Design Optimization of a Compact Quadrupole Electromagnet for CLS 2.0
This paper reports a study on the optimal magnetic design of a compact quadrupole electromagnet for the Canadian Light Source (CLS 2.0). The nature of the design is to determine a quadrupole with low relative higher order harmonics and better field quality. The design problem was formulated as an optimization model, in which the objective function is the higher order harmonics (multipole errors) and the variable to be optimized is the material distribution on the pole. The higher order harmonics arose in the quadrupole due to truncating the ideal hyperbola at a certain point to make the pole. In this project, the arisen harmonics have been optimized both transversely and longitudinally by adjusting material on the poles in a controlled way. For optimization, finite element analysis (FEA) has been conducted. A better higher order harmonics amplitudes and field quality have been achieved through the optimization. On the basis of the optimized magnetic design, electrical and cooling calculation has been performed for the magnet.
Design of a Hand-Held, Clamp-on, Leakage Current Sensor for High Voltage Direct Current Insulators
Leakage current monitoring for high voltage transmission line insulators is of interest as a performance indicator. Presently, to the best of our knowledge, there is no commercially available, clamp-on type, non-intrusive device for measuring leakage current on energised high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line insulators. The South African power utility, Eskom, is investigating the development of such a hand-held sensor for two important applications; first, for continuous real-time condition monitoring of HVDC line insulators and, second, for use by live line workers to determine if it is safe to work on energised insulators. In this paper, a DC leakage current sensor based on magnetic field sensing techniques is developed. The magnetic field sensor used in the prototype can also detect alternating current up to 5 MHz. The DC leakage current prototype detects the magnetic field associated with the current flowing on the surface of the insulator. Preliminary HVDC leakage current measurements are performed on glass insulators. The results show that the prototype can accurately measure leakage current in the specified current range of 1-200 mA. The influence of external fields from the HVDC line itself on the leakage current measurements is mitigated through a differential magnetometer sensing technique. Thus, the developed sensor can perform measurements on in-service HVDC insulators. The research contributes to the body of knowledge by providing a sensor to measure leakage current on energised HVDC insulators non-intrusively. This sensor can also be used by live line workers to inform them whether or not it is safe to perform maintenance on energized insulators.
Quantitative Changes in Biofilms of a Seawater Tubular Heat Exchanger Subjected to Electromagnetic Fields Treatment
Biofilms adhesion is one of the more important cost
of industries plants on wide world, which use to water for cooling
heat exchangers or are in contact with water. This study evaluated
the effect of Electromagnetic Fields on biofilms in tubular heat
exchangers using seawater cooling. The results showed an up to 40%
reduction of the biofilm thickness compared to the untreated control
tubes. The presence of organic matter was reduced by 75%, the
inorganic mater was reduced by 87%, and 53% of the dissolved solids
were eliminated. The biofilm thermal conductivity in the treated tube
was reduced by 53% as compared to the control tube. The hardness
in the effluent during the experimental period was decreased by 18%
in the treated tubes compared with control tubes. Our results show
that the electromagnetic fields treatment has a great potential in the
process of removing biofilms in heat exchanger.
Throughflow Effects on Thermal Convection in Variable Viscosity Ferromagnetic Liquids
The problem of thermal convection in temperature and
magnetic field sensitive Newtonian ferromagnetic liquid is studied
in the presence of uniform vertical magnetic field and throughflow.
Using a combination of Galerkin and shooting techniques the critical
eigenvalues are obtained for stationary mode. The effect of Prandtl
number (Pr > 1) on onset is insignificant and nonlinearity of
non-buoyancy magnetic parameter M3 is found to have no influence
on the onset of ferroconvection. The magnetic buoyancy number, M1
and variable viscosity parameter, V have destabilizing influences on
the system. The effect of throughflow Peclet number, Pe is to delay
the onset of ferroconvection and this effect is independent of the
direction of flow.
