Backstepping Controller for a Variable Wind Speed Energy Conversion System Based on a DFIG
In this paper we present a contribution for the modeling and control of wind energy conversion system based on a Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG). Since the wind speed is random the system has to produce an optimal electrical power to the Network and ensures important strength and stability. In this work, the Backstepping controller is used to control the generator via two converter witch placed a DC bus capacitor and connected to the grid by a Filter R-L, in order to optimize capture wind energy. All is simulated and presented under MATLAB/Simulink Software to show performance and robustness of the proposed controller.
Nine-Level Shunt Active Power Filter Associated with a Photovoltaic Array Coupled to the Electrical Distribution Network
The use of more and more electronic power switches with a nonlinear behavior generates non-sinusoidal currents in distribution networks, which causes damage to domestic and industrial equipment. The multi-level shunt power active filter is subsequently shown to be an adequate solution to the problem raised. Nevertheless, the difficulty of adjusting the active filter DC supply voltage requires another technology to ensure it. In this article, a photovoltaic generator is associated with the DC bus power terminals of the active filter. The proposed system consists of a field of solar panels, three multi-level voltage inverters connected to the power grid and a non-linear load consisting of a six-diode rectifier bridge supplying a resistive-inductive load. Current control techniques of active and reactive power are used to compensate for both harmonic currents and reactive power as well as to inject active solar power into the distribution network. An algorithm of the search method of the maximum power point of type Perturb and observe is applied. Simulation results of the system proposed under the MATLAB/Simulink environment shows that the performance of control commands that reassure the solar power injection in the network, harmonic current compensation and power factor correction.
Maximum Power Point Tracking Based on Estimated Power for PV Energy Conversion System
In this paper, a method for maximum power point tracking of a photovoltaic energy conversion system is presented. This method is based on using the difference between the power from the solar panel and an estimated power value to control the DC-DC converter of the photovoltaic system. The difference is continuously compared with a preset error permitted value. If the power difference is more than the error, the estimated power is multiplied by a factor and the operation is repeated until the difference is less or equal to the threshold error. The difference in power will be used to trigger a DC-DC boost converter in order to raise the voltage to where the maximum power point is achieved. The proposed method was experimentally verified through a PV energy conversion system driven by the OPAL-RT real time controller. The method was tested on varying radiation conditions and load requirements, and the Photovoltaic Panel was operated at its maximum power in different conditions of irradiation.
A Variable Incremental Conductance MPPT Algorithm Applied to Photovoltaic Water Pumping System
The use of solar energy as a source for pumping water
is one of the promising areas in the photovoltaic (PV) application.
The energy of photovoltaic pumping systems (PVPS) can be widely
improved by employing an MPPT algorithm. This will lead
consequently to maximize the electrical motor speed of the system.
This paper presents a modified incremental conductance (IncCond)
MPPT algorithm with direct control method applied to a standalone
PV pumping system. The influence of the algorithm parameters on
system behavior is investigated and compared with the traditional
(INC) method. The studied system consists of a PV panel, a DC-DC
boost converter, and a PMDC motor-pump. The simulation of the
system by MATLAB-SIMULINK is carried out. Simulation results
found are satisfactory.
High Performance Direct Torque Control for Induction Motor Drive Fed from Photovoltaic System
Direct Torque Control (DTC) is an AC drive control
method especially designed to provide fast and robust responses. In
this paper a progressive algorithm for direct torque control of threephase
induction drive system supplied by photovoltaic arrays using
voltage source inverter to control motor torque and flux with
maximum power point tracking at different level of insolation is
presented. Experimental results of the new DTC method obtained by
an experimental rapid prototype system for drives are presented.
Simulation and experimental results confirm that the proposed system
gives quick, robust torque and speed responses at constant switching
Cloud Effect on Power Generation of Grid Connected Small PV Systems
Photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems, mainly
small scale, are rapidly being deployed in Jordan. The impact of these
systems on the grid has not been studied or analyzed. These systems
can cause many technical problems such as reverse power flows and
voltage rises in distribution feeders, and real and reactive power
transients that affect the operation of the transmission system. To
fully understand and address these problems, extensive research,
simulation, and case studies are required. To this end, this paper
studies the cloud shadow effect on the power generation of a ground
mounted PV system installed at the test field of the Renewable
Energy Center at the Applied Science University.
