Flow Pump
The interaction of the blade tip with the casing
boundary layer and the leakage flow may lead to a kind of cavitation
namely tip vortex cavitation. In this study, the onset of tip vortex
cavitation was experimentally investigated in an axial flow pump.
For a constant speed and a fixed angle of attack and by changing the
flow rate, the pump head, input power, output power and efficiency
were calculated and the pump characteristic curves were obtained.
The cavitation phenomenon was observed with a camera and a
stroboscope. Finally, the critical flow region, which tip vortex
cavitation might have occurred, was identified. The results show that
just by adjusting the flow rate, out of the specified region, the
possibility of occurring tip vortex cavitation, decreases to a great
A Novel Nano-Scaled SRAM Cell
To help overcome limits to the density of conventional SRAMs and leakage current of SRAM cell in nanoscaled CMOS technology, we have developed a four-transistor SRAM cell. The newly developed CMOS four-transistor SRAM cell uses one word-line and one bit-line during read/write operation. This cell retains its data with leakage current and positive feedback without refresh cycle. The new cell size is 19% smaller than a conventional six-transistor cell using same design rules. Also the leakage current of new cell is 60% smaller than a conventional sixtransistor SRAM cell. Simulation result in 65nm CMOS technology shows new cell has correct operation during read/write operation and idle mode.
A Power-Gating Scheme to Reduce Leakage Power for P-type Adiabatic Logic Circuits
With rapid technology scaling, the proportion of the
static power consumption catches up with dynamic power
consumption gradually. To decrease leakage consumption is
becoming more and more important in low-power design. This paper
presents a power-gating scheme for P-DTGAL (p-type dual
transmission gate adiabatic logic) circuits to reduce leakage power
dissipations under deep submicron process. The energy dissipations of
P-DTGAL circuits with power-gating scheme are investigated in
different processes, frequencies and active ratios. BSIM4 model is
adopted to reflect the characteristics of the leakage currents. HSPICE
simulations show that the leakage loss is greatly reduced by using the
P-DTGAL with power-gating techniques.
Global Exponential Stability of Impulsive BAM Fuzzy Cellular Neural Networks with Time Delays in the Leakage Terms
In this paper, a class of impulsive BAM fuzzy cellular neural networks with time delays in the leakage terms is formulated and investigated. By establishing a delay differential inequality and M-matrix theory, some sufficient conditions ensuring the existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability of equilibrium point for impulsive BAM fuzzy cellular neural networks with time delays in the leakage terms are obtained. In particular, a precise estimate of the exponential convergence rate is also provided, which depends on system parameters and impulsive perturbation intention. It is believed that these results are significant and useful for the design and applications of BAM fuzzy cellular neural networks. An example is given to show the effectiveness of the results obtained here.