Effects of Thermal Radiation on Mixed Convection in a MHD Nanofluid Flow over a Stretching Sheet Using a Spectral Relaxation Method
The effects of thermal radiation, Soret and Dufour
parameters on mixed convection and nanofluid flow over a stretching
sheet in the presence of a magnetic field are investigated. The flow is
subject to temperature dependent viscosity and a chemical reaction
parameter. It is assumed that the nanoparticle volume fraction at the
wall may be actively controlled. The physical problem is modelled
using systems of nonlinear differential equations which have been
solved numerically using a spectral relaxation method. In addition
to the discussion on heat and mass transfer processes, the velocity,
nanoparticles volume fraction profiles as well as the skin friction
coefficient are determined for different important physical parameters.
A comparison of current findings with previously published results
for some special cases of the problem shows an excellent agreement.
A Statistical Model for the Dynamics of Single Cathode Spot in Vacuum Cylindrical Cathode
Dynamics of cathode spot has become a major part
of vacuum arc discharge with its high academic interest and
wide application potential. In this article, using a three-dimensional
statistical model, we simulate the distribution of the ignition
probability of a new cathode spot occurring in different magnetic
pressure on old cathode spot surface and at different arcing time.
This model for the ignition probability of a new cathode spot was
proposed in two typical situations, one by the pure isotropic random
walk in the absence of an external magnetic field, other by the
retrograde motion in external magnetic field, in parallel with the
cathode surface. We mainly focus on developed relationship between
the ignition probability density distribution of a new cathode spot and
the external magnetic field.
Analysis of Effects of Magnetic Slot Wedges on Characteristics of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine
The influence of slot wedges permeability on the electromagnetic performance of three-phase permanent magnet synchronous machine is investigated in this paper. It is shown that the back-EMF waveform, electromagnetic torque and electromagnetic torque ripple are all significantly affected by slot wedges permeability. The paper presents an accurate analytical subdomain model and confirmed by finite-element analyses.
Highly Conductive Polycrystalline Metallic Ring in a Magnetic Field
Electrical conduction in a quasi-one-dimensional
polycrystalline metallic ring with a long electron phase coherence
length realized at low temperature is investigated. In this situation, the
wave nature of electrons is important in the ring, where the electrical
current I can be induced by a vector potential that arises from a static
magnetic field applied perpendicularly to the ring’s area. It is shown
that if the average grain size of the polycrystalline ring becomes
large (or comparable to the Fermi wavelength), the electrical current
I increases to ~I0, where I0 is a current in a disorder-free ring. The
cause of this increasing effect is examined, and this takes place if the
electron localization length in the polycrystalline potential increases
with increasing grain size, which gives rise to coherent connection
of tails of a localized electron wave function in the ring and thus
provides highly coherent electrical conduction.
A Numerical Simulation of Arterial Mass Transport in Presence of Magnetic Field-Links to Atherosclerosis
This paper has focused on the most important parameters in the LSC uptake; inlet Re number and Sc number in the presence of non-uniform magnetic field. The magnetic field is arising from the thin wire with electric current placed vertically to the arterial blood vessel. According to the results of this study, applying magnetic field can be a treatment for atherosclerosis by reducing LSC along the vessel wall. Homogeneous porous layer as a arterial wall has been regarded. Blood flow has been considered laminar and incompressible containing Ferro fluid (blood and 4 % vol. Fe3O4) under steady state conditions. Numerical solution of governing equations was obtained by using the single-phase model and control volume technique for flow field.
Least Squares Method Identification of Corona Current-Voltage Characteristics and Electromagnetic Field in Electrostatic Precipitator
This paper aims to analysis the behavior of DC corona
discharge in wire-to-plate electrostatic precipitators (ESP). Currentvoltage
curves are particularly analyzed. Experimental results show
that discharge current is strongly affected by the applied voltage. The proposed method of current identification is to use the method
of least squares. Least squares problems that of into two categories:
linear or ordinary least squares and non-linear least squares,
depending on whether or not the residuals are linear in all unknowns.