A Grid Synchronization Method Based on Adaptive Notch Filter for SPV System with Modified MPPT
This paper presents a grid synchronization technique based on adaptive notch filter for SPV (Solar Photovoltaic) system along with MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) techniques. An efficient grid synchronization technique offers proficient detection of various components of grid signal like phase and frequency. It also acts as a barrier for harmonics and other disturbances in grid signal. A reference phase signal synchronized with the grid voltage is provided by the grid synchronization technique to standardize the system with grid codes and power quality standards. Hence, grid synchronization unit plays important role for grid connected SPV systems. As the output of the PV array is fluctuating in nature with the meteorological parameters like irradiance, temperature, wind etc. In order to maintain a constant DC voltage at VSC (Voltage Source Converter) input, MPPT control is required to track the maximum power point from PV array. In this work, a variable step size P & O (Perturb and Observe) MPPT technique with DC/DC boost converter has been used at first stage of the system. This algorithm divides the dPpv/dVpv curve of PV panel into three separate zones i.e. zone 0, zone 1 and zone 2. A fine value of tracking step size is used in zone 0 while zone 1 and zone 2 requires a large value of step size in order to obtain a high tracking speed. Further, adaptive notch filter based control technique is proposed for VSC in PV generation system. Adaptive notch filter (ANF) approach is used to synchronize the interfaced PV system with grid to maintain the amplitude, phase and frequency parameters as well as power quality improvement. This technique offers the compensation of harmonics current and reactive power with both linear and nonlinear loads. To maintain constant DC link voltage a PI controller is also implemented and presented in this paper. The complete system has been designed, developed and simulated using SimPower System and Simulink toolbox of MATLAB. The performance analysis of three phase grid connected solar photovoltaic system has been carried out on the basis of various parameters like PV output power, PV voltage, PV current, DC link voltage, PCC (Point of Common Coupling) voltage, grid voltage, grid current, voltage source converter current, power supplied by the voltage source converter etc. The results obtained from the proposed system are found satisfactory.
Maximum Power Point Tracking Using FLC Tuned with GA
The pursuit of the MPPT has led to the development of many kinds of controllers, one of which is the Fuzzy Logic controller, which has proven its worth. To further tune this controller this paper will discuss and analyze the use of Genetic Algorithms to tune the Fuzzy Logic Controller. It will provide an introduction to both systems, and test their compatibility and performance.
Design and Implementation of DC-DC Converter with Inc-Cond Algorithm
The most important component affecting the
efficiency of photovoltaic power systems are solar panels. In other
words, efficiency of these systems are significantly affected due to
the being low efficiency of solar panel. Thus, solar panels should be
operated under maximum power point conditions through a power
converter. In this study, design of boost converter has been carried
out with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm which is
incremental conductance (Inc-Cond). By using this algorithm,
importance of power converter in MPPT hardware design, impacts of
MPPT operation have been shown. It is worth noting that initial
operation point is the main criteria for determining the MPPT
performance. In addition, it is shown that if value of load resistance is
lower than critical value, failure operation is realized. For these
analyzes, direct duty control is used for simplifying the control.
Active Disturbance Rejection Control for Wind System Based On a DFIG
This paper proposes the study of a robust control of
the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) used in a wind energy
production. The proposed control is based on the linear active
disturbance rejection control (ADRC) and it is applied to the control
currents rotor of the DFIG, the DC bus voltage and active and
reactive power exchanged between the DFIG and the network. The
system under study and the proposed control are simulated using
Power Quality Improvement Using UPQC Integrated with Distributed Generation Network
The increasing demand of electric power is giving an
emphasis on the need for the maximum utilization of renewable
energy sources. On the other hand maintaining power quality to
satisfaction of utility is an essential requirement. In this paper the
design aspects of a Unified Power Quality Conditioner integrated
with photovoltaic system in a distributed generation is presented. The
proposed system consist of series inverter, shunt inverter are
connected back to back on the dc side and share a common dc-link
capacitor with Distributed Generation through a boost converter. The
primary task of UPQC is to minimize grid voltage and load current
disturbances along with reactive and harmonic power compensation.
In addition to primary tasks of UPQC, other functionalities such as
compensation of voltage interruption and active power transfer to the
load and grid in both islanding and interconnected mode have been
addressed. The simulation model is design in MATLAB/ Simulation
environment and the results are in good agreement with the published
Fuzzy Logic Based Maximum Power Point Tracking Designed for 10kW Solar Photovoltaic System with Different Membership Functions
The electric power supplied by a photovoltaic power
generation systems depends on the solar irradiation and temperature.
The PV system can supply the maximum power to the load at a
particular operating point which is generally called as maximum
power point (MPP), at which the entire PV system operates with
maximum efficiency and produces its maximum power. Hence, a
Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods are used to
maximize the PV array output power by tracking continuously the
maximum power point. The proposed MPPT controller is designed
for 10kW solar PV system installed at Cape Institute of Technology.
This paper presents the fuzzy logic based MPPT algorithm. However,
instead of one type of membership function, different structures of
fuzzy membership functions are used in the FLC design. The
proposed controller is combined with the system and the results are
obtained for each membership functions in Matlab/Simulink
environment. Simulation results are decided that which membership
function is more suitable for this system.
Modeling and Design of MPPT Controller Using Stepped P&O Algorithm in Solar Photovoltaic System
This paper presents modeling and simulation of Grid Connected Photovoltaic (PV) system by using improved mathematical model. The model is used to study different parameter variations and effects on the PV array including operating temperature and solar irradiation level. In this paper stepped P&O algorithm is proposed for MPPT control. This algorithm will identify the suitable duty ratio in which the DC-DC converter should be operated to maximize the power output. Photo voltaic array with proposed stepped P&O-MPPT controller can operate in the maximum power point for the whole range of solar data (irradiance and temperature).
Maximum Power Point Tracking by ANN Controller for a Standalone Photovoltaic System
In this paper, ANN controller for maximum power point tracking of photovoltaic (PV) systems is proposed and PV modeling is discussed. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods are used to maximize the PV array output power by tracking continuously the maximum power point. ANN controller with hill-climbing algorithm offers fast and accurate converging to the maximum operating point during steady-state and varying weather conditions compared to conventional hill-climbing. The proposed algorithm gives a good maximum power operation of the PV system. Simulation results obtained are presented and compared with the conventional hill-climbing algorithm. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed technique.
Energy Management System in HEV Using PI Controller
Nowadays the use of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) is increasing dramatically. The HEV is mainly dependent on electricity and there is always a need for storage of charge. Fuel Cell (FC), Batteries and Ultra Capacitor are being used for the proposed HEV as an electric power source or as an energy storage unit. The aim of developing an energy management technique is to utilize the sources according to the requirement of the vehicle with help of controller. This increases the efficiency of hybrid electric vehicle to reduce the fuel consumption and unwanted emission. The Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) in FC is done using (Perturb & Observe) algorithm. In this paper, the control of automobiles at variable speed is achieved effectively.
A Brief Review on Recent Trends in Alternative Sources of Energy
Alternative energy is any energy source that is an alternative to fossil fuel. These alternatives are intended to address concerns about such fossil fuels. Today, because of the variety of energy choices and differing goals of their advocates, defining some energy types as "alternative" is highly controversial. Most of the recent and existing alternative sources of energy are discussed below
Direct Torque Control - DTC of Induction Motor Used for Piloting a Centrifugal Pump Supplied by a Photovoltaic Generator
In this paper we propose the study of a centrifugal pump control system driven by a three-phase induction motor, which is supplied by a PhotoVoltaic PV generator. The system includes solar panel, a DC / DC converter equipped with its MPPT control, a voltage inverter to three-phase Pulse Width Modulation - PWM and a centrifugal pump driven by a three phase induction motor. In order to control the flow of the centrifugal pump, a Direct Torque Control - DTC of the induction machine is used. To illustrate the performances of the control, simulation results are carried out using Matlab/Simulink.
A Comparative Study of PV Models in Matlab/Simulink
Solar energy has a major role in renewable energy
resources. Solar Cell as a basement of solar system has attracted lots
of research. To conduct a study about solar energy system, an
authenticated model is required. Diode base PV models are widely
used by researchers. These models are classified based on the number
of diodes used in them. Single and two-diode models are well
studied. Single-diode models may have two, three or four elements.
In this study, these solar cell models are examined and the simulation
results are compared to each other. All PV models are re-designed in
the Matlab/Simulink software and they examined by certain test
conditions and parameters. This paper provides comparative studies
of these models and it tries to compare the simulation results with
manufacturer-s data sheet to investigate model validity and accuracy.