The linear least-squares problem occurs in statistical regression
analysis; it has a closed-form solution. A closed-form solution (or
closed form expression) is any formula that can be evaluated in a
finite number of standard operations. The non-linear problem has no
closed-form solution and is usually solved by iterative.
Experimental Investigation with Different Inclination Angles on Copper Oscillating Heat Pipes Performance Using Fe2O3/Kerosene under Magnetic Field
This paper presents the result of an experimental
investigation regarding the use of Fe2O3 nanoparticles added to
kerosene as a working fluid, under magnetic field for Copper
Oscillating Heat pipe with inclination angle of 0°(horizontal), 15°,
30°,45°, 60°,75° and 90° (vertical). The following were examined;
measure the temperature distribution and heat transfer rate on
Oscillating Heat Pipe (OHP), with magnetic field under different
angles. Results showed that the addition of Fe2O3 nanoparticles under
magnetic field improved thermal performance of OHP especially in
MHD Mixed Convection in a Vertical Porous Channel
This work deals with the problem of MHD mixed
convection in a completely porous and differentially heated vertical
channel. The model of Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer with the
Boussinesq approximation is adopted and the governing equations are
solved by the finite volume method. The effects of magnetic field and
buoyancy force intensities are given by the Hartmann and Richardson
numbers respectively, as well as the Joule heating represented by
Eckert number on the velocity and temperature fields, are examined.
The main results show an augmentation of heat transfer rate with the
decrease of Darcy number and the increase of Ri and Ha when Joule
heating is neglected.
Possible Exposure of Persons with Cardiac Pacemakers to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Electric and Magnetic Fields
The number of persons with implanted cardiac
pacemakers (PM) has increased in Western countries. The aim of this
paper is to investigate the possible situations where persons with a
PM may be exposed to extremely low frequency (ELF) electric (EF)
and magnetic fields (MF) that may disturb their PM. Based on our
earlier studies, it is possible to find such high public exposure to EFs
only in some places near 400 kV power lines, where an EF may
disturb a PM in unipolar mode. Such EFs cannot be found near 110
kV power lines. Disturbing MFs can be found near welding
machines. However, we do not have measurement data from welding.
Based on literature and earlier studies at Tampere University of
Technology, it is difficult to find public EF or MF exposure that is
high enough to interfere with PMs.
Yang-Lee Edge Singularity of the Infinite-Range Ising Model
The Ising ferromagnet, consisting of magnetic spins, is
the simplest system showing phase transitions and critical phenomena
at finite temperatures. The Ising ferromagnet has played a central role
in our understanding of phase transitions and critical phenomena.
Also, the Ising ferromagnet explains the gas-liquid phase transitions
accurately. In particular, the Ising ferromagnet in a nonzero magnetic
field has been one of the most intriguing and outstanding unsolved
problems. We study analytically the partition function zeros in the
complex magnetic-field plane and the Yang-Lee edge singularity of
the infinite-range Ising ferromagnet in an external magnetic field.
In addition, we compare the Yang-Lee edge singularity of the
infinite-range Ising ferromagnet with that of the square-lattice Ising
ferromagnet in an external magnetic field.
Raman Spectroscopy of Carbon Nanostructures in Strong Magnetic Field
One- and two-dimensional carbon nanostructures with
sp2 hybridization of carbon atoms (single walled carbon nanotubes
and graphene) are promising materials in future electronic and
spintronics devices due to specific character of their electronic
structure. In this paper we present a comparative study of graphene
and single-wall carbon nanotubes by Raman spectro-microscopy in
strong magnetic field. This unique method allows to study changes in
electronic band structure of the two types of carbon nanostructures
induced by a strong magnetic field.