The results show a four- element single-diode model is accurate and
has moderate complexity in contrast to the two-diode model with
higher complexity and accuracy
Active and Reactive Power Control of a DFIG with MPPT for Variable Speed Wind Energy Conversion using Sliding Mode Control
This paper presents the study of a variable speed wind
energy conversion system based on a Doubly Fed Induction Generator
(DFIG) based on a sliding mode control applied to achieve control of
active and reactive powers exchanged between the stator of the DFIG
and the grid to ensure a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) of
a wind energy conversion system. The proposed control algorithm is
applied to a DFIG whose stator is directly connected to the grid and
the rotor is connected to the PWM converter. To extract a maximum
of power, the rotor side converter is controlled by using a stator
flux-oriented strategy. The created decoupling control between active
and reactive stator power allows keeping the power factor close to
unity. Simulation results show that the wind turbine can operate at
its optimum energy for a wide range of wind speed.
Multiple Peaks Tracking Algorithm using Particle Swarm Optimization Incorporated with Artificial Neural Network
Due to the non-linear characteristics of photovoltaic
(PV) array, PV systems typically are equipped with the capability of
maximum power point tracking (MPPT) feature. Moreover, in the
case of PV array under partially shaded conditions, hotspot problem
will occur which could damage the PV cells. Partial shading causes
multiple peaks in the P-V characteristic curves. This paper presents a
hybrid algorithm of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and
Artificial Neural Network (ANN) MPPT algorithm for the detection
of global peak among the multiple peaks in order to extract the true
maximum energy from PV panel. The PV system consists of PV
array, dc-dc boost converter controlled by the proposed MPPT
algorithm and a resistive load. The system was simulated using
MATLAB/Simulink package. The simulation results show that the
proposed algorithm performs well to detect the true global peak
power. The results of the simulations are analyzed and discussed.
A Grid Current-controlled Inverter with Particle Swarm Optimization MPPT for PV Generators
This paper proposes a three-phase four-wire currentcontrolled
Voltage Source Inverter (CC-VSI) for both power quality
improvement and PV energy extraction. For power quality
improvement, the CC-VSI works as a grid current-controlling shunt
active power filter to compensate for harmonic and reactive power of
loads. Then, the PV array is coupled to the DC bus of the CC-VSI
and supplies active power to the grid. The MPPT controller employs
the particle swarm optimization technique. The output of the MPPT
controller is a DC voltage that determines the DC-bus voltage
according to PV maximum power. The PSO method is simple and
effective especially for a partially shaded PV array. From computer
simulation results, it proves that grid currents are sinusoidal and inphase
with grid voltages, while the PV maximum active power is
delivered to loads.
MPPT Operation for PV Grid-connected System using RBFNN and Fuzzy Classification
This paper presents a novel methodology for Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) of a grid-connected 20 kW Photovoltaic (PV) system using neuro-fuzzy network. The proposed method predicts the reference PV voltage guarantying optimal power transfer between the PV generator and the main utility grid. The neuro-fuzzy network is composed of a fuzzy rule-based classifier and three Radial Basis Function Neural Networks (RBFNN). Inputs of the network (irradiance and temperature) are classified before they are fed into the appropriated RBFNN for either training or estimation process while the output is the reference voltage. The main advantage of the proposed methodology, comparing to a conventional single neural network-based approach, is the distinct generalization ability regarding to the nonlinear and dynamic behavior of a PV generator. In fact, the neuro-fuzzy network is a neural network based multi-model machine learning that defines a set of local models emulating the complex and non-linear behavior of a PV generator under a wide range of operating conditions. Simulation results under several rapid irradiance variations proved that the proposed MPPT method fulfilled the highest efficiency comparing to a conventional single neural network.
A New Maximum Power Point Tracking for Photovoltaic Systems
In this paper a new maximum power point tracking
algorithm for photovoltaic arrays is proposed. The algorithm detects
the maximum power point of the PV. The computed maximum
power is used as a reference value (set point) of the control system.
ON/OFF power controller with hysteresis band is used to control the
operation of a Buck chopper such that the PV module always
operates at its maximum power computed from the MPPT algorithm.
The major difference between the proposed algorithm and other
techniques is that the proposed algorithm is used to control directly
the power drawn from the PV.
The proposed MPPT has several advantages: simplicity, high
convergence speed, and independent on PV array characteristics. The
algorithm is tested under various operating conditions. The obtained
results have proven that the MPP is tracked even under sudden
change of irradiation level.