Effect of Magnetic Field on Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow over an Exponentially Shrinking Vertical Sheet with Suction
A theoretical study has been presented to describe the boundary layer flow and heat transfer on an exponentially shrinking sheet with a variable wall temperature and suction, in the presence of magnetic field. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations by similarity transformation, which are then solved numerically using the shooting method. Results for the skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number, velocity profiles as well as temperature profiles are presented through graphs and tables for several sets of values of the parameters. The effects of the governing parameters on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are thoroughly examined.
About the Instability Modes of Current Sheet in Wide Range of Frequencies
We offer a new technique for research of stability of current sheaths in space plasma taking into account the effect of polarization. At the beginning, the found perturbation of the distribution function is used for calculation of the dielectric permeability tensor, which simulates inhomogeneous medium of a current sheath. Further, we in the usual manner solve the system of Maxwell's equations closed with the material equation. The amplitudes of Fourier perturbations are considered to be exponentially decaying through the current sheath thickness. The dispersion equation follows from the nontrivial solution requirement for perturbations of the electromagnetic field. The resulting dispersion equation allows one to study the temporal and spatial characteristics of instability modes of the current sheath (within the limits of the proposed model) over a wide frequency range, including low frequencies.
Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of MHD Natural Convection in a Nanofluid-Filled Enclosure with Non-Uniform Heating on Both Side Walls
This paper examines the natural convection in a square enclosure filled with a water-Al2O3 nanofluid and is subjected to a magnetic field. The side walls of the cavity have spatially varying sinusoidal temperature distributions. The horizontal walls are adiabatic. Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is applied to solve the coupled equations of flow and temperature fields. This study has been carried out for the pertinent parameters in the following ranges: Rayleigh number of the base fluid, Ra=103 to 106, Hartmann number varied from Ha=0 to 90, phase deviation (γ=0, π/4, π/2, 3π/4 and π) and the solid volume fraction of the nanoparticles between Ø = 0 and 6%. The results show that the heat transfer rate increases with an increase of the Rayleigh number but it decreases with an increase of the Hartmann number. For γ=π/2 and Ra=105 the magnetic field augments the effect of nanoparticles. At Ha=0, the greatest effects of nanoparticles are obtained at γ = 0 and π/4 for Ra=104 and 105 respectively.
Revolving Ferrofluid Flow in Porous Medium with Rotating Disk
An attempt has been made to study the effect of rotation on incompressible, electrically non-conducting ferrofluid in porous medium on Axi-symmetric steady flow over a rotating disk excluding thermal effects. Here, we solved the boundary layer equations with boundary conditions using Neuringer-Rosensweig model considering the z-axis as the axis of rotation. The non linear boundary layer equations involved in the problem are transformed to the non linear coupled ordinary differential equations by Karman's transformation and solved by power series approximations. Besides numerically calculating the velocity components and pressure for different values of porosity parameter with the variation of Karman's parameter we have also calculated the displacement thickness of boundary layer, the total volume flowing outward the z-axis and angle between wall and ferrofluid. The results for all above variables are obtained numerically and discussed graphically.
Magnetoviscous Effects on Axi-Symmetric Ferrofluid Flow over a Porous Rotating Disk with Suction/Injection
The present study is carried out to investigate the magneto-viscous effects on incompressible ferrofluid flow over a porous rotating disc with suction or injection on the surface of the disc subjected to a magnetic field. The flow under consideration is axi-symmetric steady ferrofluid flow of electrically non-conducting fluid. Karman’s transformation is used to convert the governing boundary layer equations involved in the problem to a system of non linear coupled differential equations. The solution of this system is obtained by using power series approximation. The flow characteristics i.e. radial, tangential, axial velocities and boundary layer displacement thickness are calculated for various values of MFD (magnetic field dependent) viscosity and for different values of suction injection parameter. Besides this, skin friction coefficients are also calculated on the surface of the disk. The results thus obtained are presented numerically and graphically in the paper.
Orbit Propagator and Geomagnetic Field Estimator for NanoSatellite: The ICUBE Mission
This research contribution is drafted to present the
orbit design, orbit propagator and geomagnetic field estimator for the
nanosatellites specifically for the upcoming CUBESAT, ICUBE-1 of
the Institute of Space Technology (IST), Islamabad, Pakistan. The
ICUBE mission is designed for the low earth orbit at the approximate
height of 700KM. The presented research endeavor designs the
Keplarian elements for ICUBE-1 orbit while incorporating the
mission requirements and propagates the orbit using J2 perturbations,
The attitude determination system of the ICUBE-1 consists of
attitude determination sensors like magnetometer and sun sensor. The
Geomagnetic field estimator is developed according to the model of
International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) for comparing the
magnetic field measurements by the magnetometer for attitude
determination. The output of the propagator namely the Keplarians
position and velocity vectors and the magnetic field vectors are
compared and verified with the same scenario generated in the
Satellite Tool Kit (STK).
Magnetohydrodynamic Free Convection in a Square Cavity Heated from Below and Cooled from Other Walls
Magnetohydrodynamic free convection fluid flow and heat transfer in a square cavity filled with an electric conductive fluid with Prandtl number of 0.7 has been investigated numerically. The horizontal bottom wall of the cavity was kept at Th while the side and the top walls of the cavity were maintained at a constant temperature Tc with Th>Tc. The governing equations written in terms of the primitive variables were solved numerically using the finite volume method while the SIMPLER algorithm was used to couple the velocity and pressure fields. Using the developed code, a parametric study was performed, and the effects of the Rayleigh number and the Hartman number on the fluid flow and heat transfer inside the cavity were investigated. The obtained results showed that temperature distribution and flow pattern inside the cavity depended on both strength of the magnetic field and Rayleigh number. For all cases two counter rotating eddies were formed inside the cavity. The magnetic field decreased the intensity of free convection and flow velocity. Also it was found that for higher Rayleigh numbers a relatively stronger magnetic field was needed to decrease the heat transfer through free convection.
Description of Unsteady Flows in the Cuboid Container
This part of study deals with description of unsteady isothermal melt flow in the container with cuboid shape. This melt flow is driven by rotating magnetic field. Input data (instantaneous velocities, grid coordinates and Lorentz forces) were obtained from in-house CFD code (called NS-FEM3D) which uses DDES method of computing. Description of the flow was performed by contours of Lorentz forces and caused velocity field. Taylor magnetic numbers of the flow were used 1.10^6, 5.10^6 and 1.10^7, flow was in 3D turbulent flow regime.
About the Structural Stability of the Model of the Nonelectroneutral Current Sheath
The structural stability of the model of a nonelectroneutral current sheath is investigated. The stationary model of a current sheath represents the system of four connected nonlinear differential first-order equations and thus they should manifest structural instability property, i.e. sensitivity to the infinitesimal changes of parameters and starting conditions. Domains of existence of the solutions of current sheath type are found. Those solutions of the current sheath type are realized only in some regions of sevendimensional space of parameters of the problem. The phase volume of those regions is small in comparison with the whole phase volume of the definition range of those parameters. It is shown that the offered model of a nonelectroneutral current sheath is applicable for theoretical interpretation of the bifurcational current sheaths observed in the magnetosphere.
Effects of Mobile Phone Generated High Frequency Electromagnetic Field on the Viability and Biofilm Formation of Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus aureus, one of the microflora in a
human external auditory canal (EAC) is frequently exposed to highfrequency
electromagnetic field (HF-EMF) generated by mobile
phones. It is normally non-pathogenic but in certain circumstances, it
can cause infections. This study investigates the changes in the
physiology of S. aureus when exposed to HF-EMF of a mobile
phone. Exponentially grown S. aureus were exposed to two
conditions of EMF irradiation (standby-mode and on-call mode) at
four durations; 15, 30, 45 and 60 min. Changes in the viability and
biofilm production of the S. aureus were compared between the two
conditions of exposure. EMF from the standby-mode has enhanced
the growth of S. aureus but during on-call, the growth was
suppressed. No significant difference in the amount of biofilm
produced in both modes of exposure was observed. Thus, HF-EMF
of mobile phone affects the viability of S. aureus but not its ability to
Identification of Impact of Electromagnetic Fields at Low and High Frequency on Human Body
The article reviews the current state of large-scale
studies about the impact of electromagnetic field on natural
environment. The scenario of investigations – simulation of natural
conditions at the workplace, taking into consideration the influence
both low and high frequency electromagnetic fields is shown.The
biological effects of low and high frequency electromagnetic fields
are below presented. Results of investigation with animals are shown.
The norms and regulations concerning the levels of electromagnetic
field intensity are reviewed.
The Calculation of Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) in Substations of Shopping Centers
In nature, electromagnetic fields always appear like
atmosphere static electric field, the earth's static magnetic field and
the wide-rang frequency electromagnetic field caused by lightening.
However, besides natural electromagnetic fields (EMF), today human
beings are mostly exposed to artificial electromagnetic fields due to
technology progress and outspread use of electrical devices. To
evaluate nuisance of EMF, it is necessary to know field intensity for
every frequency which appears and compare it with allowed values.
Low frequency EMF-s around transmission and distribution lines are
time-varying quasi-static electromagnetic fields which have
conservative component of low frequency electrical field caused by
charges and eddy component of low frequency magnetic field caused
by currents. Displacement current or field delay are negligible, so
energy flow in quasi-static EMF involves diffusion, analog like heat
transfer. Electrical and magnetic field can be analyzed separately.
This paper analysis the numerical calculations in ELF-400 software
of EMF in distribution substation in shopping center. Analyzing the
results it is possible to specify locations exposed to the fields and
give useful suggestion to eliminate electromagnetic effect or reduce it
on acceptable level within the non-ionizing radiation norms and
norms of protection from EMF.
Magnetic Field Analysis for a Distribution Transformer with Unbalanced Load Conditions by using 3-D Finite Element Method
This paper proposes a set of quasi-static mathematical
model of magnetic fields caused by high voltage conductors of
distribution transformer by using a set of second-order partial
differential equation. The modification for complex magnetic field
analysis and time-harmonic simulation are also utilized. In this
research, transformers were study in both balanced and unbalanced
loading conditions. Computer-based simulation utilizing the threedimensional
finite element method (3-D FEM) is exploited as a tool
for visualizing magnetic fields distribution volume a distribution
transformer. Finite Element Method (FEM) is one among popular
numerical methods that is able to handle problem complexity in
various forms. At present, the FEM has been widely applied in most
engineering fields. Even for problems of magnetic field distribution,
the FEM is able to estimate solutions of Maxwell-s equations
governing the power transmission systems. The computer simulation
based on the use of the FEM has been developed in MATLAB
Lorentz Forces in the Container
Leading topic of this article is description of Lorentz
forces in the container with cuboid and cylindrical shape. Inside of
the container is an electrically conductive melt. This melt is driven by
rotating magnetic field. Input data for comparing Lorentz forces in
the container with cuboid shape were obtained from the computing
program NS-FEM3D, which uses DDS method of computing. Values
of Lorentz forces for container with cylindrical shape were obtained
from inferred analytical formula.
Magnetohydrodynamic Mixed Convective Flow in a Cavity
A magnetohydrodynamic mixed convective flow in a
cavity was studied in this paper. The lower surface of cavity was
heated from below whereas other walls of the cavity were thermally
isolated. The governing two-dimensional flow equations have been
solved by using finite volume code. The effects of magnetic field
were studied on flow and temperature field and heat transfer
performance at a wide range of parameters, Such as Hartmann
(0≤Ha≤100) and Reynolds (1≤Re≤100) numbers. The results showed
that as Hartman number increases the Nusselt number, representing
heat transfer from the cavity decreases.